In the following year the Incas made a brave attempt to expel the invaders, and closely besieged the Spaniards in Cuzco during February and March.
It is probable, however, that the settlement of the Cuzco valley and district by the Incas or " people of the sun " took place some 300 years before Pizarro landed in Peru.
The Incas had an elaborate system of state-worship, with a ritual, and frequently recurring festivals.
Garcia, Le Peron contemporain (Paris, 1907); Garcilasso de la Vega, Royal commentaries of the Incas, 5609 (Hakluyt Society's Publications); A.
Squier, Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas (ibid.
But most probably this deity had another less abstract name, and the horrible worship offered in the one temple which he really had under the Incas, accorded with his true cosmic significance as the god of the subterranean fire.
De los Incas, lib.
Like the Incas and Aztecs?
Is the famous hill of Sacsahuaman, crowned by ruins of the cyclopean fortress of the Incas and their predecessors, and separated from adjacent heights by the deep ravines of two streams, called the Huatenay and Rodadero.
The houses of the city are built of stone, their walls commonly showing the massive masonry of the Incas at the bottom, crowned with a light modern superstructure roofed with red tiles.
Peru, the empire of the Incas, had not only ordinary maps, but also maps in relief, for Pedro Sarmiento da Gamboa (History of the Incas, translated by A.
In early days the home of the Aymaras by Lake Titicaca was a "holy land" for the Incas themselves, whose national legends attributed the origin of all Quichua (Inca) civilization to that region.
The Aymaras, indeed, seem to have possessed a very considerable culture before their conquest by the Incas in the 13th and 14th centuries, evidence of which remains in the megalithic ruins of Tiahuanaco.
The latter was tamed by the Incas, and is the ancestor of the guinea-pig.
The largest bird is the condor, and there is another bird of the vulture tribe, with a black and white wing feather formerly used by the Incas in their head-dress, called the coraquenque or alcamari.
The Indians are in great part descendants of the various tribes organized under the rule of the Incas at the time of the Spanish conquest.
The empire of the Incas was divided into four main divisions, Chinchay-suyu to the north of Cuzco, Anti-suyu to the east, Colla-suyu to the south and Cunti-suyu to the west, the whole empire being called Ttahuantin-suyu, or the four governments.
The last two are most important and, it is believed, were the sources from which the Incas derived the greater part of their store.
The Incas had made much progress in weaving, and specimens of their fabrics, both plain and coloured, are to be found in many museums. The Spanish introduced their own methods, and their primitive looms are still to be found among the Indians of the interior who weave the coarse material from which their own garments are made.
Fearing that the little court of the Inca Tupac Amaru -(who had succeeded his brother Sayri Tupac) might become a focus of rebellion, he seized the young prince, and unjustly beheaded the last of the Incas in the square of Cuzco in the year 1571.
Many curacas were descended from the imperial family of the Incas, or from great nobles of the Incarial court.
At length a descendant of the Incas, who assumed the name of Tupac Amaru, rose in rebellion in 1780.
His mother was a lady of high rank, of the family of the Incas, and he was very proud of his descent.
A theoretical supremacy was accorded by the Incas to Pachacamac, whose worship, like that of Vira cocha, they appear to have already found when they conquered the land.
Among objects used are a pool of ink in the hand (Egypt), the liver of an animal (tribes of the North-West Indian frontier), a hole filled with water (Polynesia), quartz crystals (the Apaches and the Euahlayi tribe of New South Wales), a smooth slab of polished black stone (the Huille-che of South America), water in a vessel (Zulus and Siberians), a crystal (the Incas), a mirror (classical Greece and the middle ages), the finger-nail, a swordblade, a ring-stone, a glass of sherry, in fact almost anything.
Sugar, wheat, alfalfa, Indian corn, tobacco and hides are the principal products, and cotton, which was grown here under the Incas, is still produced.
Thus, the Lent lily is Narcissus Pseudonarcissus; the African lily is Agapanthus umbellatus; the Belladonna lily is Amaryllis Belladonna (q.v.); the Jacobaea lily is Sprekelia formosissima; the Mariposa lily is Calochortus; the lily of the Incas is Alstroemeria pelegrina; St Bernard's lily is Anthericum Liliago; St Bruno's lily is Anthericum (or Paradisia) Liliastrum; the water lily is Nymphaea alba; the Arum lily is Richardia africana; and there are many others.
Physically a fine race, their hardiness and bravery enabled them successfully to resist the Incas in the 15th century.
Llanganati or Cerro Hermoso is chiefly known through the tradition that the treasures of the Incas were buried in a lake on its slopes.
The dominion of the Incas in Chile was probably bounded by the Rapel river (lat.
In the vicinity of Huaraz are megalithic ruins similar to those of Tiahunaco and Cuzco, showing that the aboriginal empire preceding the Incas extended into northern Peru.
In 1533 Sebastian Benalcazar took peaceable possession of the native town (which had been successivly a capital of the Seyris and Incas), and in 1541 it was elevated to the rank of a Spanish city.
After the final effort of the Incas to recover Cuzco in 1 53 6 -37 had been defeated by Diego de Almagro, a dispute occurred between him and Pizarro respecting the limits of their jurisdiction.
They were a race wholly distinct from the Incas, by whom they were finally conquered.
Virtus, and a//pa, sweet), "the last of the Incas" (or Yncas) of Peru, was the son of the ruler Huayna Capac, by Pacha, the daughter of the conquered sovereign of Quito.
His brother Huascar succeeded Huayna Capac in 1527; for, as Atahualipa was not descended on both sides from the line of Incas, Peruvian law considered him illegitimate.
They lived in settled communities, cultivated the soil to some extent, and ascribed their progress toward civilization to a legendary cause remarkably similar to those of the Aztecs of Mexico and the Incas of Peru.
The Indian population (920,860) is largely composed of the so-called civilized tribes of the Andes, which once formed part of the nationality ruled by the Incas, and of those of the Mojos and Chiquitos regions, which were organized into industrial communities by the Jesuits in the 17th century.
L.) History The country now forming the republic of Bolivia, named after the great liberator Simon Bolivar, was in early days simply a portion of the empire of the Incas of Peru (q.v.).
He played a prominent part in the conquest of the Incas' kingdom (helping to seize and guard the person of Atahualpa, discovering a pass through the mountains to Cuzco, &c.), and returned to Spain with a fortune of 180,000 ducats, which enabled him to marry the daughter of his old patron d'Avila, and to maintain the state of a nobleman.
It formed a part of the original home of the Incas and once sustained a large population.