The limit of each years increment of secondary wood, in those plants whose yearly activity is interrupted by a regular winter or dry season, is marked by a more or less distinct line, which is produced by the sharp contrast between the wood formed in the late summer of one year (characterized by the sparseness or small diameter of the tracheal elements, or by the preponderance of fibres, or by a combination of these characters, giving a denseness to the wood) and the loose spring wood of the next year, with its absence of fibres, or its numerous large tracheae.
The interception by the state of the unearned increment, and the promotion of co-operative agriculture, were the most striking features in his programme.
The knowledge of compound radicals received further increment at the hands of Robert W.
For example, the difference due to an increment of CH 2 is about 56.6, as is shown in the following table: - Since the critical volume of normal pentane C5H12 is 307.2, we have H 2 = C 5 H 12 -5CH 2 =307.2 - 5 X56.6 =24.2, and C=CH2 - H2= 32.4.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
185.8° Equal increments in the molecule are associated with an equal rise in the boiling-point, but this increment varies in different homologous series.
Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, nitriles and ketones, the increment per CH 2 is 19°-21°; in the aldehydes it is 26°-27°.
For such functions remain unaltered when each root receives the same infinitesimal increment h; but writing x-h for x causes ao, a1, a 2 a3,...
If the conductor consists of a coil of wire the ends of which are connected with a suitable galvanometer, the integral electromotive force due to a sudden increase or decrease of the induction through the coil displaces in the circuit a quantity of electricity Q=SBns R, where SB is the increment or decrement of induction per square centimetre, s is the area of the coil, n the number of turns of wire, and R the resistance of the circuit.
When a current of strength i is suddenly interrupted in the primary, the increment of induction through the secondary is sensibly equal to 47rin/l units.
Nor diminishes the If we define as the " dispersion " in a particular part of the spectrum the ratio of the angular interval dB to the corresponding increment of wave-length dX, we may express it by a very simple formula.
The linear width of the band (e) is the increment of which alters p by 27r, so that e =27r /tr.
But after 1872, when the census showed a total of 33,110,825, the population grew steadily, its increment between 1872 and 1898 inclusive, a period of 27 years, being 10,649,990.
Thus, during the period between 1899 and 1907 the population received an increment of ii.6% whereas the food-producing area increased by only 44%.
A powerful section contended that the basis should be the body of legal voters, on the ground that the South could not then secure an increment of political powet on account of the emancipated blacks unless these blacks were admitted to political rights.
In virtue of relations (2), the change of entropy of a substance between any two states depends only on the initial and final states, and may be reckoned along any reversible path, not necessarily isothermal, by dividing each small increment of heat, dH, by the temperature, 0, at which it is acquired, and taking the sum or integral of the quotients, dH/o, so obtained.
The increment of this area (or the decrement of the negative area E--04) at constant temperature represents the external work obtainable from the substance in isothermal expansion, in the same way that the decrement of the intrinsic energy represents the work done in adiabatic expansion.
These functions do not, however, represent energy existing in the substance, like the intrinsic energy; but the increment of 90 represents heat supplied to, and the decrement of (E-04) represents work obtainable from, the substance when the temperature is kept constant.
The increment of 00 is always greater than that of the total heat F=E+pv, except in the special case of an equilibrium change at constant temperature and pressure, in which case both are equal to the heat absorbed in the change, and the function G remains constant.
This increment is larger on the flooring girders than on the main ones, and on short main girders than on long ones.
To save the trouble of proportional parts the value of T(v) for unit increment of v is interpolated in a full-length extended ballistic table for T.
In an extended table of S, the value is interpolated for unit increment of velocity.
These functions, T, S, D, 1, A, are shown numerically in the following extract from an abridged ballistic table, in which the velocity is taken as the argument and proceeds by an increment of 10 f/s; the column for p is the one determined by experiment, and the remaining columns follow by calculation in the manner explained above.
Apart from certain non-contentious provisions, such as a tax on motorcars, the main features of the measure were large increases in the spirit and tobacco duties, license duties, estate, legacy and succession duties, and income tax, and an elaborate and novel system of duties on land-values ("increment duty," "reversion duty," "undeveloped land duty"), depending on the setting up of arrangements for valuation of a highly complicated kind.
The two sections started out with population growths in the decade1790-1800very nearly equal (36.5 and 33.7%); but in every succeeding decade before the Civil War the growth of the North was greater, and that of the South less, than its increment in the initial decade.
3); (2) that the value of a thing depends entirely on the quantity of labour put into it; and (3) that what is now known as the "unearned increment" of land is a proper object for taxation.
(21) is therefore equivalent to the statement that the increment of the kinetic energy is equal to the work done on the particle.
Thus Sweden held, for a time, the control of the principal trade routes of the Baltic up to the very confines of the empire; and the increment of revenue resulting from this commanding position was of material assistance to her during the earlier stages of the war in Germany, whither Gustavus transferred his forces in June 1630.
If the bubble is in the form of a sphere of radius r this material surface will have an area S = 41rr 2 (I) If T be the energy corresponding to unit of area of the film the surface-energy of the whole bubble will be ST = 41rr 2 T (2) The increment of this energy corresponding to an increase of the radius from r to r-+dr is therefore TdS = 81rrTdr (3) Now this increase of energy was obtained by forcing in air at a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure, and thus increasing the volume of the bubble.
The volume of the sphere is V = 3 irr3, and the increment of volume is dV = 4lrr2dr Now if we suppose a quantity of air already at the pressure II+p, the work done in forcing it into the bubble is p dV.
The boiling points of the normal alcohols increase regularly about for each CH, increment; this is characteristic of all homologous series of organic compounds.