185.8° Equal increments in the molecule are associated with an equal rise in the boiling-point, but this increment varies in different homologous series.
In the aromatic compounds there is no regularity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value of 20 0 -21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives.
This is shown in the case of the chloracetic acids: According to van 't Hoff the substitution of chlorine atoms into a methyl group occasions the following increments: The introduction of chlorine, however, may involve a fall in the boiling-point, as is recorded by Henry in the case of the chlorinated acetonitriles: NC CH 3.
Thus bromine and iodine replace chlorine with increments of about 22° and 50° respectively.
If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
During the second stage small increments of magnetizing force are attended by relatively large increments of magnetization, as is indicated by the steep ascent of the curve.
Assuming an initial mean temperature of 50° F., and increments of one degree for loo and for 200 ft., a rock temperature of will be reached at 8000 to 16,000 ft.
Also W = (V +IA)w i; or w1=W/(V+/A), w p =W/(V+plA), and wn =W/(Vd-nIA), or the densities of the several liquids vary inversely as the respective volumes of the instrument immersed in them; and, since the divisions of the scale correspond to equal increments of volume immersed, it follows that the densities of the several liquids in which the instrument sinks to the successive divisions form a harmonic series.
If we wish the successive divisions of the scale to correspond to equal increments in the density of the corresponding liquids, then the volumes of the instrument, measured up to the successive divisions of the scale, must form a series in harmonical progression, the lengths of the divisions increasing as we go up the stem.
This table differs slightly from that given above, which has been abridged from the table given in Keene's Handbook of Hydrometry, apparently on account of the equal divisions on Sikes's scale having been taken as corresponding to equal increments of density.
Proceeding on this suggestion, and misled by the mathematical expression which he had given to Weber's law, Fechner held that a conscious sensation, like its stimulus, consists of units, or elements, by summation and increments of which conscious sensations and their differences are produced; so that consciousness, according to this unnecessary assumption, emerges from an integration of unconscious shocks or tremors.
The increments of contraction become, however, less and less, until the succeeding stimuli serve merely to maintain, not to augment, the existing degree of contraction.
The formula of Dalton would make the pressure increase in geometrical progression for equal increments of temperature.
Vice-consuls have an annual salary of £3 50, rising by annual increments of £15 to £450.
Hot-wire ammeters are open to the following objections: The scale divisions for equal increments of current are not equal in length, being generally much closer together in the lower parts of the scale.
Ance coil of some 2000 turns of insulated copper wire, enclosed in a laminated iron circuit, and connected at intervals to a number of terminals so that equal increments of inductance may be obtained.