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  • Nurturing was in his personality.
  • He was such a wonderful person in so many ways.
  • "Second," Katie cut in, "His father's family has been in this country longer than yours."
  • Alex had provided the money to remodel the home, but insisted that it stay in her name only.
  • In fact, he had given her strict orders not to lift anything.
  • As it came to a stop the conductor called out in a loud voice.
  • I am not saying we live in a utopia.
  • "I can't see that it's wrong," remarked Jim, in his gruff tones.
  • In Scotland there once lived a poor shepherd whose name was James Hogg.
  • Reluctantly she pulled away, her pulse and respiration in a race.
  • With this thought in mind the girl took heart and leaned her head over the side of the buggy to see where the strange light was coming from.
  • The shepherd soon lost sight of them in the darkness.
  • She placed the dish in the rack and glanced at Katie.
  • The roof beside them had a great hole smashed through it, and pieces of glass were lying scattered in every direction.
  • There was not an ugly person in all the throng.
  • If he had been the only child in the family, things might have been different.
  • Alex was doing everything in his power to provide her with all the experiences of a natural mother.
  • On the other hand, the dream was in her head, not his.
  • Next minute there was a roar and a sharp crash, and at her side Dorothy saw the ground open in a wide crack and then come together again.
  • Even in the days before my teacher came, I used to feel along the square stiff boxwood hedges, and, guided by the sense of smell would find the first violets and lilies.
  • Talk of a divinity in man!
  • In fact, at times she had been almost brutally clear that she was no longer interested in him.
  • Carmen stopped washing the dish in her hand and stared at Mary in mute silence.
  • And so, if she couldn't have it in her head, she'd put it into his.
  • But they continued to fall, all together, and the boy and girl had no difficulty in remaining upon the seat, just as they were before.
  • "Why," cried Dorothy, in amazement, "it's Oz!"
  • So he followed the Prince into the great domed hall, and Dorothy and Zeb came after them, while the throng of people trooped in also.
  • I belong to Bailum & Barney's Great Consolidated Shows--three rings in one tent and a menagerie on the side.
  • No one did, because the Mangaboos did not wear hats, and Zeb had lost his, somehow, in his flight through the air.
  • There, too, after a fit of temper, I went to find comfort and to hide my hot face in the cool leaves and grass.
  • We are Russians and will not grudge our blood in defense of our faith, the throne, and the Fatherland!
  • Others in that heat and crush racked their brains to find some thought and hastened to utter it.
  • Humor danced in his eyes and twisted smooth lips.
  • All I could think about was that I had a living father-in-law.
  • Jumping out of the buggy he put Dorothy's suit-case under the seat and her bird-cage on the floor in front.
  • There was a breath of danger in the very air, and every few moments the earth would shake violently.
  • The worst thing was their terror of reaching the bottom of this great crack in the earth, and the natural fear that sudden death was about to overtake them at any moment.
  • Far below her she found six great glowing balls suspended in the air.
  • "As for that, we are in the same scrape ourselves," answered Dorothy, cheerfully.
  • We are somewhere in the middle of the earth, and the chances are we'll reach the other side of it before long.
  • "I'm sure we are in no danger," said Dorothy, in a sober voice.
  • It was all they could do, for to go away and leave that strange sight was impossible; nor could they hurry its fall in any way.
  • I had let so much gas out of my balloon that I could not rise again, and in a few minutes the earth closed over my head.
  • There sat the thorny Sorcerer in his chair of state, and when the Wizard saw him he began to laugh, uttering comical little chuckles.
  • I go up in a balloon, usually, to draw the crowds to the circus.
  • Yet, look where she would, Dorothy could discover no bells at all in the great glass hall.
  • The Wizard reached out, caught the wee creature in his hand, and holding its head between one thumb and finger and its tail between the other thumb and finger he pulled it apart, each of the two parts becoming a whole and separate piglet in an instant.
  • He placed one upon the floor, so that it could run around, and pulled apart the other, making three piglets in all; and then one of these was pulled apart, making four piglets.
  • The little man gave a bow to the silent throng that had watched him, and then the Prince said, in his cold, calm voice:
  • We are all vegetable, in this country.
  • Did the glass houses in your city grow, too?
  • "It's violet," said the Wizard, who was in the buggy.
  • Several Mangaboos came forward with glass spades and dug a hole in the ground.
  • "He will sprout very soon," said the Prince, "and grow into a large bush, from which we shall in time be able to pick several very good sorcerers."
  • There were no stairs in their houses, because they did not need them, but on a level surface they generally walked just as we do.
  • In the center of each plant grew a daintily dressed Mangaboo, for the clothing of all these creatures grew upon them and was attached to their bodies.
  • They stood before it in silent admiration.
  • The maiden's gown was soft as satin and fell about her in ample folds, while dainty lace-like traceries trimmed the bodice and sleeves.
  • I am in no hurry to resign my office and be planted, you may be sure.
  • The children looked at each other in perplexity, and the Wizard sighed.
  • Eureka rubbed her paw on her face and said in her soft, purring voice:
  • But I noticed some strawberries growing in one of the gardens, and some melons in another place.
  • The beautiful creature passed her hands over her eyes an instant, tucked in a stray lock of hair that had become disarranged, and after a look around the garden made those present a gracious bow and said, in a sweet but even toned voice:
  • "I did not know that you were ripe," answered the Prince, in a low voice.
  • They did not bother to cross the bridges over the brooks, but when they came to a stream they stepped high and walked in the air to the other side.
  • I wonder why it is that we can walk so easily in the air.
  • But I've noticed that many queer things happen in fairy countries.
  • Only a fairy country could have veg'table people; and only in a fairy country could Eureka and Jim talk as we do.
  • In the vegetable gardens they found the strawberries and melons, and several other unknown but delicious fruits, of which they ate heartily.
  • In the strict sense of the word I am not a Wizard, but only a humbug.
  • They are in my inside pocket now.
  • The little man felt carefully in his pocket and pulled out the tiny piglets, setting them upon the grass one by one, where they ran around and nibbled the tender blades.
  • "Dear me!" murmured the Wizard, looking at his pets in astonishment.
  • "May I eat one of them?" asked the kitten, in a pleading voice.
  • "You cannot eat my piglets, even if you are starving," declared the little man, in a stern voice.
  • "I have an idea," said the Wizard, "that there are fishes in these brooks.
  • There is no reason, that I can see, why they may not exist in the waters of this strange country.
  • The little pigs had stood huddled in a group, watching this scene with frightened eyes.
  • Then she happened to remember that in a corner of her suit-case were one or two crackers that were left over from her luncheon on the train, and she went to the buggy and brought them.
  • Eureka stuck up her nose at such food, but the tiny piglets squealed delightedly at the sight of the crackers and ate them up in a jiffy.
  • With this he began walking in the air toward the high openings, and Dorothy and Zeb followed him.
  • "Why, there seems to be no night at all in this country," Zeb replied.
  • Those colored suns are exactly in the same place they were when we came, and if there is no sunset there can be no night.
  • Then the boy returned to one of the upper rooms, and in spite of the hardness of the glass bench was soon deep in slumberland.
  • So the Wizard went in to him.
  • But in the basket-car are some things I would like to keep with me.
  • They're cold and flabby, like cabbages, in spite of their prettiness.
  • It is because there is no warm blood in them, remarked the Wizard.
  • "In what way?" enquired the Wizard.
  • I am greater than any thorn-covered sorcerer that every grew in your garden.
  • A dozen of them smashed together and tumbled to the ground, and seeing his success Jim kicked again and again, charging into the vegetable crowd, knocking them in all directions and sending the others scattering to escape his iron heels.
  • There she entered in at Dorothy's window in the dome and aroused her from her sleep.
  • Before long they neared the Black Pit, where a busy swarm of Mangaboos, headed by their Princess, was engaged in piling up glass rocks before the entrance.
  • "Stop, I command you!" cried the Wizard, in an angry tone, and at once began pulling down the rocks to liberate Jim and the piglets.
  • At once the Mangaboos began piling up the rocks of glass again, and as the little man realized that they were all about to be entombed in the mountain he said to the children:
  • But we can't live long in this cavern, that's certain.
  • Noticing that the light was growing dim he picked up his nine piglets, patted each one lovingly on its fat little head, and placed them carefully in his inside pocket.
  • The cavern did not come to an end, as they had expected it would, but slanted upward through the great glass mountain, running in a direction that promised to lead them to the side opposite the Mangaboo country.
  • Jim hastened his lagging steps at this assurance of a quick relief from the dark passage.
  • None of them were in clusters, such as villages or towns, but each had ample grounds of its own, with orchards and gardens surrounding it.
  • Several minutes were consumed in silent admiration before they noticed two very singular and unusual facts about this valley.
  • "Isn't it fine?" cried Dorothy, in a joyous voice, as she sprang out of the buggy and let Eureka run frolicking over the velvety grass.
  • He took the piglets from his pocket and let them run on the grass, and Jim tasted a mouthful of the green blades and declared he was very contented in his new surroundings.
  • Presently they came to a low plant which had broad, spreading leaves, in the center of which grew a single fruit about as large as a peach.
  • "Where are they?" asked Dorothy, in astonishment.
  • "No," answered the little man, in a puzzled tone.
  • The door stood open and a table was set in the front room, with four chairs drawn up to it.
  • The meat was smoking hot and the knives and forks were performing strange antics and jumping here and there in quite a puzzling way.
  • But not a single person appeared to be in the room.
  • "How funny!" exclaimed Dorothy, who with Zeb and the Wizard now stood in the doorway.
  • One of the chairs pushed back from the table, and this was so astonishing and mysterious that Dorothy was almost tempted to run away in fright.
  • "What do you want?" demanded a third voice, in a stern, gruff accent.
  • "Well, well!" said the Wizard; "are there really people in this room?"
  • "Where do you come from, then?" asked the woman, in a curious tone.
  • "We belong upon the face of the earth," explained the Wizard, "but recently, during an earthquake, we fell down a crack and landed in the Country of the Mangaboos."
  • "They walled us up in a mountain," continued the Wizard; "but we found there was a tunnel through to this side, so we came here.
  • As he spoke the voice came so near to Zeb that he jumped back in alarm.
  • Two childish voices laughed merrily at this action, and Dorothy was sure they were in no danger among such light-hearted folks, even if those folks couldn't be seen.
  • "He draws the buggy you see fastened to him, and we ride in the buggy instead of walking," she explained.
  • Many large and fierce bears roam in the Valley of Voe, and when they can catch any of us they eat us up; but as they cannot see us, we seldom get caught.
  • In front of each place was a plate bearing one of the delicious dama-fruit, and the perfume that rose from these was so enticing and sweet that they were sorely tempted to eat of them and become invisible.
  • But the fishes that swim in our brooks we can see, and often we catch them to eat.
  • To her surprise an unseen hand clutched her and held her suspended in the air.
  • "Yes, dear," her mistress replied; "there are people living in this house, although we cannot see them.
  • As for reaching the top of the earth, I have never heard that it is possible to do that, and if you succeeded in getting there you would probably fall off.
  • "The Valley of Voe is certainly a charming place," resumed the Wizard; "but we cannot be contented in any other land than our own, for long."
  • Even if we should come to unpleasant places on our way it is necessary, in order to reach the earth's surface, to keep moving on toward it.
  • Just now, my dear, there is not a single warrior in your company.
  • "True," he replied; "and in my satchel are other useful things to fight with."
  • But they were in great numbers, and the Champion could not shout much because he had to save his breath for fighting.
  • They now bade farewell to the kind but unseen people of the cottage, and after the man had called their attention to a high, pyramid-shaped mountain on the opposite side of the Valley, and told them how to travel in order to reach it, they again started upon their journey.
  • About noon they stopped to allow Jim to rest in the shade of a pretty orchard.
  • You are strangers in the Valley of Voe, and do not seem to know our ways; so I will try to save you.
  • The next moment a broad-leaved plant was jerked from the ground where it grew and held suspended in the air before the Wizard.
  • "That is true," agreed the Wizard, "and as the river seems to be flowing in the direction of the Pyramid Mountain it will be the easiest way for us to travel."
  • Once a little fish swam too near the surface, and the kitten grabbed it in her mouth and ate it up as quick as a wink; but Dorothy cautioned her to be careful what she ate in this valley of enchantments, and no more fishes were careless enough to swim within reach.
  • The mountain before them was shaped like a cone and was so tall that its point was lost in the clouds.
  • But this enabled them to proceed steadily until they came to a landing where there was a rift in the side of the mountain that let in both light and air.
  • Here one side of the mountain had a great hole in it, like the mouth of a cavern, and the stairs stopped at the near edge of the floor and commenced ascending again at the opposite edge.
  • The opening in the mountain was on the side opposite to the Valley of Voe, and our travellers looked out upon a strange scene.
  • "Are they real?" asked Zeb, in an awed voice.
  • In the open space between the clouds and the black, bubbling sea far beneath, could be seen an occasional strange bird winging its way swiftly through the air.
  • These birds were of enormous size, and reminded Zeb of the rocs he had read about in the Arabian Nights.
  • What in the world is this?
  • Once I lived on top the earth, but for many years I have had my factory in this spot--half way up Pyramid Mountain.
  • "Are we only half way up?" enquired the boy, in a discouraged tone.
  • "Have you a factory in this place?" asked the Wizard, who had been examining the strange personage carefully.
  • "In this," he continued, "are many assorted flutters.
  • "I do not want money," returned the braided man, "for I could not spend it in this deserted place if I had it.
  • "You may need them, some time," he said, "and there is really no use in my manufacturing these things unless somebody uses them."
  • Another breathless climb brought our adventurers to a third landing where there was a rift in the mountain.
  • But the travellers were obliged to rest, and while they were sitting on the rocky floor the Wizard felt in his pocket and brought out the nine tiny piglets.
  • "In that case," she said, "I'll leave them alone.
  • Jim, who was in advance, saw the last stair before him and stuck his head above the rocky sides of the stairway.
  • "Let's go down again!" he said, in his hoarse voice.
  • "It's dangerous," growled Jim, in a stubborn tone.
  • The ground was sawdust and the pebbles scattered around were hard knots from trees, worn smooth in course of time.
  • There were odd wooden houses, with carved wooden flowers in the front yards.
  • The Gargoyles were very small of stature, being less than three feet in height.
  • There were many types, indeed, scarcely two being alike; but all were equally disagreeable in appearance.
  • They made no sounds at all, either in flying or trying to speak, and they conversed mainly by means of quick signals made with their wooden fingers or lips.
  • The group of these queer creatures which was discovered clustered near the stairs at first remained staring and motionless, glaring with evil eyes at the intruders who had so suddenly appeared in their land.
  • In turn the Wizard and the children, the horse and the kitten, examined the Gargoyles with the same silent attention.
  • He got his satchel from the buggy and, opening it, took out two deadly looking revolvers that made the children shrink back in alarm just to look at.
  • "But why fight at all, in that case?" asked the girl.
  • Crack! crash! bang! went his iron-shod hoofs against the wooden bodies of the Gargoyles, and they were battered right and left with such force that they scattered like straws in the wind.
  • They advanced in a great swarm, having been joined by many more of their kind, and they flew straight over Jim's head to where the others were standing.
  • The Wizard raised one of his revolvers and fired into the throng of his enemies, and the shot resounded like a clap of thunder in that silent place.
  • Some of the wooden beings fell flat upon the ground, where they quivered and trembled in every limb; but most of them managed to wheel and escape again to a distance.
  • The top of its head was carved into a crown and the Wizard's bullet had struck it exactly in the left eye, which was a hard wooden knot.
  • Dorothy was captured in the same way, and numbers of the Gargoyles clung to Jim's legs, so weighting him down that the poor beast was helpless.
  • The creatures had sense enough to reason that way, and the only mistake they made was in supposing the earth people were unable to overcome such ordinary difficulties.
  • "What an awful fight!" said Dorothy, catching her breath in little gasps.
  • "They are probably keeping us for some ceremony," the Wizard answered, reflectively; "but there is no doubt they intend to kill us as dead as possible in a short time."
  • In this country, as in all others they had visited underneath the earth's surface, there was no night, a constant and strong light coming from some unknown source.
  • In this country, as in all others they had visited underneath the earth's surface, there was no night, a constant and strong light coming from some unknown source.
  • Looking out, they could see into some of the houses near them, where there were open windows in abundance, and were able to mark the forms of the wooden Gargoyles moving about in their dwellings.
  • All people need rest, even if they are made of wood, and as there is no night here they select a certain time of the day in which to sleep or doze.
  • If the Gargoyles can unhook the wings then the power to fly lies in the wings themselves, and not in the wooden bodies of the people who wear them.
  • "No you can't," remarked Jim, with a twinkle in his round eyes.
  • They mounted into the buggy, Dorothy holding Eureka safe in her lap.
  • The girl sat in the middle of the seat, with Zeb and the Wizard on each side of her.
  • Then he poured over them all the kerosene oil that was left in his oil-can, and lighting a match set fire to the pile.
  • But come, my children; let us explore the mountain and discover which way we must go in order to escape from this cavern, which is getting to be almost as hot as a bake-oven.
  • It carried their baggage and was useful to ride in wherever there were good roads, and since it had accompanied them so far in their travels they felt it their duty to preserve it.
  • "Eureka sees better in the dark than we can," whispered Dorothy.
  • They are in little pockets all around the edge of this cavern.
  • Hearing these words our friends turned in the direction of the sound, and the Wizard held his lanterns so that their light would flood one of the little pockets in the rock.
  • But they've been very scarce for a few years and we usually have to be content with elephants or buffaloes, answered the creature, in a regretful tone.
  • "But that isn't young!" cried Dorothy, in amazement.
  • She's a little fussy, you know, and afraid of growing old, being a widow and still in her prime.
  • There was a regretful accent in the creature's voice, and at the words all the other dragonettes sighed dismally.
  • We consider ourselves very beautiful in appearance, for mother has told us so, and she knows.
  • This rock was separate from the rest of the mountain and was in motion, turning slowly around and around as if upon a pivot.
  • It's enough to have your pedigree flung in your face by those saucy dragonettes.
  • But their journey was almost over, for in a short time they reached a small cave from which there was no further outlet.
  • "But we're ALMOST on earth again," cried Dorothy, "for there is the sun--the most BEAU'FUL sun that shines!" and she pointed eagerly at the crack in the distant roof.
  • "Almost on earth isn't being there," said the kitten, in a discontented tone.
  • "I was sure it would come to this, in the end," remarked the old cab-horse.
  • Folks don't fall into the middle of the earth and then get back again to tell of their adventures--not in real life.
  • "Were you ever before shut up in a cave, far under the earth, with no way of getting out?" enquired the horse, seriously.
  • We've been in the dark quite a while, and you may as well explain what has happened.
  • "You can ask Dorothy," said the little man, in an injured tone.
  • "I don't believe we'll realize anything, when it comes to that," remarked Dorothy, who had been deep in thought.
  • She's a friend of mine, for I met her in the Land of Ev, not long ago, and went to Oz with her.
  • After you went up in a balloon, and escaped us, I got back to Kansas by means of a pair of magical silver shoes.
  • "No; I lost them somewhere in the air," explained the child.
  • Ozma has it; for its powers won't work in a common, ordinary country like the United States.
  • Of course; in just a jiffy.
  • "Do you mean that Princess Ozma will see this cave in her enchanted picture, and see all of us here, and what we are doing?" demanded Zeb.
  • "Don't worry, dear," Dorothy exclaimed, "I'll hold you in my arms, and take you with me."
  • "Take us, too!" cried the nine tiny piglets, all in one breath.
  • "Couldn't you manage to hold me in your arms?" asked the cab-horse.
  • All I need do is to wish you with me, and there you'll be--safe in the royal palace!
  • Couldn't you wish me in some safer place than Oz.
  • You'll just love the folks in Oz, when you get acquainted.
  • The little man looked at his watch--a big silver one that he carried in his vest pocket.
  • Are there any horses in Oz?
  • But she's a girl now, and the sweetest, loveliest girl in all the world.
  • I'll race the miserable wooden donkey any day in the week! cried the cab-horse.
  • One moment Dorothy sat beside them with the kitten in her lap, and a moment later the horse, the piglets, the Wizard and the boy were all that remained in the underground prison.
  • "I believe we will soon follow her," announced the Wizard, in a tone of great relief; "for I know something about the magic of the fairyland that is called the Land of Oz.
  • "Will it hurt?" asked the boy, in a voice that trembled a little.
  • For they were in the streets of a beautiful emerald-green city, bathed in a grateful green light that was especially pleasing to their eyes, and surrounded by merry faced people in gorgeous green-and-gold costumes of many extraordinary designs.
  • The little man looked at her closely and then took both the maiden's hands in his and shook them cordially.
  • "In that case you are very welcome!" cried all the servants, and it pleased the Wizard to note the respect with which the royal retainers bowed before him.
  • His fame had not been forgotten in the Land of Oz, by any means.
  • "She is with the Princess Ozma, in the private rooms of the palace," replied Jellia Jamb.
  • He had seen considerable of life in the cities in his younger days, and knew that this regal palace was no place for him.
  • This mollified Jim a little, and after some thought the green maiden decided to give the cab-horse a room in the palace, such a big building having many rooms that were seldom in use.
  • It will seem like being at home again, for I lived in that room for many, many years.
  • Zeb was also escorted to a room--so grand and beautiful that he almost feared to sit in the chairs or lie upon the bed, lest he might dim their splendor.
  • In the closets he discovered many fancy costumes of rich velvets and brocades, and one of the attendants told him to dress himself in any of the clothes that pleased him and to be prepared to dine with the Princess and Dorothy in an hour's time.
  • In the closets he discovered many fancy costumes of rich velvets and brocades, and one of the attendants told him to dress himself in any of the clothes that pleased him and to be prepared to dine with the Princess and Dorothy in an hour's time.
  • Over this Land I ruled in peace for many years, until I grew old and longed to see my native city once again.
  • Many years before you came here this Land was united under one Ruler, as it is now, and the Ruler's name was always 'Oz,' which means in our language 'Great and Good'; or, if the Ruler happened to be a woman, her name was always 'Ozma.'
  • "But, at that time," said the Wizard, thoughtfully, "there were two Good Witches and two Wicked Witches ruling in the land."
  • I only bossed the job, as we say in Omaha.
  • So, as you are now too old to wander abroad and work in a circus, I offer you a home here as long as you live.
  • The Wizard was also most heartily welcomed by the straw man, who was an important personage in the Land of Oz.
  • I'm very certain, Oz, that you gave me the best brains in the world, for I can think with them day and night, when all other brains are fast asleep.
  • Dorothy sprang forward and caught the fluffy fowl in her arms, uttering at the same time a glad cry.
  • She nestled herself comfortably in Dorothy's lap until the kitten gave a snarl of jealous anger and leaped up with a sharp claw fiercely bared to strike Billina a blow.
  • "You have queer friends, seems to me," replied the kitten, in a surly tone.
  • I won't have any quarrelling in the Land of Oz, I can tell you!
  • Everybody lives in peace here, and loves everybody else; and unless you two, Billina and Eureka, make up and be friends, I'll take my Magic Belt and wish you both home again, IMMEJITLY.
  • And now the Tin Woodman arrived, his body most beautifully nickle-plated, so that it shone splendidly in the brilliant light of the room.
  • I was afraid it would get moldy in that tin body of yours.
  • It keeps finely, being preserved in my air-tight chest.
  • But I don't doubt your word in the least.
  • The servants were a little discouraged, but soon they brought in a great tray containing two dozen nicely roasted quail on toast.
  • Is there nothing that is decent to eat in this palace?
  • "You are at least six feet high, and that is higher than any other animal in this country," said the Steward.
  • Then the servants heaped a lot of rugs upon the floor and the old horse slept on the softest bed he had ever known in his life.
  • The Sawhorse stopped at the same time and stared at the other with its queer protruding eyes, which were mere knots in the log that formed its body.
  • I know I'm not much account; but I'm the only horse in all the Land of Oz, so they treat me with great respect.
  • To be called beautiful was a novelty in his experience.
  • Your chief fault, my friend, is in being made of wood, and that I suppose you cannot help.
  • Once in a while I get broken up some, but I am easily repaired and put in good order again.
  • And I never feel a break or a splinter in the least.
  • Jim was in the act of plunging down the path to escape when the Sawhorse cried out:
  • But the Sawhorse introduced the stranger in a calm tone, saying:
  • In the forest he would be thought ungainly, because his face is stretched out and his neck is uselessly long.
  • His joints, I notice, are swollen and overgrown, and he lacks flesh and is old in years.
  • "And dreadfully tough," added the Hungry Tiger, in a sad voice.
  • "I'm glad of that," said Jim; "for I, also, have a conscience, and it tells me not to crush in your skull with a blow of my powerful hoof."
  • As she entered the great hall a voice called out, in a rather harsh tone:
  • "What brought you back?" was the next question, and Dorothy's eye rested on an antlered head hanging on the wall just over the fireplace, and caught its lips in the act of moving.
  • The little Princess seemed fresh and rosy and in good spirits.
  • After breakfast Ozma announced that she had ordered a holiday to be observed throughout the Emerald City, in honor of her visitors.
  • In the afternoon there were to be games and races.
  • First came the Imperial Cornet Band of Oz, dressed in emerald velvet uniforms with slashes of pea-green satin and buttons of immense cut emeralds.
  • In the center was a large emerald-green star, and all over the four quarters were sewn spangles that glittered beautifully in the sunshine.
  • In the center was a large emerald-green star, and all over the four quarters were sewn spangles that glittered beautifully in the sunshine.
  • Just behind the royal standard-bearers came the Princess Ozma in her royal chariot, which was of gold encrusted with emeralds and diamonds set in exquisite designs.
  • There followed another band after this, which was called the Royal Court Band, because the members all lived in the palace.
  • The boys wore long hair and striped sweaters and yelled their college yell every other step they took, to the great satisfaction of the populace, which was glad to have this evidence that their lungs were in good condition.
  • Jim and the buggy followed, the old cab-horse being driven by Zeb while the Wizard stood up on the seat and bowed his bald head right and left in answer to the cheers of the people, who crowded thick about him.
  • This act he repeated until all of the nine tiny piglets were visible, and they were so glad to get out of his pocket that they ran around in a very lively manner.
  • There was enough material there to enable him to prepare several new tricks which he had learned from some of the jugglers in the circus, and he had passed part of the night in getting them ready.
  • In the afternoon they all went to a great field outside the city gates where the games were to be held.
  • This made Zeb laugh, in turn, and the boy felt comforted to find that Ozma laughed as merrily at her weeping subject as she had at him.
  • I was born in Kentucky, you know, where all the best and most aristocratic horses come from.
  • "I ought to be a fairy," grumbled Jim, as he slowly drew the buggy home; "for to be just an ordinary horse in a fairy country is to be of no account whatever.
  • Several days of festivity and merry-making followed, for such old friends did not often meet and there was much to be told and talked over between them, and many amusements to be enjoyed in this delightful country.
  • "I have hunted in every part of the room," the maid replied.
  • So the two went to the dressing-room of the Princess and searched carefully in every corner and among the vases and baskets and ornaments that stood about the pretty boudoir.
  • "Under the bed in your own room," was the reply.
  • "I won't," answered the kitten, in a surly voice.
  • Dorothy carried her in her arms back to where the others sat in grieved and thoughtful silence.
  • So, if you are innocent, Eureka, you must tell the Princess how you came to be in her room, and what has become of the piglet.
  • The fact is that I left my little pet in my dressing-room lying asleep upon the table; and you must have stolen in without my knowing it.
  • Carry this cat away to prison, and keep her in safe confinement until she is tried by law for the crime of murder.
  • So the Captain-General took Eureka from the arms of the now weeping Dorothy and in spite of the kitten's snarls and scratches carried it away to prison.
  • Princess Ozma, dressed in her most splendid robes of state, sat in the magnificent emerald throne, with her jewelled sceptre in her hand and her sparkling coronet upon her fair brow.
  • In either case a grave crime has been committed which deserves a grave punishment.
  • "Do you mean my kitten must be put in a grave?" asked Dorothy.
  • When I get my thoughts arranged in good order I do not like to have anything upset them or throw them into confusion.
  • Then the Princess spoke in a stern voice:
  • I myself, not being built to eat, have no personal experience in such matters.
  • As the Princess held the white piglet in her arms and stroked its soft hair she said: Let Eureka out of the cage, for she is no longer a prisoner, but our good friend.
  • "In a room of the palace," he answered.
  • "I refuse to be free," cried the kitten, in a sharp voice, "unless the Wizard can do his trick with eight piglets.
  • At this everyone in the Throne Room suddenly became quiet, and the kitten continued, in a calm, mocking tone of voice:
  • At first the piglet stuck in the neck of the vase and I thought I should get him, after all, but he wriggled himself through and fell down into the deep bottom part--and I suppose he's there yet.
  • Then the crowd cheered lustily and Dorothy hugged the kitten in her arms and told her how delighted she was to know that she was innocent.
  • Eureka was much surprised to find herself in disgrace; but she was, in spite of the fact that she had not eaten the piglet.
  • Dorothy was herself anxious to get home, so she promised Eureka they would not stay in the Land of Oz much longer.
  • The next evening after the trial the little girl begged Ozma to allow her to look in the enchanted picture, and the Princess readily consented.
  • Zeb also wanted to see his home, and although he did not find anyone morning for him, the sight of Hugson's Ranch in the picture made him long to get back there.
  • "This is a fine country, and I like all the people that live in it," he told Dorothy.
  • Then Dorothy wound up Tik-tok and he danced a jig to amuse the company, after which the Yellow Hen related some of her adventures with the Nome King in the Land of Ev.
  • The Princess served delicious refreshments to those who were in the habit of eating, and when Dorothy's bed time arrived the company separated after exchanging many friendly sentiments.
  • Dorothy held Eureka in her arms and bade her friends a fond good-bye.
  • "But Uncle Henry and Aunt Em need me to help them," she added, "so I can't ever be very long away from the farm in Kansas."
  • "Greeting her uncle and aunt in Kansas, by this time," returned Ozma, with a smile.
  • I think this is the loveliest country in the world; but not being fairies Jim and I feel we ought to be where we belong--and that's at the ranch.
  • Just ahead of them were the gates of Hugson's Ranch, and Uncle Hugson now came out and stood with uplifted arms and wide open mouth, staring in amazement.
  • Where in the world have you been, my lad?
  • "Why, in the world, Uncle," answered Zeb, with a laugh.
  • One day in spring four men were riding on horseback along a country road.
  • They'll die down there in the grass, said the third lawyer, whose name I forget.
  • In a few minutes they had forgotten about the birds.
  • He got down from his horse and very gently took the little ones up in his big warm hands.
  • He was dressed in black, and had a very pleasant face.
  • Pray, how shall I, a little lad, In speaking make a figure?
  • And in the garden, Henry saw a turnip.
  • Henry's composition was not in verse.
  • Two hundred years ago there lived in Boston a little boy whose name was Benjamin Franklin.
  • He heard the pennies jingle in his pocket.
  • He held them in his hand, and showed them to the boy.
  • With his lighted lantern in his hand, he went up and down the rough hills calling for his lambs.
  • Two or three other shepherds joined him in the search.
  • They looked, as they thought, in every place where the lambs might have taken shelter.
  • But there was no shepherd in Scotland that could have done better than Sirrah did that night.
  • While watching his flocks, he spent much of his time in reading.
  • But this I know, I love to play In the meadow, among the hay-- Up the water, and o'er the lea, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Thousands of years ago the greatest country, in the world was Egypt.
  • In it were many great cities; and from one end of it to the other there were broad fields of grain and fine pastures for sheep and cattle.
  • "It was in our country that the first men and women lived," they said.
  • Then he called his wisest men together and asked them, "Is it really true that the first people in the world were Egyptians?"
  • There he cared for them with love and kindness; but no word did he speak in their hearing.
  • They played with the lambs in the field and saw no human being but the shepherd.
  • Then the king called one of the wisest scholars in Egypt and asked him what the word meant.
  • These children are learning it just as the first people who lived on the earth learned it in the beginning.
  • The feast was held in the grandest room of the palace.
  • Describe in verse this glad and glorious feast.
  • He has seen me in my blindness, and is trying to open my eyes.
  • In a wonderful book, called "The Arabian Nights," there are many interesting stories about him.
  • There were thousands of English soldiers in Boston.
  • These soldiers guarded the streets of the town; they would not let any one go out or come in without their leave.
  • He makes us pay taxes and gives us nothing in return.
  • Some of them camped in Charlestown, [Footnote: Charles'town.] a village near Boston.
  • He was ready to serve his country in any way that he could.
  • One day a friend of his who lived in Boston came to see him.
  • Watch, and as soon as the soldiers are ready to start, hang a lantern in the tower of the old North Church.
  • He knew where the old North Church stood, but he could not see much in the darkness.
  • He put his foot in the stirrup.
  • At Lexington, not far from Concord, there was a sharp fight in which several men were killed.
  • This, in history, is called the Battle of Lexington.
  • It seemed as if every man in the country was after them.
  • And they did not feel themselves safe until they were once more in Boston.
  • In France there once lived a famous man who was known as the Marquis de Lafayette. When he was a little boy his mother called him Gilbert.
  • His home was in the country not far from a great forest.
  • One day word came that a savage wolf had been seen in the forest.
  • The mother sat down in the shade of a tree and began to read in a new book which she had bought the day before.
  • Gilbert looked up from his play and saw that his mother was very deeply interested in her book.
  • Tears were in his eyes; but he tried to look brave.
  • His name is remembered in our country as that of a brave and noble man.
  • "She's been caught in a trap some time, I guess," said Putnam.
  • He says she was a monster; and she was running straight toward the hills with a little lamb in her mouth.
  • At last he saw something in the darkness that looked like two balls of fire.
  • Putnam gave the rope a quick jerk and his friends pulled him out in great haste.
  • Soon, with the gun in one hand, he crept back into the cave.
  • It was no fun to be pulled over the sharp stones in that way; but it was better than to be bitten by the wolf.
  • Putnam stayed in the cave so long that his friends began to be alarmed.
  • Put three in each shoe.
  • "Three nails in each shoe will hold them on," said the smith.
  • He waved his sword in the air.
  • Henry, the Duke of Richmond, made war upon him and defeated him in a great battle.
  • Instead of sitting at his ease in a parlor car, he went jolting along through mud and mire, exposed to wind and weather.
  • One day some men were sitting by the door of a hotel in Baltimore.
  • He's just in from the backwoods.
  • He's one of those country fellows who can sleep in the haymow and eat with the horses.
  • He was dressed plainly, and, with his reddish-brown hair and mud-bespattered face, looked like a hard- working countryman just in from the backwoods.
  • The only place I could put you would be in the barn.
  • Put everything in tiptop order, Sally.
  • He shall have all the rooms in the house, and the ladies' parlor, too, I'll go right round to the Planters' and fetch him back.
  • So he went to the other hotel, where he found the vice president sitting with some friends in the parlor.
  • If you'll come back to my house, you shall have the best room in it--yes, all the rooms if you wish.
  • Now, Mr. Boyle was a sporting neighbor who spent a good deal of time in shooting.
  • He was a great admirer of Dean Swift, and took pleasure in sending him presents of game.
  • "See here," said the Dean in a stern voice, "that is not the way to deliver a message here.
  • The lesson in manners was not forgotten; for, always after that, the man was very polite when he brought his presents.
  • It was waiting in the river.
  • George saw the tears in his mother's eyes.
  • As he came nearer he saw that the boy held a charred stick in his hand, with which he was drawing something on a flat rock.
  • The lad was so much interested in his work that he did not see the stranger.
  • They belong to the rich man who lives in the big white house there among the trees.
  • My father works in the field, and I take care of the sheep.
  • His pictures were known and admired in every city of Italy.
  • In the city of Florence [Footnote: Flor'ence.] little Giotto saw some of the finest pictures in the world.
  • In the city of Florence [Footnote: Flor'ence.] little Giotto saw some of the finest pictures in the world.
  • In the morning, when he looked at the picture, he saw a fly on the man's nose.
  • This happened six hundred years ago, in the city of Florence in Italy.
  • "I am the only man in the world who can paint a picture so true to life," he said.
  • "I have heard that you are the wisest man in the world," she said, "and surely this simple thing ought not to puzzle you."
  • The queen was standing quite near to it with the two wreaths still in her hands.
  • Not one of the bees so much as looked at those in her left hand.
  • A long time ago there lived, in Pennsylvania, a little boy whose name was Benjamin West.
  • But he had never seen any pictures except a few small ones in a book.
  • So she told Benjamin to stay in the house and take care of his baby sister till she came back.
  • The baby was asleep in her cradle, and he must not make a noise and waken her.
  • The good woman was so overjoyed that she caught him in her arms and kissed him.
  • It may be that the hand of the Lord is in this.
  • When Andrew Jackson was a little boy he lived with his mother in South Carolina.
  • At last Charleston, in South Carolina, was taken by the British.
  • In time, Andrew Jackson became a very great man.
  • He was elected to Congress, he was chosen judge of the supreme court of Tennessee, he was appointed general in the army, and lastly he was for eight years the president of the United States.
  • When Daniel Webster was a child he lived in the country, far from any city.
  • I am going to put you in the academy there.
  • Early in the morning two horses were brought to the door.
  • Mr. Webster rode in front, and Daniel, on the old gray nag, followed behind.
  • Yet there was something in his manner and voice that caused everybody to admire him.
  • He was in trouble because his scholars would not study.
  • The next one that whispers must come out and stand in the middle of the floor.
  • Suddenly, to his great joy he saw little Lucy Martin lean over her desk and whisper to the girl in front of her.
  • With tears in her eyes she went out and stood in the whisperer's place.
  • She was very much ashamed and hurt, for it was the first time that she had ever been in disgrace at school.
  • Then, suddenly, an awkward half-grown boy who sat right in front of the master's desk turned squarely around and whispered to Tommy Jones, three desks away.
  • Everybody was astonished, for that boy was the best scholar in the school, and he had never been known to break a rule.
  • All this happened many years ago in New Britain, Connecticut.
  • In those times there were even some kings who could not read.
  • "I will give it to the one who first learns to read in it" she answered.
  • In history he is called Alfred the Great.
  • But after he had learned to read, she taught him to look in books for that which he wished to know.
  • Read in order to become wise.
  • He became one of the most famous scholars in the world.
  • Long, long ago, there lived in Persia a little prince whose name was Cyrus.
  • He wished the lad to stay with him in Media.
  • The servants were there, dressed in fine uniforms.
  • The musicians and dancers were in their places.
  • In Persia we do not have such feasts.
  • He was dressed in the rich uniform of the cupbearer, and he came forward with much dignity and grace.
  • I am afraid to drink anything that makes men act in that way.
  • In history he is commonly called Cyrus the Great.
  • For in that country, people never wear shoes in the house, but take them off at the door.
  • In Persia, when Cyrus the Great was king, boys were taught to tell the truth.
  • When Otanes was twelve years old, his parents wished to send him to a distant city to study in a famous school that was there.
  • "It is in my hat, underneath the lining," answered Otanes.
  • Forty pieces, in my hat, said Otanes.
  • Otanes answered, I have already told two of your men that I have forty pieces of gold in my hat.
  • Mount your horse, and my own men will ride with you and see that you reach the end of your journey in safety.
  • Otanes, in time, became one of the famous men of his country.
  • At last, far in the East, he came to a land of which he had never heard.
  • "What!" said he, "do you eat gold in this country?"
  • Yesterday, when I was digging in it, I found a box full of gold and jewels.
  • The second man then spoke up and said, It is true that I sold him the ground, but I did not reserve anything he might find in it.
  • The shah sat silent for a while, as if in thought.
  • Does the sun shine in your country?
  • But are there any gentle, harmless animals in your fields?
  • In those days, people had not learned to be kind to their enemies.
  • In war, they were savage and cruel; for war always makes men so.
  • On a mountain near their city, there was a narrow chasm or hole in the rocks.
  • So a party of soldiers led him up into the mountain and placed him on the edge of the yawning hole in the rocks.
  • Some of the Greeks said that an eagle caught him in her beak and carried him unharmed to the bottom.
  • I think that he must have fallen upon some bushes and vines that grew in some parts of the chasm.
  • He groped around in the dim light, but could not find any way of escape.
  • For three days he lay in his strange prison.
  • It was the sunlight streaming in at the entrance to the passage.
  • In a short time he was free and in the open air.
  • In a short time he was free and in the open air.
  • He lived two hundred years ago, and was famous for his courage in defending his country.
  • One day he was in the midst of a great battle.
  • The small house in which he had taken shelter was almost between the two armies.
  • When your country is in danger, you should forget your own safety.
  • There was a great famine in Rome.
  • There was no bread in the city.
  • On the last day, the great army which Coriolanus had led from Antium was drawn up in battle array.
  • All Rome was in terror.
  • Coriolanus was in his tent.
  • He visited several cities, and in each place he was well paid for his music.
  • Many days passed before they came in sight of land.
  • Arion dressed himself in his finest clothing.
  • He took his stand on the forward deck, while the robber sailors stood in a half circle before him, anxious to listen to his song.
  • In a short time they reached Corinth in safety, and the king sent an officer to bring the captain and his men to the palace.
  • In a short time they reached Corinth in safety, and the king sent an officer to bring the captain and his men to the palace.
  • He has a mind to spend the rest of his life in that country.
  • He lived more than seven hundred years ago in a quaint little town of Italy.
  • Once when a boy gave him a pair of doves which he had snared, St. Francis had a nest made for them, and the mother bird laid her eggs in it.
  • And many other stories are told of this man's great love and pity for the timid creatures which lived in the fields and woods.
  • Then, when they saw that he was about to speak, they nestled softly in the grass and listened.
  • He has given you the air in which to move and have homes.
  • He gives you the trees in which to build your nests.
  • Some of these bundles contained the things they would need on the road; some contained clothing; and some contained goods which the master would sell in the city.
  • So each one boasted of his skill in doing some sort of labor.
  • In Samos the little slave soon became known for his wisdom and courage.
  • An old Cat was in a fair way to kill all the Mice in the barn.
  • Listen, and I will tell you of the famous dark day in Connecticut.
  • "The end of the world has come!" cried some; and they ran about in the darkness.
  • In the old statehouse, the wise men of Connecticut were sitting.
  • Then with his strong face aglow in their feeble light, he made a speech in favor of a law to help poor fishermen.
  • And as he spoke, the other lawmakers listened in silence till the darkness began to fade and the sky grew bright again.
  • John Randolph ate in silence.
  • In the morning a good breakfast was served, and then Mr. Randolph made ready to start on his journey.
  • John Randolph, of Roanoke, lived in Virginia one hundred years ago.
  • But he was still headstrong and ill-tempered; and he was often in trouble with the other sailors.
  • Once his ship was sailing in the great Pacific Ocean, It was four hundred miles from the coast of South America.
  • The very next day they came in sight of a little green island.
  • They also put in some bread and meat and other food, enough for several weeks.
  • He built him a little hut for shelter at night and in stormy weather.
  • Sometimes Selkirk saw ships sailing in the distance.
  • Then, to his great joy, a ship came near and anchored in the little harbor.
  • But there were birds in the woods and some wild goats on the hills.
  • Like other kings, he lived in a beautiful palace and had many officers and servants to wait upon him.
  • There, sitting in his chair, was Carl, fast asleep.
  • He took ten gold pieces from his table and wrapped them in the little letter.
  • He put his hand in his pocket, and was surprised to find the gold pieces wrapped in his mother's letter.
  • And people say that fortune comes to us in our sleep.
  • The king himself was obliged to hide in the wild woods while his foes hunted for him with hounds.
  • Late one evening he came to a little farmhouse in a lonely valley.
  • He walked in without knocking.
  • "You!" cried the woman in great surprise.
  • "I saw two hundred of them in the village below us," said one of his officers.
  • And Robert the Bruce was never again obliged to hide in the woods or to run from savage hounds.
  • For a long time he wandered in fear from place to place.
  • He was in despair.
  • As Tamerlane looked, he saw that there was a hole in the tree only a little way above, and that this was the home of the ant.
  • In Richmond, Virginia, one Saturday morning, an old man went into the market to buy something.
  • The market man wrapped a paper round it and put it in the basket.
  • He was dressed in fine style and carried a small cane.
  • He is one of the greatest men in our country, was the answer.
  • More than a hundred years ago, two boys were fishing in a small river.
  • They sat in a heavy flat-bottomed boat, each holding a long, crooked rod in his hands and eagerly waiting for "a bite."
  • The next day Robert's aunt heard a great pounding and sawing in her woodshed.
  • After a great deal of tinkering and trying, they did succeed in making two paddle wheels.
  • The rod was bent in the middle so that it could be turned as with a crank.
  • The boys lost no time in trying it.
  • He took something like an oarlock from his pocket and fastened it to the stern of the boat; then with a paddle which worked in this oarlock one of the boys could guide the boat while the other turned the paddle wheels.
  • He kept on, planning and thinking and working, until at last he succeeded in making a boat with paddle wheels that could be run by steam.
  • The merchant put the gold in a bag of purple silk which he tied to his belt underneath his long cloak.
  • Why should he not cool himself in the refreshing water?
  • He turned quickly and saw an eagle rising into the air with his moneybag in its claws.
  • The great bird was high in the air and flying towards the far-off mountains with all his money.
  • Find all the old men that live on the mountains or in the flat country around, and command them to appear before me one week from to-day.
  • A few said that there was one man in their neighborhood who seemed to have had some sort of good luck.
  • The gardener answered: A year ago, as I was spading in my garden, I saw something fall at the foot of a palm tree.
  • So I took ten gold pieces from the many that were in the bag.
  • But, as I came to your palace this morning, I kept saying to myself, 'When our lord Al Mansour learns just how it was that I borrowed the gold, I have no doubt that in his kindness of heart he will forgive me the debt.'
  • "Take the bag and count the money that is in it," he said.
  • Saying this, he ordered that ten gold pieces be given to the merchant in place of those that were lacking.
  • In England there was once a famous abbey, called Whitby.
  • It was so close to the sea that those who lived in it could hear the waves forever beating against the shore.
  • The land around it was rugged, with only a few fields in the midst of a vast forest.
  • In those far-off days, an abbey was half church, half castle.
  • It was a place where good people, and timid, helpless people could find shelter in time of war.
  • There they might live in peace and safety while all the country round was overrun by rude and barbarous men.
  • One cold night in winter the serving men of the abbey were gathered in the great kitchen.
  • Suppose we each sing a song in turn.
  • After him the other men were called, one by one; and each in turn sang his favorite song.
  • But in the corner, almost hidden from his fellows, one poor man was sitting who did not enjoy the singing.
  • At last, just as the blacksmith was in the midst of a stirring song, he rose quietly and went out into the darkness.
  • He went across the narrow yard to the sheds where the cattle were kept in stormy weather.
  • In his safe, warm place in the straw, Caedmon soon fell asleep.
  • In his safe, warm place in the straw, Caedmon soon fell asleep.
  • The singing in the kitchen was ended, the fire had burned low, and each man had gone to his place.
  • It was for this reason that I left my fellows in the abbey kitchen and came here to be alone.
  • It must be written down so that people in other places and in other times may hear it read and sung.
  • Such was the way in which the first true English poem was written.
  • In the Far East there was once a prince whose name was Gautama.
  • He lived in a splendid palace where there was everything that could give delight.
  • In it there are numberless trees and flowers and rivers and waterfalls, and other things to make the heart glad.
  • The next morning, Gautama sat in his carriage and rode out from the palace into one of the streets of the city.
  • Their faces were browned by the sun; their hands were hard and gnarly; their backs were bent by much heavy lifting; their clothing was in tatters.
  • "Most of the people in the world are poor," said the coachman.
  • Their lives are spent in toiling for the rich.
  • And in the middle was a rough table with benches around it instead of chairs.
  • Jacquot's business was to sell charcoal to the rich people in the city.
  • Perhaps your father is waiting to help in the kitchen.
  • They did so, and as the flames lighted up the room, they saw their father enter with a child in his arms.
  • Soon the little stranger was clad in the warm clothes; the dry soft blanket was wrapped around him; and he was laid on the children's bed.
  • "In my house, my little friend," answered Jacquot.
  • But if I had not helped you, you would have been in a worse place.
  • Wait till he rests a while, and then he'll be in a better humor.
  • I looked and saw this little fellow struggling in the water.
  • I thought of the big fire in the queen's kitchen, and knew that the cook would never allow a half-drowned child to be carried into that fine place.
  • So I took him in my arms and ran home as fast as I could.
  • He sat up in the bed and looked around.
  • They were just rising from the table when they heard a great noise in the street.
  • In a few minutes the room was filled with gentlemen.
  • This charcoal man, whom I know very well, ran past me with a child in his arms.
  • Not dressed in that way? said the cardinal.
  • "Think what your mother would say if she saw you in the clothes of a poor man's son." said the cardinal.
  • In history he is often called the Grand Monarch.
  • One day King Henry the Fourth of France was hunting in a large forest.
  • They say he is hunting in the woods, and perhaps will ride out this way.
  • "My good men," he said, "how many fish do you expect to draw in this time?"
  • There was certainly something in it.
  • "How much will you take for the fish that you are drawing in?" he asked.
  • "Well, I will give three pieces of silver for all that are in the net," answered the merchant.
  • The fishermen talked in low tones with one another for a little while, and then one said, It's a bargain.
  • In a few minutes the big net was pulled up out of the water.
  • There was not a fish in it.
  • You were to have all the fish that happened to be in the net and nothing else.
  • Leave the tripod in my care until we get an answer.
  • The messengers found him in his house talking to his friends and teaching them wisdom.
  • "Well, you will not find that man in Rhodes," said he.
  • He lives in Corinth, [Footnote: Cor'inth.] and his name is Periander. [Footnote: Per i an'der.] Carry the precious gift to him.
  • Do you expect to find any man in Corinth who deserves so rich a gift?
  • They learned that Chilon was a very quiet man, that he never spoke about himself, and that he spent all his time in trying to make his country great and strong and happy.
  • He is my worst enemy, and yet, I admire him as the wisest man in the world.
  • They had no trouble in finding Solon.
  • All the people whom they saw spoke in praise of his wisdom.
  • Carry it to Delphi and leave it there in the Temple of Apollo; for Apollo is the fountain of wisdom, the wisest of the wise.
  • The famous men of whom I have told you in this story are commonly called the Seven Wise Men of Greece.
  • In this book, I maintain the future will be without ignorance, disease, hunger, poverty, and war, and I support those assertions with history, data, and reason.
  • America was birthed in optimism.
  • Very little would change in this seventy-year stretch of life.
  • They exist simply because we have not had the means to solve them in the past.
  • In the end, our fundamental challenge is to become better individuals, and technology offers little help on that front; it is up to each one of us to solve that for ourselves.
  • But the five phenomena I chose to tackle in this book are among the great blights on humanity that I believe the Internet and technology will help solve.
  • Could you have foreseen that the advent of a technology called "air conditioning" in homes would alter the social fabric of the nation?
  • First, in the magnitude of what it claims, and second, in the degree to which it differs from what pessimists predict.
  • I make the predictions in this book not to be sensational or controversial.
  • The first error is to assert that history unfolds in a basically linear fashion, that there is a fundamental continuity between the past, present, and future.
  • A wild-eyed, crazed techno-optimist of the nineteenth century concluded that in fifty years there would be a telephone in every town in America.
  • Or astounding technological breakthroughs that have no precedent in reality.
  • History is full of radical breaks with the past that only seem to have come out of nowhere but were, in fact, predictable.
  • By looking, in part, at history.
  • This is because history repeats itself—at least, as the great historian Will Durant says, "in outline form."
  • In short, it tells us everything about ourselves.
  • Examining history is not like gazing into some fantasy crystal ball, where what we see is prophetic in detail.
  • I refer to history extensively in these pages because I believe historical people are exactly like us, only in different circumstances.
  • I submit that the Internet is not defined in that way because it is a technology without an implicit purpose.
  • When new technology comes out, we generally understand it in terms of what it displaces.
  • Whether things in the future stay the same as they are today or change from what they are today, both are understood in terms of the current reality.
  • Sometimes the new technology so overwhelms the old that when looking back, we explain the old technology in terms of the new.
  • Because television was radio with pictures, the first television shows were simply men in suits standing in front of microphones reading the news.
  • It took a decade or two for the new medium to be seen in light of itself, not just in terms of what it displaced.
  • Flying cars, faster cars, more features in cars, we all get that.
  • Because its meaning has to be imputed, we have tended to describe it in terms of prior technologies—which, in many cases, understates its potential by many orders of magnitude.
  • When you hear about a new company and your response is, "Why in the world would anyone want to do that?" it will be because there is no offline corollary.
  • When it comes to starting a new business, nothing that previously existed can rival the Internet in terms of both ease of entry and breadth of potential.
  • She reasons: When we think of social networks, we are individualistic in our approach.
  • She hires a contract programmer in Russia for $3000 to code it and advertises on Craig's List for a designer who will work for some stock.
  • Linda gets the idea to call Facebook and see if she can advertise to people who change their status to "In a relationship."
  • This makes sense, so she spends her last $2000 in savings to buy ads.
  • In the past, success relied heavily on whether an entrepreneur could move an offline experience online better than someone else.
  • Today, success still requires good execution, but the larger question is: "Can you discover and fulfill a hitherto-unknown, latent desire in people that the Internet enables?"
  • In just eighteen months from now, we will have duplicated that again and effectively doubled our computation power.
  • Then, in eighteen more months, it will double again.
  • It is just as engineer and communication technology pioneer John Pierce said, in the quote I offered above: "After growing wildly for years, the field of computing appears to be reaching its infancy."
  • I spend less time waiting for Excel to do a recalculation of my formulas today than I did on my 386 in the 1990s, even though my spreadsheets are thousands of times more complex.
  • But a single example will suffice to illustrate the whole.
  • It is thought to have had its apex in Italy—in Venice, Florence, and Rome.
  • Only after the public grew weary of this did printers go off in search of completely new books, called novels to mark their newness.
  • In the Italian Renaissance, only a thin veneer of society's elites participated in the creation or ownership of the frescos, music, statues, and paintings; most were only passive observers.
  • In the Italian Renaissance, only a thin veneer of society's elites participated in the creation or ownership of the frescos, music, statues, and paintings; most were only passive observers.
  • Almost everyone creates, in one form or another.
  • In these early days of the Internet Renaissance, the number of great masters is in the tens of thousands, not the hundreds.
  • In these early days of the Internet Renaissance, the number of great masters is in the tens of thousands, not the hundreds.
  • In 2007, Google researchers estimated there were one hundred trillion words on the Internet.
  • Google CEO Eric Schmidt famously asserted in 2010 that we create more content every two days than in the history of civilization up to 2003.
  • More than that in Facebook status updates every day.
  • Uncounted millions more post questions in forums, and millions of answers are posted in response.
  • All forms of online media are exploding in a similar fashion.
  • In 2010, people were uploading one hundred million photos on Facebook every single day.
  • In his day, Shakespeare was low-brow entertainment for the common class.
  • In fact, it's likelier that kids of that day were forbidden by proper parents from hanging out at the Globe Theater.
  • I can't tell you which clips will be watched in a century, but I'm certain that some will be.
  • But in some ways, it's like antique furniture.
  • But the truth is that almost all furniture back in the day was cheaply made junk and only a very few high-quality pieces survived.
  • And in our Internet Renaissance, aren't we seeing an explosion of these same things at a spectacularly more massive scale?
  • Who could argue there was ever a better time to start a business any time in the world?
  • In the Italian Renaissance, people of wealth distinguished themselves by their altruistic endeavors.
  • We have a natural desire to make beautiful things and a bone-deep need to understand the world we live in and our place in it.
  • Today, there are modern-day Da Vincis living in parts of the world where just surviving is a full-time occupation, powerless to develop the gifts they could offer the wider world.
  • Today we have the Internet and all its associated technologies, vastly more versatile, almost infinite in possibility.
  • On the morning of June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by nineteen-year-old assassin Gavrilo Princip.
  • Once again, war raged in Europe and around the world and left sixty million people dead.
  • World War II ushered in the age of nuclear weapons.
  • What set this in motion?
  • He turned onto Franz Josef Street, where he was not supposed to have been, and drove right in front of a surprised Princip.
  • One can almost picture him, sandwich in hand, slack-jawed in surprise.
  • It would not be the first time, or the last, that ignorance in the world exacted a high price.
  • The Internet is not unique in solving for this access to information.
  • It does so in orders of magnitude better than what came before it—libraries—but only better, not differently.
  • It was like the Olympic torch in antiquity: All it took was one guy carrying the torch to slip in the mud and the entire chain was broken.
  • In fact, the book could survive for centuries, as could new perfect copies of the book, and thus the ideas could be distributed.
  • So the simple fact that all the information in the world may soon be available to everyone via the Internet does not end ignorance, just as the existence of a library in your city doesn't end ignorance.
  • He was, in fact, making this soup, his favorite dish.
  • Scholars today are pretty sure that in the case of Delphi, the oracle was inadvertently breathing gases that rose from the cave in which she sat.
  • In any event, King Croesus had it in his mind to wage war against the Persians, so he asked the oracle: "Should I attack the Persians?"
  • In any event, King Croesus had it in his mind to wage war against the Persians, so he asked the oracle: "Should I attack the Persians?"
  • In the ancient world, man wanted guidance from the gods on what he should do.
  • Think of how the computer in the Star Trek universe was a purely factual machine.
  • "If only I had known," we often lament, in the widespread belief that to know everything would mean we would never make mistakes.
  • You can know everything in the world and still make bad decisions.
  • It requires knowing what you should do in a given situation.
  • Then imagine GPS is layered in—very accurate GPS that tracks your every move, even in your own home.
  • Next, imagine everything you do is remembered in detail.
  • Schell regards sensors largely in terms of gameplay—but for our purposes, think of them passively logging your life.
  • Consider what you would do in the following situations.
  • And they will see how this information will be used to better the lives of other people in very real ways.
  • Remember Eric Schmidt's statement that more information is created every two days than in all of human history prior to 2003?
  • So we've reached an unprecedented situation in the course of human learning, which is this: The amount of data we have available has outstripped our ability to process it and turn it into knowledge.
  • In our modern age, people disagree not just in terms of values they apply to knowledge, but they disagree on actual pieces of knowledge.
  • In our modern age, people disagree not just in terms of values they apply to knowledge, but they disagree on actual pieces of knowledge.
  • These are not differences of values but disagreements in terms of knowledge.
  • This will turbocharge science, which will no longer rely exclusively on slow observations in real time.
  • A website called Wolfram Alpha is amazing to me, especially in its aspirations.
  • Why are there fewer traffic jams in one certain city than in any other of its size?
  • Why are dropout rates in some schools lower than demographically matched schools anywhere else in the world?
  • In the past, a scientist began with a surmise or hunch and began gathering data to prove or disprove it.
  • Or, through serendipity, scientists stumbled into things—with those "your chocolate is in my peanut butter" moments.
  • And yet, by the coarse measures we use, in a sense we have the same level of prosperity because we both have cars.
  • I will return to this topic in the disease chapter, but for now I needed to provide an argument to tackle the "ignorance" challenge.
  • Since it debuted selling books in 1995, Amazon has expanded to sell all kinds of products.
  • Picture yourself in a men's clothing store.
  • This scene, in one form or another, should seem familiar.
  • In general, when you have such a salesperson, the information is useful.
  • Of the twenty thousand sales he has made in his career, he probably remembers a few hundred distinctly and a few thousand vaguely.
  • Any time you can move data collection from humans to computers, you get vast improvements in efficiency.
  • Any time you can move data storage from brains to hard drives, you get vast improvements in efficiency.
  • Any time you can move data processing from intellects to CPUs, you get vast improvements in efficiency.
  • Ten years later, in 1959, Francois Genuys used an IBM 704 and calculated pi to more than fifteen thousand digits in just four hours.
  • By 1973 it was calculated to more than a million digits, in 1983 more than ten million digits, in 1987 more than one hundred million digits, in 1989 more than one billion digits, and in 1997 more than fifty billion digits.
  • In 2009, pi was calculated to more than two trillion digits—in less than thirty hours.
  • For instance, they will learn subtleties such as suggesting beach gear if a person buys a cooler in July and tailgating gear if the same purchase is made in October.
  • No human could ever do this, for in these purely computational matters, machines are vastly superior to us, and always will be.
  • Humans should not feel threatened in any way by this, and yet it still makes some people defensive and uncomfortable.
  • They might balk at getting on an airline flight flown by a computer and prefer having a pilot on board to take over if he "feels in his gut" that something is wrong (even if that feeling is the airport burrito he had for lunch).
  • Machines will never, in my opinion, be able to be creative.
  • An American originally from New Orleans, Jim Haynes lives in Paris.
  • He is also from Austin, and he's in Internet publishing, too.
  • These guidebooks are lists of people who live in that area who would be willing to meet you for coffee.
  • He once said he does all this because he wants to introduce everyone in the world to everyone else.
  • I like this goal, and I would like to do it as well, but in bits, not bites.
  • And if each of those billion people in turn shared a million of their life experiences, and you recorded them, you'd have an aggregate number of life experiences so large I had to look it up online.
  • And from every experience they have had in their lives, we would be able to infer what was successful and what was not successful.
  • To use a simple example: You are in San Francisco.
  • Back in the old days (the 1980s), you only had data—say, the Yellow Pages with its list of restaurants.
  • You were better off than before, in terms of making a knowledgeable decision.
  • In the future, something very much like the Amazon suggestion engine, but for all of life, will change that.
  • Then it will look at everybody in San Francisco.
  • And so we are interested in the Italian restaurants people drive across town repeatedly to frequent.
  • It will look at all other people who like the same restaurants and see where they repeatedly go for Italian food in San Francisco.
  • This system will look at all the Italian restaurants around the country that you already like and look at all the ingredients they order online and look for restaurants in San Francisco using the same set of ingredients.
  • Over time, we will feel that kind of confidence in this kind of system.
  • None of us has the time to do that—but in the future, with my system, wisdom will operate at processor speeds.
  • You may be thinking that choosing the right place to eat Italian food doesn't constitute wisdom in a King Solomon kind of way.
  • We cannot deal with equations that big—but a computer will solve for that in a minute if it has enough data.
  • Every time you buy a book from Amazon, its employees use your data—information about what you did on their site in the privacy of your own home—to try to sell other people more products.
  • This gives me confidence that, in the wisdom-seeking systems of the future, people will be willing to share data to make the algorithms better.
  • Don't get me wrong: Privacy issues in the future will be thorny to work through.
  • These will be waters to navigate carefully, in order to make sure that the right to privacy, a cornerstone of a free society, is not destroyed.
  • Clearly, this already happens today, in a primitive form.
  • The future system I foresee will not be different in substance, but only in degree.
  • In some twentieth-century science fiction visions of the future, humans created friendly robot sidekicks with data storage capacity and computational speed the human brain lacked.
  • In the world of the future, the collective experience of everyone on the planet is recorded.
  • In almost all aspects of life, the application of this process will bring improvements.
  • In a profound way, our lives will be better.
  • In the future, every single person will have at his or her disposal the sum total of the life experience of everyone alive.
  • In the past, knowing the wise thing to do was a power confined to a few.
  • In the future, we will all have it.
  • But in a world where great wisdom is available to everyone, the end of ignorance will be within our grasp.
  • But at times in history, left-handedness was thought to be a malady in need of curing (and in some parts of the world still is).
  • Some people's bodies break in ways that we don't understand.
  • Consider Jedediah Buxton of Derbyshire, England, who in the 1700s was asked to compute the number one would get by doubling a farthing 139 times.
  • He computed the answer in his head and recited the thirty-nine-digit answer in pounds.
  • Perhaps we all have such remarkable abilities but are impaired in a way—maybe the rest of us have a disease to which these savants are immune.
  • Now we are certainly on the fuzzy edges, a place where words, often fuzzy in their meanings, begin to fail us.
  • So where does that leave us in our quest to end disease?
  • Under what conditions can we claim victory in this war on disease?
  • Likewise for mental illnesses: We should be able to cure them to the extent the person in question would wish them to be.
  • So how about this instead: What if I can show you a future where everyone on the planet will live in good health as long as it is possible for their body to live?
  • It was recognized as the flu, although records describe conditions which were highly likely to have been polio.
  • In addition, images engraved in walls of what appear to be people infected with polio are found in Egypt dating back to at least 1400 BC.
  • In addition, images engraved in walls of what appear to be people infected with polio are found in Egypt dating back to at least 1400 BC.
  • In 1840, a German physician published a seventy-eight-page paper clinically describing polio.
  • In 1908, the poliovirus was identified as the cause.
  • In 1916, the number of cases just in New York City was reported to be nine thousand.
  • In 1916, the number of cases just in New York City was reported to be nine thousand.
  • Parents were unable to leave their home to bury their child if the child died in the hospital.
  • In 1921, a dozen years before he would be sworn in as president, Franklin Roosevelt was diagnosed with polio.
  • In 1921, a dozen years before he would be sworn in as president, Franklin Roosevelt was diagnosed with polio.
  • During his campaign and his time in office, the extent of the effect of his polio was kept from the public, but the fact he had the disease was commonly known.
  • And near the end of 1937, Roosevelt created the National Foundation for Infant Paralysis to join in the fight.
  • A few years later, with the United States again at war, most of its top medical minds were engaged in the war effort.
  • After the war, in 1947, Jonas Salk was offered his own laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
  • The disease struck people in childhood or in the prime of life.
  • It often left them partially paralyzed, in wheelchairs or iron lungs (a term that's now all but forgotten and will likely send younger readers to Wikipedia).
  • Parents kept their children at home, especially in the summer, and certainly away from public swimming areas.
  • Hundreds of thousands of cases were still, of course, in the rest of the world even three decades after Salk's breakthrough.
  • The virus cannot live in immunized individuals, nor in nature.
  • As I was writing these words, my ten-year-old son came in and asked, "What are you doing?"
  • In the century leading up to its extermination, smallpox killed about 500,000,000 people.
  • Wars in that same period—the most destructive wars in all of history—took a fraction of that number.
  • Aside from two laboratory samples, one in the United States and one in Russia, it does not exist on the planet.
  • In the last thirty years there has not been a single smallpox death or even a single infection.
  • In the eradication of smallpox, as in the near-elimination of polio, I find both fascinating lessons of history and enormous reason for hope.
  • In the eradication of smallpox, as in the near-elimination of polio, I find both fascinating lessons of history and enormous reason for hope.
  • It was described in China about the same time.
  • Around 430 BC, Athens, embroiled in the Second Peloponnesian War, endured three years of epidemics that wiped out a third of its inhabitants.
  • In the 800s, smallpox wiped out a third of Japan.
  • We read about it in vivid detail, from around the year 900, in the writings of the Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi.
  • In the 1200s it killed a third of everyone in Iceland.
  • In the 1200s it killed a third of everyone in Iceland.
  • A practitioner took a scab from someone with a mild case, made an incision in the skin of a healthy person, and infected that person with the scab.
  • But in other cases, variolation worked: The person who survived it did not subsequently get smallpox.
  • An Englishwoman who saw the process in Turkey in the early 1700s brought it back to England, where it was proven to be effective.
  • Enter Edward Jenner, a physician in Berkeley, Gloucestershire.
  • In 1796, he extracted fluid from the pox on the hand of a dairymaid named Sarah Nelmes—who had caught the condition from her cow Blossom—and injected the fluid into a cut in eight-year-old James Phipps's arm.
  • In 1796, he extracted fluid from the pox on the hand of a dairymaid named Sarah Nelmes—who had caught the condition from her cow Blossom—and injected the fluid into a cut in eight-year-old James Phipps's arm.
  • In areas where Jenner's techniques were available, infections fell, and when inoculation became mandatory, they plummeted.
  • In 1958, with smallpox still killing two million people a year, the World Health Organization pledged to eradicate it.
  • In 1967 the effort was intensified.
  • Ten years later, in Somalia, the last natural case of smallpox occurred.
  • Smallpox affected the rich and the poor and it changed the course of history: It killed Queen Mary II of England in 1694, King Louis I of Spain in 1724, Emperor Peter II of Russia in 1730, and King Louis XV of France in 1774, and changed the succession to the thrones of nations a dozen more times.
  • If the smallpox and polio successes were achieved in a low-tech world, think how much more we can accomplish with vastly improved tools, infrastructure, and communication.
  • Third: It is always the case that diseases are eliminated first in the healthy, well-developed, rich countries, then gradually around the world.
  • If my reasoning elsewhere in this book is correct, we are moving toward a future where there will be nothing but healthy, well-developed, rich countries with modern infrastructure.
  • Expect solutions in the future to come from countries you couldn't find on a map today.
  • In the Indus Valley region, a center of early civilization located near present-day India, we have found extensive evidence of surgery, specialization, medical equipment, and even elective procedures.
  • Early Chinese civilization had an understanding of medicine at least as far back as 200 BC, as can be seen in the text Recipes for Fifty-Two Ailments, which gives remedies for conditions from snake bites to warts.
  • Hippocrates was remarkable not only as a surgeon but also because he systematized medicine in his spare time.
  • And today's primary method for treating cancer is, in a way, very tenth century: Essentially, chemotherapy is a medical way of saying, Let's fill you so full of poison either you or the cancer dies.
  • In 1543, Andreas Vesalius published On the Fabric of the Human Body, which corrected errors from antiquity and advanced the medical sciences.
  • In 1628, the first complete explanation that blood flows through the body in arteries was published.
  • In 1628, the first complete explanation that blood flows through the body in arteries was published.
  • In 1736, Claudius Aymand performed the first successful appendectomy on an eleven-year-old boy.
  • In 1747, it was discovered that lemons prevent scurvy.
  • In 1816, we got the stethoscope.
  • In 1818, a human blood transfusion.
  • At the same time in Germany, Robert Koch identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis and the one that caused cholera.
  • In 1879 a vaccine for cholera was invented.
  • In the early 1900s, we learned about blood types, vitamins, and Alzheimer's disease, and invented the electrocardiograph.
  • In the First World War, we learned to treat wounds by washing them with a germicide.
  • In 1921, a tuberculosis vaccine was developed in France.
  • In 1921, a tuberculosis vaccine was developed in France.
  • In the 1920s, we got a vaccine for diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, and tetanus.
  • In 1935, a vaccine for yellow fever was created.
  • Second, will the pace of advance increase or decrease in the future?
  • In the 1970s, we got MRIs, laser eye surgery, CT scans, and antiviral drugs.
  • The number of medical patents issued in 2010 was more than fifty thousand, an all-time record—and it almost certainly will be broken next year, then the next, and again the next.
  • The number of pharmaceutical patents issued in 2010 was also more than fifty thousand—also an all-time record, and also likely to be broken again and again in the years to come.
  • We will do much more in the next twenty years than in the preceding one hundred.
  • After that, more in five years than those twenty.
  • Then more in one year than those five.
  • I think it is likely that the answers to almost all our medical problems could be found in the data we may already be collecting.
  • Imagine they also included their genetic mapping as well as every single thing they did in their daily lives.
  • Then we see that only people in certain parts of the country are getting better.
  • The computers would then see that most people who got better bought their radishes in stores stocked from certain farms.
  • The same happenchance brought us the learning that children in schools with fluorescent lights get fewer cavities than those in schools with incandescent lighting.
  • This method will allow us to treat the entire world as a controlled experiment in retrospect.
  • So you make sure that if your population of redheads had a million people with a certain distribution of age, the distribution in your non-redhead sample is exactly the same.
  • All kinds of anomalies are in the world.
  • I can, of course, see everything in it, or if I prefer, set the system to "minimum supplements" or "maximum supplements" and let the system decide.
  • My body would be kept in perfect condition, constantly monitored and optimized—all safely because the system is built on collective memory and experience of the entire planet.
  • Why do some people keep their mental faculties so late in life?
  • In the future, we'll not only know if that is so, but why: Perhaps mental agility is a result of their extensive exposure to a chemical in pencil lead and newsprint that they got by doing all those puzzles.
  • In the future, we'll not only know if that is so, but why: Perhaps mental agility is a result of their extensive exposure to a chemical in pencil lead and newsprint that they got by doing all those puzzles.
  • In the future, we will know.
  • Once this ball gets rolling, it will speed up and, because of it, we will all wake up each morning with a little extra spring in our step and sparkle in our eye.
  • It should know what the food on my fork weighs, run a chemical analysis of every bite I take, and log it in my Digital Echo file for my future reference.
  • It would know all my food sensitivities and alert me if a single bite had these substances in it.
  • In such a world, everyone who wants to be a medical scientist can be.
  • You could begin studying something you have noticed anecdotally in your own life.
  • Are these ingredients in other foods as well?
  • You will then look to see what other factors they all have in common.
  • I am not saying the research scientist loses out to the florist in Akron, Ohio.
  • How much potential is there in millions of discoveries like that?
  • Patterns in crimes will be discovered.
  • Why do people in certain areas stay in school longer than those in other areas?
  • A record of all human activity, with anonymity safeguards in place, will allow us all to become part of the solution by putting our minds to work on the problems of the world.
  • I take great comfort in this.
  • I believe in crowdsourcing—well, crowdsourcing cubed.
  • In 1665, physicist Robert Hooke pointed a microscope at a piece of cork and noticed many small compartments he called "cells."
  • In 1902, an American named Walter Sutton noticed that chromosomes duplicated themselves before cells divided so that each new cell had a full copy of the chromosomes.
  • Then in the 1940s, another American, Oswald Avery, was able to show, through an ingenious method, that the genetic information had to be carried by the DNA.
  • In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick announced to the scientific world that they had solved the puzzle.
  • In every cell of your body except your red blood cells exists a copy of your DNA.
  • In fact, if you laid out all the DNA in your body, it would stretch from the sun to Pluto.
  • In fact, if you laid out all the DNA in your body, it would stretch from the sun to Pluto.
  • After all, we both have ten fingers, two lungs, and a tongue located in our mouth.
  • Every second, millions of cells die in your body and millions are born.
  • (With more than thirty thousand genes in your body, you can't expect them all to have cool names.)
  • While we have deciphered the genome in that we have written it all down, we aren't at all sure which parts do what, as noted before.
  • Due to genetic factors we will certainly learn about in the future, some drugs and treatments do not work on certain people.
  • In addition to knowing more about what will work, in the future we will also know more about what won't work.
  • In addition to knowing more about what will work, in the future we will also know more about what won't work.
  • When we think of decoding the genome, we typically think in terms of the human genome.
  • And as we have seen, understanding how we are made is certainly a huge advantage in our battle with disease.
  • Additionally, we will at some point in the not-too-distant future have enough biological understanding of the genome and enough computer horsepower to model complex interactions in the body.
  • It boggles the mind, especially when you consider that this science is in its infancy.
  • And in a coming section on robotics, we will discuss the molecular machines called nanites—tiny, molecular-sized robots that will swim around in your body fighting disease, repairing damage, and alerting you to problems (and will likely dramatically increase the human lifespan).
  • Now let's look at how the Internet will help end disease in a more traditional, suit-and-tie kind of way.
  • If you were a scientist in Jenner's time, your only form of communication was letter writing.
  • And yet, in that world, scientific breakthroughs happened.
  • If you were a scientist in Pasteur's time, you had more resources.
  • You need to have a basic understanding of how things work in biology.
  • If you were a scientist in Salk's time, you did calculations by hand and wrote observations in notebooks.
  • You still worked almost exclusively with people in your lab or at least in your city.
  • Today, an astonishing 77 percent of the people in the world have mobile devices and thus access to all kinds of better care via telemedicine.
  • As access becomes cheaper and better, and the whole world has mobile phones, more information can be delivered to people in remote parts of the world.
  • Third, pretty much everything we know is published on the Internet and can be found in moments, if not seconds.
  • Teams of scientists in different parts of the world can collaborate virtually.
  • It is said that in ancient China, doctors were paid when their patients were well.
  • In fact, if you stayed sick long enough in that culture, the doctor had to pay you!
  • In fact, if you stayed sick long enough in that culture, the doctor had to pay you!
  • Biomedical gerontologist Aubrey de Grey maintains that aging is caused by seven underlying factors, each of which can, in theory, be countered.
  • In any event, this much is certain: We will see medical advances in the future that seem impossible today.
  • In any event, this much is certain: We will see medical advances in the future that seem impossible today.
  • And it really is composed of two separate components that need to be understood in their own right.
  • When you trade with someone in a free market, you are giving up something you have for something the other person has, which you value more.
  • The first is that we all value things differently, such as in our jelly bean example.
  • If you are in a desert dying of thirst, you value the first glass of water very highly, the second glass a bit less, and the 802nd not at all.
  • So when people have excess goods, they are able to trade those goods away for things they want and suffer less of a decrease in utility than the amount they are increasing in their trading partners.
  • Everyone wins in trade, because goods are reallocated in a way that increases utility to all parties involved.
  • It already has increased both substantially and will do so dramatically more in the coming years.
  • The ability to instantly and, for a very low cost, reliably transfer money to anyone on the planet is a key ingredient in increasing the amount of trade that occurs online.
  • We have seen this happen already, and it will get substantially better in the near future.
  • Imagine if everyone frequently disputed charges: "I never got my order!" or "It wasn't what they promised it would be!" or "Yeah, I got a box in the mail, but it was full of rocks."
  • This works toward maximizing the utility that item can bring to someone. eBay is not alone in this regard.
  • The Internet solves for this in a way no library ever could. 7.
  • This is unprecedented in the history of commerce and could not be done without the Internet. 9.
  • The pay per click (PPC) business is a way to advertise online to people who did a specific search in a search engine like Google or who are viewing content on a certain topic.
  • In the past, when most media was mass media, it was essential to create products with mass appeal.
  • The other is division of labor, worth discussing in some detail as it is an almost miraculous process.
  • Not in one hundred lifetimes could I make a car.
  • I could not in one hundred lifetimes make a working electric lamp, even knowing what I know now.
  • In 1958, an American economist named Leonard Read wrote an essay called "I, Pencil," written from the pencil's point of view, about how no one on the planet knows how to make a pencil.
  • When a person learns to do one job and specializes in that one job, she gets really good at it.
  • But if each of ten people specialized on just one-tenth of the task, they could together make 48,000, an increase in per-person productivity from one pin a day to 4,800 pins per day.
  • And in this efficiency that is generated by specialization, wealth is created.
  • Technology is simply the combining of other economic products in new ways.
  • This increase in utility is the same as generating wealth.
  • Given perfect information, frictionless markets, and other theoretical impossibilities, a finite amount of utility can be achieved in that way.
  • Technological advance, however, is not limited in that way.
  • It may have some limit in theory, because there is an optimal arrangement of atoms in the universe; but for practical purposes, it has no limit.
  • But for now, I want to leave you with a preposterous thought: In the future, a new Mercedes Benz will cost just $50.
  • Economically, we understand the world around us in terms of scarcity.
  • Most things come in a limited supply, so some people have a thing and others do not.
  • As my professors told me the first day I started studying economics in college (and never tired of repeating), scarcity is the central underlying assumption of all economic theory.
  • The notion of scarcity is so ingrained in us and so permeates the world today, it is difficult to imagine a world without it.
  • But in many areas, scarcity is so profound it has huge societal impact.
  • But think about how it could play out: If energy truly were free and unlimited, you could, for instance, power tractors everywhere in the world.
  • Vastly more energy than we need pours down on this planet in the form of sunlight.
  • The wind in the upper atmosphere has extraordinary amounts of energy.
  • Consider what the eminent physicist Freeman Dyson suggests in The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet:
  • A few such trees in the backyard behind your condo, cabin, or yurt would be enough to satisfy your power requirements.
  • That was indeed the hope for atomic energy in that era, and it did not pan out.
  • That is what we expect to be able to do, because it is theoretically possible in a hundred different ways.
  • I don't mean that in a motivational poster kind of way but in a literal sense: Failures (and what we learn from them) will help build the energy solutions for our future.
  • And in that future, I believe the world can have—in fact, will have—plentiful, free, clean energy that will result in dramatically lower costs for everything, everywhere.
  • Those final nine words stuck in my mind: Since it might be possible, it must be possible.
  • I doubted that, as Feynman was precise in his usage of words.
  • He had died by the time I read that passage in one of his books, so I couldn't write him, as is my normal practice when an author's words puzzle me.
  • Here is what I think he meant: If you could see a theoretical possibility for something in physics—"something that might be true"—then given enough time, you eventually could achieve it in reality.
  • We have a hard time seeing this world without scarcity because we are firmly planted in the worldview of scarcity.
  • Most raw materials in the world are essentially unlimited.
  • However, locked up in ocean water—just suspended in ocean water—may be the equivalent of eight more such cubes.
  • When we talk about it in terms of scarcity, we usually mean clean water in a certain location is scarce.
  • First, many things in the physical world that we think of as scarce are not really scarce, just presently beyond our ability to capture.
  • Second, as technology advances, it will make things in the physical world fall in price.
  • (I answered, "They should get jobs at the factory that would make the lawnmowers; it would pay better.") Personal computers and the Internet have come under criticism in this regard.
  • This displacement is in no way finished; in fact, it has hardly begun.
  • We'll look at their lives, and the social aspects of this change, in a coming chapter called "Left Behind."
  • Technological advances that displace human workers are similar in effect to two other concepts with which we are very familiar in the modern age: outsourcing and free trade.
  • My purpose in this chapter will not be to persuade the reader of any political doctrine of trade; please apply your own political and social values as you see fit.
  • But in spite of the relative economic displacement they all cause, free trade, outsourcing, and technological displacement all have a positive net effect on the economics of the planet.
  • Let's consider examples of how the effect is positive for some, negative for some, but the net is a gain in the overall wealth of the system.
  • Then, make them all soak their fingers in ice water so they are numb and work even slower, creating another thirty jobs for cold-fingered, blindfolded cotton seed removers.
  • A competing company decides to make an up-front investment and build a new factory in a distant land, high in the mountains where residents who choose to live there have less economic opportunity.
  • Lowering the cost of something is an increase in efficiency and an increase in the wealth of the overall system.
  • Worker Chad lives in Chattanooga.
  • Worker Chang, located in China, is willing to do the same job, remotely, for a dollar an hour.
  • You might argue that since there is now a surplus of labor in Chad's neighborhood, the price of labor is lowered and Chad will only find work paying $9.75 an hour.
  • But even in this case, the result is still a massive overall gain in efficiency.
  • But I intend to show you how in the next chapter: Chad Gets a Better Job .
  • This is one of the few areas in which government taxation actually leads to a more efficient outcome.
  • Calculating the actual, societal costs of fatty foods, alcohol, cars, pet ownership, mercury thermometers, air conditioning, solar panels, razor blades, jogging shoes, and ten thousand other things, and incorporating those costs in the prices as taxes would lead to a vastly more efficient allocation of resources.
  • To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
  • Say you have two countries in the world.
  • The company should insure its workers because if uninsured workers end up in the ER, the burden falls on society, not the company.
  • If workers are in unsafe work environments, they are bearing a risk that has a measurable negative cost.
  • If you take something worth a dollar, spend an hour working on it, and your employer sells it for three dollars, no way in the world can you ever make more than two dollars an hour.
  • Who do you think makes more money: the one person who operates the cotton gin we discussed in the last chapter or one of the fifty people he replaced?
  • Machines could, in theory, do all kinds of jobs in the world.
  • And that brings me to my final italicized point: The most underutilized resource in the universe is human potential.
  • Many tasks in life have to be done.
  • What if machines did all the things they could in theory do?
  • No machine will ever star in a Broadway musical.
  • He is freed from being a stand-in for a machine.
  • Those things were never necessary for prosperity and even less so in the Internet age.
  • In parts of the world where these three ingredients exist, we have seen prosperity rise.
  • Conversely, in places where prosperity has not risen, lack of these ingredients plays a significant role.
  • The fact that an unprecedented number of earth's inhabitants today live in poverty is an indictment of governments, not a reflection of some underlying natural limit.
  • In fact, the poverty of some limits the wealth of all.
  • In the end, the speed at which a human operator can move has a physical limit.
  • As I have pointed out, technology may in fact have limits, but we do not know what they are.
  • All the jobs that can, in theory, be done by machines—the jobs that I think suck the life force out of people—will in fact be done by machines.
  • "Robot" is a term almost one hundred years old, created in fiction before becoming a reality.
  • (Karel Capek, an acclaimed Czech playwright, coined the word to describe the mechanized workers in his play.)
  • The word is broad in its meaning and I use it in its broadest sense, as a mechanical device built to independently perform a task.
  • Depending on function, robots can come in all shapes and sizes, and I see no compelling reason to make them like humans.
  • What we should not try to do, in my opinion, is give them human traits.
  • From Data on Star Trek and C-3PO in Star Wars to Twiggy in Buck Rogers, robots are wise-cracking sidekicks and sage philosophers reflecting on "the human condition."
  • In this regard, they are little different than talking dogs in cartoons.
  • In this regard, they are little different than talking dogs in cartoons.
  • Seeing Scooby-Doo in cartoons doesn't change our expectations of canine behavior because we have so much experience with real dogs.
  • When you imagined dogs being "invented" in the future, you would naturally imagine having conversations with them.
  • But in terms of wanting to converse with robots at an emotional level, I just don't see it.
  • No human can solder a billion transistors on a computer processor, so your computer needed a robot in order to be built.
  • Recently, my ten-year-old son and I visited the factory in Denmark where Lego building blocks are made.
  • Because nanites are so small, they require little in the way of raw materials, just a few molecules here and there.
  • And the principle at work in this technology could lead to a cure for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Clearly, what nanites will do inside our bodies in the future is almost limitless and will change medicine forever.
  • In the future, we will paint surfaces with substances full of nanites that will absorb sunlight and turn it into electricity, transforming any object we paint into a clean energy creator.
  • Frictionless coatings that never wear out in machines that last for centuries.
  • Or how about nanites that process each piece of trash in our garbage and turn it into something useful?
  • I branched off into this discussion of robots and nanites to give an idea of the kinds of massive gains in efficiency with declining costs.
  • Let that sink in: By dividing work up among people so they could specialize, we went from bows and arrows to Apollo moon missions.
  • Robots can work without ceasing in environments where the temperature is a thousand degrees.
  • In the past, we simply had division of labor among people.
  • Oh, and they change color if they detect structural weakness in the material to which they are affixed.
  • The pace of advancement in the field of robotics and nanotechnology roughly doubles every couple of years.
  • The report also cited a mid-1950s report that found 85 percent of economic growth was attributed to technological change in the period 1890 to 1950.
  • Taken together, those findings suggest that almost all economic growth in the last 120-plus years was from technology.
  • We still have a thousandfold increase in productivity before us.
  • When I was thirteen in 1981, I got a Commodore VIC-20 computer.
  • So I saw, in real dollars, the cost of computer memory fall to one one-millionth of what it was thirty years ago.
  • I remember that in 1993 I needed a big hard drive at work and got a 1GB drive.
  • That's probably like $50 in 1993 dollars.
  • So a thousandfold increase in capacity at one-fortieth the cost is like the $50,000 Mercedes dropping to a buck and a quarter.
  • If the labor to build the Mercedes becomes completely robotic and computerized, then why won't we see that same increase in efficiency?
  • That could be true, but I don't think so, for reasons laid out in the chapter on scarcity.
  • I think no matter what, energy costs will fall dramatically in the future, probably to near zero, because the economic incentives to unlock that technical puzzle are so overwhelming.
  • In the past two centuries with very little technology, we've come from whale oil and wood to solar and nuclear.
  • Imagine what we can do in the future with a thousand times more technological advancement.
  • I think we will see commodity prices plummet in the coming years.
  • Technical breakthroughs in the future will come very rapidly, each one used to increase quality and lower costs in order to compete in an ever more competitive marketplace.
  • Technical workarounds will prevent technical monopolies in the future.
  • Innovating will become table stakes just to stay in business, and innovation will be used to lower prices, not to increase them.
  • So, will we get a thousandfold increase in other areas?
  • I think in the future, food will be free.
  • (If you can reserve judgment on that statement, I'll explain my reasoning in the book's next section.)
  • When computers are in your clothes, medicine, eyeglasses, wallet, tires, walls, makeup, jewelry, cookware, tennis shoes, binoculars, and everything else you own, those things will do more than you can imagine—the stuff of science fiction.
  • Imagine when a five-cent computer in your shoe warns you that the way you are walking will lead to spine problems.
  • And each of these items will fall in price.
  • Consider the pan you most often cook in today.
  • So whether you are rich or poor in the future, you will own this pan and get this benefit.
  • It will know everyone who is supposed to be in the house and alert you when someone else is in the house (replacing the family dog of old in whom we never fully placed our trust).
  • Your home will be your castle, and in your castle you will be secure.
  • The house will know where everything in it is; you will never again lose your keys or your child's favorite stuffed animal.
  • Its walls will be moveable by a professional, so it can be redesigned in a day.
  • As I observed a few pages ago in "Let Robots Be Robots," an intelligent system like this won't be creepy because we do not want it to be creepy.
  • I would love to write more and more about this topic, about how things will get better and cheaper in the future.
  • In the future, the price of some things won't go down as much, if at all.
  • Vacationing should fall in price but requires much direct labor, so it will not fall by a thousandfold.
  • Look how far we have come in creating prosperity with almost no technology for so long.
  • Then, think about how far we have come in the last fifty years.
  • Try to think of the advances we have seen so far in history as the very tip of the iceberg, a hint of what is possible, not even being within sight of what is possible.
  • That brings us back to the thousandfold increase in wealth, which the world will soon experience.
  • My guess of the thousandfold increase in wealth is just that, a guess.
  • But let's say only 10 percent of industries will experience this thousandfold increase in productivity.
  • On balance, this will be a hundredfold increase in productivity.
  • That can best be understood by studying wealth and poverty in history.
  • The overall economic output of the planet, GWP (gross world product), will rise dramatically in the years to come, but its distribution will be quite skewed.
  • A poor person with a six-year-old car today has more wealth than a poor person with a six-year-old car did back in 1911, for the simple reason that cars are so much better now.
  • But this is merely a footnote, an asterisk in the record book of humanity.
  • Given that inequalities in income are likely to grow, how I can I contend that we will see an end of poverty?
  • In Beverly Hills, your poor neighbor might be one who had to buy the 14K-gold back scratcher instead of the diamond-encrusted platinum one everyone else is buying.
  • My relative definition of poverty is "the state of being unable to reliably purchase a bundle of goods that allow one to participate in the economic norms of one's society."
  • But the relative definition certainly kicks in here.
  • In 2009, in the United States of America, the poverty threshold for a single person under sixty-five was about $11,000 a year; the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was about $22,000 a year.
  • In 2009, in the United States of America, the poverty threshold for a single person under sixty-five was about $11,000 a year; the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was about $22,000 a year.
  • Think about that: Poverty in the United States is defined as higher than the average income of the planet.
  • When the poor see people like themselves (in terms of race, religion, age, gender, etc.) getting ahead, they buy into the legitimacy of the system more. 5.
  • In one understanding of economic history, the rich get ahead, and the gap between them and the poor widens.
  • Creditors loan out money worth a lot, only to be repaid in money worth less.
  • It happened in the United States as recently as the 1970s.
  • That meant for every pound someone made, he owed more than a pound in taxes.
  • Families who owned great houses were able to keep them if they opened them to the public, acted as guides, and only lived in a small part of them.
  • In no case did these methods and efforts secure a long-term solution to poverty.
  • In its most basic form (which I'll discuss here for simplification's sake), it is a guarantee of a minimum income above the poverty line for every citizen.
  • We have surmised the future widening of the gap between the rich and poor, and looked at how that has played out in history.
  • We have looked at factors that increase animosity between the rich and poor and situations in which they can live harmoniously.
  • This usually comes in the form of protecting their citizenry from crime.
  • They coin money in honest and accurate measures and allow this money to trade freely on open markets.
  • Didn't Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, believe the Constitution should be rewritten every twenty years so that no one was governed by a document they had no say in creating?
  • In a heated moment the phrase "jack-booted thug" slips out, and it is all downhill from there.
  • As national income increases in a given country, the size of government as a portion of gross national product (GNP) rises and the range of services people expect the government to offer rises.
  • Then, as a nation grows wealthier, tax rates could fall in terms of percentages because the nation is making so much more money.
  • Whether you look at a single country over a span of time, or a group of countries at a specific point in history, the result is the same.
  • Roughly speaking, if you look at the poorest forty nations in the world, who have an average income per person of about $1,500 a year, their effective tax rates are about 20 percent.
  • In other words, the government taxes and spends about $300 per person per year.
  • That is all the government needs to tax to bring in the $300 per person per year.
  • In fact, we don't simply buy more government, but we give it a disproportionate amount of our increased income.
  • It is safe to say that more than a majority of people in rich nations feel this way.
  • The tax rates when the "conservatives" are in power are very little different than when the "liberals" are in power.
  • Historically, and one can certainly make the case in the present time, this ultimately bankrupts societies.
  • After the death of Gracchus, a conservative government under Sulla withdrew the subsidy, but shortly afterward, in a period of great unrest, restored it, and two hundred thousand persons stood in line.
  • In 58 BC, Clodius Pulcher ran on a "free grain for the poor" platform as he tried to become tribune.
  • He worked to apply a means test, pared the rolls back, then died; the rolls swelled again, and his successor again tried to bring them in line, but it was hard.
  • We've seen this: If you are running for president of the United States, merely using the words "freeze" and "Social Security" in the same sentence has the retirees of the nation heating up pots of tar and emptying their down pillows.
  • But the big question is whether these same economics would apply in a world one hundred times richer than we are right now.
  • So, how much in taxes would you be willing to pay?
  • But think of it this way: Before, you made $33,000 and paid 40 percent in taxes, so you were left with $20,000 in take-home pay.
  • After your raise, you made $1 million, paid $600,000 in taxes, and were left with $400,000—twenty times more after-tax income.
  • Now, let me pose a different question: In the vastly-more-prosperous future, what will "working hard for our money" even mean?
  • We understand that you can, in theory, save and save and save and then live off the interest of your savings forever.
  • In fact, your children, their children, and their children forever could live off that interest.
  • Some stocks reliably pay dividends, portions of a corporation's profits paid out in cash to its shareholders.
  • In fact, you have no other income.
  • They used that money to buy part of Coca Cola in the form of common stock.
  • Now, consider the Alaska Permanent Fund, a fund established in 1976 where a portion of the revenue from the sale of oil from Alaska's public lands is deposited.
  • The people in Alaska who get the checks don't work for them.
  • They aren't responsible for the oil being in Alaska and do nothing to extract the oil from the earth.
  • I describe these three situations because each, in its own way, illustrates how I think the future will play out regarding income and wealth.
  • I think that incomes will rise dramatically to many times what they presently are, in real dollars.
  • In other words, the average person will make more money, pay a higher percentage as taxes, but still bring home vastly more than before.
  • In a world where only one tool is invented, a hoe, there will be no billionaires.
  • In a world of economic superabundance, people will no longer tolerate poverty.
  • In that world, everyone will be guaranteed a minimum income.
  • Some become so wealthy, in fact, they can live off the interest (the productivity) of their assets, not just their own labor.
  • In a world without abundance, socialism removes the one reliable creator of abundance—the individual profit motive—and that results in a lower standard of living for everyone.
  • In a world without abundance, socialism removes the one reliable creator of abundance—the individual profit motive—and that results in a lower standard of living for everyone.
  • But in a world without scarcity, socialism can't even exist.
  • In a world without scarcity, or that has scarcity at such a trivial level it is hardly noticeable, all the conventional theories and dogmas lose their meaning.
  • We will know it is coming when formerly scarce items, such as commodities, fall in price.
  • As we start heading toward this world without want, there will be sizable disruptions in the normal fabric of life.
  • When I talk about this future, a future in which machines will do more and more of the work people do now, I always get some variant of the same question: What about the people who lose their jobs to machines and don't have any other skills?
  • Simply because only so many jobs can, in theory, be replaced by machines does not imply anything about the ability of the people now doing them.
  • As I've said earlier, the most underutilized resource in the universe is human potential.
  • Pretend there is a spectrum of jobs from the best in the world down to the worst and everyone agrees on the order.
  • But in describing that job spectrum, I never said anything about his absolute ability—I said only that he was at the bottom of the list relative to others.
  • In the agricultural economy, virtually everyone was a farmer.
  • Working in a factory required learning a whole different rhythm of life.
  • And yet, we know of no cases of mass "left behind-ness," of people unable to learn how to function in this environment.
  • So these former farmers got jobs in factories, learned to repair equipment, solved problems, became line managers, suggested improvements to processes, and got paid for their effort.
  • Thousands and thousands of women were switchboard operators before direct dial phones were in use.
  • Today we are on the cusp of a substantially more profound shift in work life.
  • We still have people in boring, dead-end jobs only because we haven't built a machine to do the work.
  • As I've already said, I believe we will be experiencing so much prosperity in the not-too-distant future that no one will have to work.
  • In the prosperous future, one group of people will rise to this challenge.
  • In this world, humans have grown fat, stopped walking, and fill their days with non-stop entertainment and food.
  • When those are the paths people choose between in the future—a Star Trek path or a WALL·E path—some will choose one and some will choose the other.
  • Imagine if all the people with boring, dead-end machine jobs were told they never had to work another day in their life at a job they did not like.
  • In a few years, the money is gone and they are worse off than before.
  • People in these jobs know two states: working, which they do not enjoy, and relaxation, which is far better.
  • But as we grew up, reality set in that market forces did not allow those activities to pay enough to support us, so at some point we all figured out we had to "earn a living."
  • In fact, let's say his own mother considered donating the portrait he painted of her to Goodwill but decided not to because "the poor have enough problems already."
  • In the future, all people will be able to follow their passions without regard for market forces.
  • Imagine you live in a large trailer park and you have four young children.
  • Everyone you know lives in the trailer park and they all have about the same level of income.
  • Nobody is particularly snooty in this world, right?
  • One day, a tornado comes, lifts up your trailer with everyone in it, flies it around the world to the poorest nation on earth, and drops it in the middle of the village.
  • Now all of a sudden your children are raised in what seems to everyone to be the lap of luxury.
  • Everyone wants to come in and enjoy your AC and play on your Wii.
  • I base that expectation in part on the fact that today, many of us already live in more comfort than the richest king in the world did two hundred years ago.
  • Plus, we have powers formerly attributed to the ancient gods; we can fly, talk to people in other places, and see what is happening elsewhere.
  • In my experience, people who challenge themselves and strive for goals are happier and healthier than those who don't.
  • It is contagious and would be even in a uniformly wealthy world.
  • And in that world, no one is left behind.
  • Citizens in these countries are grateful for any job that pays anything at all, and their primary concern is simply survival.
  • We live in a place and time where we own thousands of things we could not have made.
  • As technology enters its explosive period of growth, with the Internet and associated technologies flourishing in a Moore's-Law-like manner, it will create immense amounts of wealth.
  • I know of no case in history that says otherwise.
  • By comparison, if a country has 99 percent of the people working in agriculture—if it is barely feeding itself, even with everyone working at that—then it is living at a subsistence level, the very definition of poverty.
  • In the modern age of communication and cheap transportation, food can be moved around the planet relatively easily.
  • This would be the case in a besieged city or a nation using the food supply to keep its citizenry in check.
  • In other words, food is present, but some cannot afford it.
  • This kind of hunger is common and generally is what has triggered food riots, now and in the past.
  • After touring the United States for more than nine months in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville returned to his native France and penned the two-volume Democracy in America.
  • He writes how in Europe when there is a problem, people turn to the government to solve it, but in America, they form what he calls "voluntary associations"—what we might term charities and nonprofits.
  • No government is involved in these organizations, which are instead driven by a combination of religious and civic motives.
  • Instead of piety being expressed simply in a multitude of unrelated individual acts, it expressed itself in group action.
  • In a speech to the House of Representatives at this same time, Congressman Davy Crockett told the story of getting chewed out by a constituent for voting for a $20,000 emergency relief bill for the homeless in a city just wiped out by a fire.
  • In a speech to the House of Representatives at this same time, Congressman Davy Crockett told the story of getting chewed out by a constituent for voting for a $20,000 emergency relief bill for the homeless in a city just wiped out by a fire.
  • This all began to change in the twentieth century for a variety of reasons.
  • Much change was due to the efforts of William Jennings Bryan, who received the Democratic Party nomination for president three times, in 1896, 1900, and 1908.
  • Penalty for vagrancy rose over the years from time served in stocks, to whipping, to branding, and then to death.
  • The system had an office, Overseer of the Poor, in each of 1,500 parishes.
  • This abuse resulted in an overhaul of the system that sought to tie the poor to their original parish.
  • The system was revised in the 1830s because it was viewed as discouraging work by interfering with the laws of supply and demand relating to labor.
  • The theory was that life in the workhouse had to be worse than life outside the workhouse, otherwise it would be overrun with the poor.
  • That notwithstanding, de Tocqueville's "voluntary associations" are still alive and well in the United States.
  • According to the National Center for Charitable Statistics, more than 1.5 million 501(c) charitable organizations exist in the United States.
  • In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
  • In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
  • Rarely in history has a government wrested away a functioning, privately funded solution in favor of a government entitlement.
  • In other words, civil government steps in to take over roles traditionally provided by private charity only when charities no longer provide the service.
  • In other words, civil government steps in to take over roles traditionally provided by private charity only when charities no longer provide the service.
  • In any case, as the song says, The times, they are a-changin'—and they are changing in a manner that governments probably can't keep up with.
  • In any case, as the song says, The times, they are a-changin'—and they are changing in a manner that governments probably can't keep up with.
  • It is a shame that de Tocqueville's voluntary associations aren't more prominent around the world today—but in the future, they may be.
  • In discussing nutrition, not only is there little agreement on the nature of the solutions, there is often disagreement on the nature of the problems.
  • Why is civility so lacking in discussions about food, nutrition, and food policy?
  • Why are people so quick to vilify those on the "other side" of the issue—and why do we even think in terms of sides?
  • If this chapter angers the Right and Left, the Greens and Browns, the capitalists and socialists, the nutritionists and farmers, I apologize to all in advance.
  • In addition, how food affects us unquestionably has a lot to do with genetic factors, and because everyone has a different genetic makeup, different foods affect each of us differently.
  • And finally, consider how nutrition affects other relative and subjective factors in our lives such as energy level and mood.
  • First, it is only useful for factors that are immediately bad for you, not factors that will kill you in ten years.
  • And second, people are really bad at connecting cause and effect in their lives when it comes to things like this.
  • In other words, you might not notice the time you ate the MSG and didn't get the headache.
  • Or, we gravitate toward anecdotes like, "I take my vitamin C every day and haven't had a cold in year."
  • In areas of uncertainty, we form our opinions on the basis of assumptions in other parts of our life.
  • In areas of uncertainty, we form our opinions on the basis of assumptions in other parts of our life.
  • The subtle interplay of everything involved in nutrition is vastly more complex than our minds are able to handle.
  • So our ability to find cause and effect in that—and to really discern fact from fallacy, what's good from what's bad for us—is highly suspect.
  • In the future, massive new amounts of information will begin to resolve the debate, instead of just adding noise to it as too often occurs today.
  • And because agriculture is a technology, subject to technological advance, advances in agriculture will quicken and multiply, leading to improved nutrition and decreased hunger and famine.
  • But in the future when we have more and better information, if it turns out that some of these methods are not net gains, we will know that and look elsewhere for solutions.
  • That's a quarter of all the hungry people in the world.
  • In fact, China produces more food than any other country in the world, triple the amount the United States produces.
  • In fact, China produces more food than any other country in the world, triple the amount the United States produces.
  • More than half the hungry people in the world live in just these three nations—nations that are all net food exporters.
  • Well, in the developed world, the percent of people needed to farm fell from more than 90 percent to today's 4 percent.
  • It is most unlikely that this process of improvement will not continue in the future.
  • And he even projects that if farmers followed his plan, it is quite conceivable that in 2050 there will be nine billion people feeding more comfortably than today off a smaller acreage of cropland, releasing large tracts of land for nature reserves.
  • We all understand intuitively there is plenty of food in the world.
  • And that fact is driven home by its generally low price in most locations.
  • Now the number is in the single digits.
  • And that is paying full retail prices in an air-conditioned Western supermarket; by the ton, this food costs much less.
  • At one point, Tiger Woods got a dime for every box of Wheaties cereal with his photo on it, while the farmer was paid only a nickel for the wheat in that same box—and the farmer still made a profit.
  • After all, China grows more than three times the amount of food we do in the United States, with less land under cultivation.
  • To me, this makes the problem of hunger that much sadder in the present—to realize that the planet has enough food, just not enough generosity.
  • But in a real sense, it also makes the problem that much easier to solve in the future.
  • So, why is there hunger in the world today?
  • In part, for the following reasons:
  • In the lean years, harvests are small and farmers sometimes don't even produce enough to have surplus to sell.
  • In the fat years, agricultural prices are pushed downward by the abundance, often below the cost of harvesting and transporting the crops.
  • They need markets to sell goods in and stable currencies.
  • All of these are sorely lacking in areas where hunger is most prevalent.
  • Instead, the poorest nations should simply resign themselves to importing their food from abroad and instead get jobs working in cities in factories.
  • In essence, they would become like Japan, which exports essentially no food, imports US$44 billion in food annually, but still enjoys a high standard of living.
  • In essence, they would become like Japan, which exports essentially no food, imports US$44 billion in food annually, but still enjoys a high standard of living.
  • Others say poor nations need to develop free markets in agriculture and strongly discourage government intervention.
  • Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.
  • If poor nations decide to pursue what I will call the Japan strategy, importing all their food and developing other industry, then they become huge fans of farm subsidies in other countries.
  • In that case, the subsidy goes straight from the taxpayer in the other country to the purchaser of the subsidized crop.
  • In that case, the subsidy goes straight from the taxpayer in the other country to the purchaser of the subsidized crop.
  • If, on the other hand, they want self-sufficiency in agriculture, then farm subsidies in other countries are bad for them.
  • In that case, they have to compete with rich, high-tech, government-subsidized industries.
  • As nice as it would be for the Japan strategy to work in the developing world, I don't think these countries can count on it.
  • Heck, even Japan only recently allowed imports of rice and taxes the imports at 500 percent in order to protect their rice farmers.
  • In societies where a large percentage of income is necessary just to buy food, having volatile food prices will mean hunger sooner or later, no matter how good the factory jobs are.
  • During the Great Depression in the United States, many unemployed Americans simply left the city and went back to farm life, sometimes living with relatives.
  • When few people own land and most people live in cities, it is quite common to have high degrees of hunger in a nation that is exporting food.
  • This is basically the situation in many of earth's chronically hungry countries.
  • Those are only some of the most significant factors contributing to hunger in the world today.
  • Indigenous animals are not well-suited to be domesticated and assist in farming.
  • While agriculture itself is a technology, it is, in its most basic form, extremely low tech.
  • I push the seed in the ground, water it, and wonder why nothing grew.
  • If you look back across the span of time, you see wood plows being used in 4000 BC, then irrigation five hundred years later.
  • An iron plow comes three thousand years later in 500 BC, along with intensive row cultivation.
  • In the early 1800s, fertilizer companies sprang up using bone meal as the principle agent.
  • First are the inefficiencies in the natural processes of agriculture.
  • Second are the inefficiencies in the human processes—that is, the techniques by which we practice agriculture.
  • To consider the great opportunity we can find in these inefficiencies, let's begin by talking about Norman Borlaug.
  • Norman was born in 1914 in Cresco, Iowa.
  • Over the CCC's nine-year life, its workers planted nearly three billion trees, built eight hundred parks, and constructed roads in remote areas.
  • While in college, Borlaug heard a lecture by Elvin Stakman about plant disease in wheat, barley, and oak crops.
  • This speech was a pivotal event in Borlaug's life.
  • This Cooperative Wheat Research Production Program, in which Borlaug took part, aimed to boost Mexican wheat production.
  • In the first ten years of attempting to make better hybrids, Borlaug's group made more than six thousand crossings of wheat.
  • Borlaug also promoted the process (which proved wildly successful) of having two wheat-growing seasons in Mexico, one in the highlands, then another in the valley regions.
  • In 1953, he developed a method to make strains of wheat highly resistant to a single form of rust.
  • In 1962, some of them were grown in India, and based on the results, Borlaug was invited to India.
  • In 1962, some of them were grown in India, and based on the results, Borlaug was invited to India.
  • Although there was cultural opposition in India to Borlaug's methods and seeds, the famine was so bad by 1965 that the government stepped in and urged the project forward.
  • Government buildings were converted into silos to hold the abundance, as other countries in the region placed orders for massive amounts of these seeds.
  • This was a guy from a small town in Iowa who failed his 1933 entrance exam to the University of Minnesota.
  • By the time Norman Borlaug passed away in 2009 at the age of ninety-five, he had become one of only six people to have won the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Congressional Gold Medal.
  • He had no way to collaborate with scientists in other places, no Internet, and no library.
  • All he could do was cross strains of wheat, much in the same fashion as Gregor Mendel did in the 1800s.
  • From our point of view, the job of the plant is to convert sunlight into energy and store that energy in a tasty way; then when we eat the plant, we get that energy.
  • To deal in generalities, plants capture, on average, about 5 percent of the solar energy that falls on their leaves.
  • And solar cells presently being developed in laboratories are doing several times better than the plants.
  • Additionally, of the energy the plant absorbs, it only stores one tenth of it in the potato or bean or whatever part we eat.
  • We stick a bunch of seeds in the ground and then treat a thousand acres of corn pretty much as a single unit.
  • In any case, he found something else interesting.
  • To describe ending hunger in the future, I have only these tarnished terms of the present at my disposal.
  • They are alike in name only, in that they are both factories—but they are completely different.
  • Because the most efficient farms in the world are those that operate at vast scale.
  • Only the decision making is left to the farmer—but in the near future, the decision making will be done better by computers.
  • Sensors can constantly monitor moisture levels in the soil, the size and color of the plants, air quality, nutrient levels in the soil, amount of sunlight, and hundreds of other variables.
  • By one estimate in 1820, 70 percent of Americans farmed.
  • There were more people farming in the United States in 1820 than there are today.
  • In the future, that will be easy.
  • Until I was ten years old, my family lived in rural east Texas.
  • Additionally, we had a five-acre garden where we grew everything you can grow in East Texas.
  • Today, I have a vegetable garden in my backyard.
  • Additionally, I am quite interested in the history of food.
  • In fact, they will make food even greater.
  • At present, they win hands down on "less expensive" and put in a decent showing on a couple more factors.
  • Both of these are hugely important parts of life, and I know of no one who would trade them away for a pill they swallow in the morning that gives them all their nutrition for the day.
  • And greener (in the environmental way, not the color way).
  • Do you really know what is in a hotdog, or are you sure you want to?
  • First, the technology can be abused and used irresponsibly, like pretty much every other technology in the world.
  • Other businesses in the food industry—say those pricey health foods you see at fancy grocery stores—optimize for taste and nutrition at the expense of price.
  • In a recent survey, only a quarter of Americans answered that question with a "yes."
  • Yet in reality, virtually everyone has.
  • The majority of processed food sold in the United States contains GMO.
  • In 1961 in Perthshire, Scotland, a white barn cat named Susie was found at a farm.
  • In 1961 in Perthshire, Scotland, a white barn cat named Susie was found at a farm.
  • Susie's ears had an unusual fold in the middle so they basically pointed downward.
  • A neighboring farmer and cat-lover, William Ross, perhaps hearing a distinct "ka-ching" in his head, got one of the kittens and teamed up with a geneticist and began a careful breeding program.
  • The fold in the ears was caused by a heritable, dominant, mutated gene.
  • All manner of breeds of dogs, cats, cows, and horses are bred in similar ways.
  • Thus we had genetic modifications in plants that could have occurred in nature but probably wouldn't have.
  • But sometimes it was like lightning in a bottle, and magic happened.
  • Half the rice grown in California is a descendant of Calrose 76, created when gamma rays mutated some regular rice and the resulting mutant produced more grain and less spoilage.
  • This change could have occurred in nature; given enough monkeys and typewriters, it would eventually occur in nature.
  • But again, this could happen in nature, so it is hard to see how we can object to this.
  • This couldn't happen in nature (or, more precisely, could in theory, but is extremely unlikely).
  • Where transgenesis offers the most amazing possibilities is in GM foods because it allows plants to exceed their maximum genetic potential.
  • It affects more than one hundred million people in a hundred countries, kills more than a million people a year, and blinds another half million for good measure.
  • VAD occurs mostly in Africa and South East Asia where rice is the staple food.
  • In 2005, rice became the first crop plant whose complete genome had been compiled.
  • In 2005, a biotech firm called Syngenta produced a similar rice it called "Golden Rice 2."
  • In Africa, most genetically engineered crops that could grow well there are not welcome.
  • In much of Europe, because of deep fear and suspicion of GMO crops, their importation is forbidden.
  • This is especially unfortunate because a major crop in Africa, grain sorghum, has a somewhat indigestible protein which our bodies have a hard time metabolizing.
  • This is exactly the kind of problem geneticists can sink their teeth into, so to speak, to make the protein in this grain digestible.
  • In late 2009, the entire genome of corn was decoded.
  • The corn genome data is free for anyone to download at maizesequence.org, in case you are bored some Sunday afternoon and want to see how to make corn.
  • In any case, it seems better to me than irradiating corn, planting it, and hoping to hit a jackpot.
  • In any case, there are other ways to use genetic modification to get energy.
  • They should be advocating that genetically modified crops be created not because it would result in better looking strawberries, but because GM crops don't require fertilizer or pesticides.
  • In 2006, a pig was genetically engineered to produce healthy omega-3 fatty acids.
  • For environmentalist organizations like Greenpeace to be against GMO in all its forms under all conditions does nothing at all to serve them or the constituencies they purport to represent.
  • By taking this "Absolutely no GMOs" stance they completely remove themselves from the debate and as such have no voice in the discussion about what direction to take GM: what are safe testing practices, what factors will we optimize for, and the whole host of questions that face us on this, the eve of a momentous leap forward.
  • How about flowers that bloom in different colors when they are on top of land mines?
  • The massive amounts of information in these decoded genomes can only be processed by computers.
  • We can't run sixty miles in an hour, so we make cars.
  • As noted previously, in the future much of what you do will leave a Digital Echo, a record of its occurrence, down to the very minutia of your life.
  • Part of this will be enabled by very cheap sensors embedded in the things you use.
  • If this sounds absurd, at present it is—but in the future, the price of technologies to do this will fall to nearly zero.
  • Precision agriculture involves collecting massive amounts of data, more than any human can process, and applying various algorithms, self-teaching in nature, to achieve optimum outcomes.
  • And advances in drip irrigation, which itself isn't exactly new but is becoming far more widespread and ever more efficient, allows crops to be grown with massively less water.
  • In the not too distant future, tiny robots will detect pests on produce and emit a signal to shoo them away.
  • In the future, each plant will be on the Internet.
  • The price of such hardware is in free fall.
  • This has been a common situation throughout areas with high degrees of poverty and is certainly the case in Ethiopia.
  • Eleni is CEO of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange, which works like this: Farmers in Ethiopia bring their crops to any of two hundred market centers around the country.
  • There they can see the world commodity prices for their produce in real time.
  • Their produce is checked in to the warehouse and each farmer is issued a certificate corresponding to the amount of produce he brought.
  • It can sell produce abroad for better rates, give farmers predictability in pricing and flexibility on when to sell, and act as a storehouse against lean times in the future.
  • The United Nations World Food Programme was so inspired by this success that pilot programs for an exchange were launched in twenty-one countries.
  • The principle here is to agree to buy a certain amount of a commodity at a certain price from farmers in these countries.
  • The farmers, with these contracts in hand, can plant aggressively knowing they have a ready buyer at a fixed price.
  • The access to information that mobile phones are bringing virtually everywhere on the planet is helping people raise their standard of living and will do so even more dramatically in the years to come.
  • According to the Center for Systemic Peace's tally, the world went from just twenty democracies in 1946 to ninety-two in 2009.
  • Grass roots efforts to assist people in need.
  • With the help of local agencies around the world that have experience in micro-loans, a would-be borrower—say, a fish seller in the Philippines—uploads a picture and an explanation of what she wants the loan for.
  • If you decide to participate in the loan, you can kick in $25 or more.
  • Since its founding in 2005, Kiva has loaned out nearly a quarter of a billion dollars and is repaid almost 99 percent of the time.
  • All that we have explored in this section—rising incomes, advances in nutrition and genomics, innovations in agricultural technologies—will eventually end hunger.
  • But in the meantime, hunger will stay with us even in the world of plenty.
  • It was his view that "the attainment of human rights in the fullest sense cannot be achieved so long as hundreds of millions of poverty-stricken people lack the basic necessities for life."
  • What would we say to Borlaug if we met him in a cornfield and ended up discussing the world's problems over a beer somewhere?
  • That is, agree in principle but decline any personal accountability.
  • It would be a colossal mistake to assume some sort of collectivist or communistic solution to hunger in the world.
  • According to Yang Jisheng, who wrote the definitive book on The Great Famine, In Xinyang, people starved at the doors of the grain warehouses.
  • As people were dying in large numbers around them, officials did not think to save them.
  • Yang also quotes Mao as saying in a 1959 meeting, When there is not enough to eat, people starve to death.
  • Consider, also, the case in Cambodia under Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.
  • And if that were not enough, he killed by starvation in the name of a program called—I kid you not—"The Super Great Leap Forward."
  • Everywhere you go in the United States are water fountains.
  • I don't recall ever being in a department store, drinking from the water fountain, and having the staff look at me disapprovingly because I was running up the water bill.
  • Roosevelt went on to outline what he believed would be in this Second Bill of Rights: food, medicine, shelter, and so on.
  • In using the phrase, "Necessitous men are not free men," Roosevelt was actually quoting from a decision in a well-known 1762 English legal case.
  • In using the phrase, "Necessitous men are not free men," Roosevelt was actually quoting from a decision in a well-known 1762 English legal case.
  • The Communist system eschewed political liberties in favor of economic ones.
  • The individual had no liberties, or at least very few, but in exchange was, in theory, entitled to certain economic rights.
  • In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.
  • But what if everyone in the nation, rich and poor, were to be mailed a $2,000 food card annually, redeemable at the grocery store for any of several hundred nutritious foods?
  • You will have ended hunger in the United States.
  • In the United States, de Tocqueville's voluntary associations still do the job and anyone willing to make her way to a church or food pantry and say she is hungry will not leave empty handed.
  • Food in the United States is so inexpensive as a percentage of national income that it literally is a throwaway item.
  • I do not think Americans would tolerate widespread, untreated hunger in this nation as long as it could afford otherwise.
  • Do we not do the same in our personal lives?
  • Why would we conduct ourselves any differently in world affairs?
  • Is our nation so poor or so weak that we must resort to the ultimate in pragmatism and befriend nations in the name of commerce or prosperity or military security while turning a blind eye to the suffering of their people?
  • What good is our high economic standing in the world if we do not use it for good purposes?
  • They also become more interested in the food they eat.
  • We will learn to grow more crops in more places, and make great breakthroughs relating to our seeds and our systems.
  • As we understand our own genome better, we will know better how to eat in a way that is custom tailored for us.
  • As technology improves, all these processes and systems will improve and also fall in price.
  • The cost of food will fall to nearly zero as the number of farmers in the world falls to zero and food becomes as cheap as clean water.
  • In this case, sooner is so much better than later.
  • But in making the case that war can and will be ended, I have my work cut out for me.
  • Something akin to getting a date with Miss America: Sure, in theory, possible—but realistically, it ain't gonna happen.
  • The following chapter catalogs the difficulties inherent in trying to end war, which in the past brought misery and destruction and in the future could bring annihilation.
  • No silver bullet is in this chapter, no "aha" insight that will instantly persuade you.
  • An old joke is about the city slicker who finds himself lost in the country.
  • Jordanes, a Goth, wrote the following about the Huns in 551: They are beings who are cruel to their children on the very day they are born.
  • The implication is that any time they nursed, they felt pain as well, to learn at an early age that there is no pleasure to be had in life without pain.
  • On July 29, 1014, Byzantine emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army in the Battle of Kleidion.
  • It should be noted that the Byzantines were among the most civilized people in all the world at that time.
  • The Third Servile War occurred in the Roman Republic from 73 BC to 71 BC.
  • In 106, the Roman Emperor Trajan celebrated his defeat over the Dacians by ordering 123 consecutive days of gladiatorial games in the Roman Coliseum.
  • In 106, the Roman Emperor Trajan celebrated his defeat over the Dacians by ordering 123 consecutive days of gladiatorial games in the Roman Coliseum.
  • I offer them because they have something interesting in common.
  • This is how people lived their lives in the past and if asked about it, they would have defended it.
  • The disturbing thing to realize is we would have been those people had we been born in those times.
  • Yet in most parts of the world, emancipation came peacefully as the civilizing effects of culture transformed society.
  • In most parts of the world, women are no longer legally regarded as chattel.
  • While inequalities still exist around the world for women, the tide of history is flowing inexorably in favor of women's rights.
  • In many places, we have ended the legal discrimination of people based on race.
  • Monarchy is not inherently bad, and there have been fine kings and queens in history.
  • We have ended pain as entertainment—or at least, involuntary participation in pain as entertainment.
  • In many parts of the world, we have even outlawed the use of animals fighting as entertainment, such as cockfighting and dogfighting.
  • People in power used to be able to order executions as capriciously as the queen did in Alice in Wonderland.
  • In the past, when the power of the state was absolute in many parts of the world, it was harder to argue that every person on the planet had rights no monarch or state could violate.
  • In the past, when the power of the state was absolute in many parts of the world, it was harder to argue that every person on the planet had rights no monarch or state could violate.
  • The very fact that we have debated in recent years whether we can use torture to get information that will save lives is a sign of the effects of civilization.
  • It is no longer legal for people to be secretly arrested, not charged, and left to rot in jail.
  • In contrast, courts of law apply the law to everyone.
  • Courts of law are now the norm in the world, with laws being democratically established and widely published.
  • (I don't personally see how a chicken, in any situation, can have dignity.
  • In terms of murders per one hundred thousand inhabitants, England fell from roughly twenty-three in the 1300s to about one today.
  • In terms of murders per one hundred thousand inhabitants, England fell from roughly twenty-three in the 1300s to about one today.
  • The Netherlands and Belgium fell from forty-seven in 1300s to about one today.
  • Scandinavia was at forty-six in the 1400s and has fallen to one today.
  • Germany and Switzerland fell from thirty-seven in the 1300s to about one today.
  • What else has been achieved in our march toward civilization?
  • Still, I would argue these changes are the results of an overall increase in empathy and that, more often than not, increasing empathy promotes civilization and is splendid.
  • Ask people in what way they hope the world will become better and you will certainly get replies about reducing poverty, disease, and hunger.
  • Yes, you can still see a cockfight in the United States.
  • The point is that it is now illegal in every state, with Louisiana being the last to outlaw it in 2008.
  • The most difficult work is in the past.
  • They made civilization in times of adversity and want, not in the relative luxury and stability we enjoy today.
  • I feel we have set the bar way too low and in doing so have fundamentally cheapened life, everyone's life.
  • Early in his presidency, in a 1953 address that would become known as his "Cross of Iron" speech, he declared, "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed.
  • This world in arms is not spending money alone.
  • As Eisenhower's presidency neared an end, he spoke of war again, but less in terms of economic costs.
  • Nearly two terms of fighting the Cold War led him to conclude, as he put it, War in our time has become an anachronism.
  • Whatever the case in the past, war in the future can serve no useful purpose.
  • A war which became general, as any limited action might, would only result in the virtual destruction of mankind.
  • As Denzel Washington's character observed in the movie Crimson Tide, "In the nuclear world, the true enemy is war itself."
  • As Denzel Washington's character observed in the movie Crimson Tide, "In the nuclear world, the true enemy is war itself."
  • In the past, humanity has been able to sustain both wars and progress.
  • But in the future this will not be the case.
  • I will not advise getting in touch with our feelings or even group hugs.
  • The word kumbaya appears in this book only once, and you just saw it.
  • If it can be demonstrated that in the future, peace will always be preferable to all nations, then war will end.
  • I define war as armed conflict occurring between nation-states or, in the case of civil wars, between factions within nation-states.
  • In our individual countries, sets of laws are created by the citizenry and are designed to protect life, liberty, and property.
  • These laws provide recourse in the event that one citizen infringes on the rights of another.
  • People in a small town in Alabama, a small city in Algeria, and a large city in Argentina all desire different forms of governments with different services.
  • Accountability must be at as low a level as possible, so that if government officials mess up, they answer to constituents in their locality.
  • Faceless government in a distant land is no one's idea of paradise.
  • They can standardize in a thousand more ways to a world economy, while maintaining their values, traditions, and distinctions.
  • In these ways, they can be part of a larger world economy without sacrificing much autonomy.
  • When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, I was an undergraduate at Rice University.
  • We sensed we were witnessing something spectacular happening in the affairs of the world.
  • I had not heard anyone predict even the possibility of these two events before they came upon us, in what seemed the blink of an eye.
  • No one I knew of had ever seriously considered the possibility that without any conflict, treaty, war, or even a coin toss, the Soviet Union would simply vote itself into nonexistence in 1991.
  • Parents whose children are in the military generally aren't the ones hawkishly pushing for war.
  • Someone else decides to empty the cities and send all the young people to go fight in the war?
  • Who really believes that whoever can prevail in war must be right?
  • In the 1968 book The Lessons of History, Will and Ariel Durant calculated that, "In the last 3,421 years of recorded history only 268 have seen no war."
  • Second, in the past, technological improvements did not decrease human beings' propensity to wage war; they only made people better at killing.
  • But this politics of war have in fact worked this way repeated, across place and time.
  • As Frederick the Great observed almost two centuries earlier, "If my soldiers were to begin to think, not one of them would remain in the army."
  • Even in civilized corporate offices, professionals in business attire say their work tasks place them "down in the trenches" or that a certain "campaign" requires "guerrilla" marketing.
  • We live in a chillingly martial world.
  • In this chapter, I offer forty-three developments, dynamics, and new realities I believe will work together to bring about an end to war.
  • Lest I try the patience of my readers, I will offer, in no particular order, forty-three that seem most worthy.
  • Technically speaking, I have included a few that are not dependent on the Internet per se, but in which the Internet and technology plays some role.
  • We will begin with the economic factors I believe will help end war, eleven in all.
  • As recently as the early twentieth century, relatively few careers existed in which young men of drive and ambition could distinguish themselves and leave a mark on the world.
  • In the 1960 version of the film, he was played by a thirty-one-year-old Laurence Harvey.
  • In the 2004 incarnation of the film, he was played by thirty-one-year-old Patrick Wilson.
  • While military service was less important to securing work in commerce, that was not a particularly noteworthy occupation.
  • Now the "war stories" are about how Mark Zuckerberg was nineteen when he started Facebook, Bill Gates was nineteen when he started Microsoft, and Larry Page and Sergey Brin were in their early twenties when they started Google.
  • In the past, impetuous young men would drop out of college and run off to join the army.
  • Young boys compete with other boys in sports and races and tug-of-wars and, well, in everything, because that is simply how they are wired.
  • This need for competition existed in the past the same as it does in the present.
  • In the modern age, we have simply transferred the competition to a new arena: the business world.
  • They did not revel in carnage.
  • They didn't enter war to satisfy a desire to kill and maim but to be victorious in the way their society rewarded.
  • The wealthier a nation gets, the more it stands to lose in war, and the less marginal utility it gains in conquest.
  • Because it is cheaper to destroy than create, advances in technology increase our ability to destroy.
  • The reasoning behind MAD was that if we can annihilate the Soviets or the Chinese and they in turn can annihilate us, then none of us will start a war.
  • But at the time the doctrine was in force, MAD was effective (or at least, not proven ineffective).
  • It was the basis for the movie War Games in which the military's computer finally figures out it can't win in a nuclear launch scenario and says of such a war, Strange game.
  • MAD is now back, but in economic form.
  • I propose that peace will be maintained in the future by something I will call Mutually Assured Poverty, or MAP.
  • In the past, war could increase your financial position, both as a nation (through spoils) and a soldier (through plunder).
  • It is hard to see how all-out war turns a profit for anyone in any scenario.
  • Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa is a contributing factor in any number of conflicts there.
  • We are used to non-rationed goods, unlimited food in grocery stores, and the overall widespread availability of inexpensive quality products.
  • We are used to non-rationed goods, unlimited food in grocery stores, and the overall widespread availability of inexpensive quality products.
  • Since war historically has interrupted the flow of consumer goods, and would do so even more in our present interconnected world, preserving our hard-earned possessions provides an additional disincentive to war.
  • This is not to say that if another Pearl Harbor or another 9/11 occurred, people in any country wouldn't rise to the occasion and make great sacrifices if needed.
  • The decline in the economic benefits of war for businesses.
  • In World War II, for instance, the Singer Corporation, of sewing-machine fame, made handguns for the war effort.
  • This means that non-military manufacturing interests in the United States no longer profit as in the past from war.
  • They have no economic advantage in going to war.
  • Public opinion is ever more in the peace camp because the vast majority of the economy doesn't benefit financially in times of war.
  • I assume that virtually everyone working in defense industries believes they are serving their country and protecting freedom.
  • But let's adopt the cynic's view for a moment and assume people in these corporations are chiefly concerned about their financial benefit, not about human suffering, when it comes to war.
  • In that hypothetical situation, what would the defense contractor want?
  • Even if you don't accept this, try to accept that war is financially disadvantageous to 99 percent of the business owners in the country and that this is new and meaningful.
  • But in addition, when nations trade, the underlying economies themselves grow ever more intertwined.
  • In point #7, war would cost you your foreign customers.
  • The more I have a personal vested interest in your success, the better.
  • Because of this, "two bits" is still slang for twenty-five cents in the United States.
  • In the modern age, money is once again represented by bits, but a different kind altogether: Money went from gold to paper and is now digital.
  • In addition to that, many Americans own stock in other countries through their retirement savings.
  • In addition to that, many Americans own stock in other countries through their retirement savings.
  • Large movements in any large foreign market are newsworthy.
  • Increasing value stored in intangibles.
  • It used to be that if you conquered another nation, your soldiers became looters and the military got to haul off everything of value in the country.
  • Now, however, more and more wealth is tied up in intangibles such as intellectual property, patents, brands, media, and contracts.
  • More wealth is digital, to be sure, but immeasurably more wealth is tied up in the intricacies of society itself.
  • In warfare, asymmetry is where something very small can do a huge amount of damage.
  • It is bad in that it allows a few to harm the many.
  • Asymmetry will become more pronounced in the future, and we will either endure it, sacrifice individual liberty to prevent it, or come up with a new solution presently hidden from us.
  • In the affairs of nations, large and powerful ones long have imposed their wills on the small and weak ones.
  • In one sense, it's a peaceful world: The bully insists on the lunch money of the small kid, who has no recourse but to capitulate.
  • As true as that was in Jefferson's time, our age has amplified all of it: both the miseries war can produce and the blessings peace can produce.
  • Monarchies—the most prevalent form of government in human history—are disproportionately warlike for a number of reasons.
  • Second, monarchs themselves often have only a financial risk in war.
  • Notable examples exist, but the flow of history in this regard has rendered its verdict.
  • Weakness in neighbors is regarded as an opportunity for conquest or, at least, coercion.
  • Dictators, in short, are the scourge of the earth.
  • In World War II, the United States went to war with Germany, Italy, and Japan, a trio of undemocratic countries.
  • But all in all, the theory seems to hold.
  • With Britain in the war, its colonies and dominions joined in as well.
  • In fact, virtually everyone should have wondered why he was fighting soldiers from places he couldn't find on a map.
  • It all happened because of military pacts in which an attack on one party was viewed as an attack on all.
  • In military alliances, however, it is much likelier that when nations choose their friends, they create enemies where there were none before.
  • Almost three-quarters of all defense spending occurs within NATO countries, meaning the alliance is largely the only military show in town.
  • We could go on here and talk about other military powers and alliances, but the simple fact is that large countries are less willing to risk war in defense of small ones.
  • These countries, particularly in the Balkans, were often small and tended toward war.
  • Tiny countries willing to engage in free trade with their neighbors can prosper.
  • Consider Liechtenstein, whose 35,000 residents live in about sixty square miles in Europe in the Alps.
  • It has one of the highest per-capita incomes in the world, almost no crime, and no public or foreign debt.
  • In the treaty, language describing the border between the United States and Canada, still part of Great Britain, included this:
  • Tensions mounted all through the 1830s as militias were raised on both sides in what later came to be known as the Aroostook War, even though there was never actually a war or casualties.
  • Slowly but steadily, as part of the growth of civilization, countries are signing treaties and reaching agreements that spell out in detail the common set of rules those nations will abide by.
  • Is it OK to dump nuclear waste in the ocean?
  • If someone writes a book in one country, does another country enforce the copyright within its borders?
  • These and literally thousands more issues are worked out in treaties and agreements between nations.
  • In the past, a weak group unjustly persecuted by a strong group had few options.
  • The rise of public opinion as the most powerful political force in the world.
  • Cigarettes were advertised on TV and in magazines and their packages carried no warnings.
  • James Dean is locked in our minds with a cigarette.
  • Next, entire cities banned smoking in all indoor public places, contending a private business's right to allow smoking was trumped by the dangers of exposing patrons to secondhand smoke.
  • Now, in most places you can smoke in your car, in your home, and in remote places away from civilized people.
  • In a fine Alfred Hitchcock movie called Notorious, the troubled character played by Ingrid Bergman gets very drunk at a party and asks Cary Grant to come for a drive.
  • It was a huge shift in public opinion in which no group benefited financially; if anything, financial interests were aligned against this change, just as with tobacco.
  • All these are profound shifts in public opinion.
  • These changes occurred in a single lifetime, which meant people changed their minds.
  • We need to stigmatize war in the same fashion.
  • Thanks to the burgeoning of technology and social media, public opinion is the most powerful political force in the world today.
  • It can be a jumble of voices: politicians and corporations, celebrities, religious figures, and opinion leaders, a million conversations in a single room.
  • Some might argue this is not in and of itself a force for peace.
  • After all, public opinion may just as easily be stirred up in favor of war as against it.
  • This was done in large part because the two powers came so close to going to war over the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • In the absence of efficient communication, potential belligerents are left to impute the worst possible motives to the unexplained actions of others.
  • This is starkly different than if violence breaks out in a distant, unreal place where the only flow of information is from official sources.
  • The World Wide Web will play an enormous role in ending war, on several levels.
  • Second, in addition to facts, the web has become the face of almost all organizations of the planet.
  • When everyone, and every nation, and every organization, and every movement all have a presence on the web, they can be understood in terms of it.
  • Third, the web acts as a feedback loop in that it allows all people to say what is on their minds.
  • I include Twitter in this list as a larger idea, not only as the literal Twitter.com.
  • Twitter.com is unquestionably the most efficient way in the history of humanity to send a single idea, invitation, complaint, or observation to the world.
  • It is inefficient because I must know to follow people in order to receive their updates, and that knowing spreads haphazardly.
  • I have no doubt there are all kinds of things in the Twitterverse that I want to know about, but I only find the ones that I first knew to look for.
  • They may not bump into them very often in what we call "everyday life" but do know them well enough to friend them.
  • Thus one's Facebook friends may be more diverse in all sorts of ways than one's "actual" friends.
  • For instance, if you have a Facebook friend Abigail in Albania whom you only met once at a rock-paper-scissors competition years ago, you will generally regard Abigail's first-hand account as authoritative, even though you don't really know Abigail all that well.
  • Also, simply having a Facebook friend in Albania will tend to make you more interested in the events of Albania.
  • This is not a particularly new idea, similar to the phenomenon of getting to know and care about "pen pals" in far-flung places by exchanging postal-mail letters.
  • Organizations have encouraged "pen pals for peace" exchanges—but such efforts tend to be limited in scale, and if there is one thing Facebook has, it is scale.
  • Friedman goes on to point out that almost anywhere in the world today, it would be impossible to get away with this fraud.
  • I mention FactCheck and Snopes as two examples of the many enterprises on the Internet that subject every government utterance to scrutiny in something approximating real time.
  • Governments in the past could lie with impunity.
  • In the Internet age, everyone fact checks everyone else.
  • I realize in these pages I must seem very distrustful of government, but it is not really true.
  • In the sorting through of the facts from a multiplicity of new sources, truth can be determined.
  • Even in autocratic regimes, truth has a way of seeping in—which means today's dwindling crop of dictators has a serious problem.
  • O'Neill observed that scrutiny of government had become so intense that officials never could have gotten away with that—and he was writing in the late 1980s.
  • In O'Neill's day, getting a copy of the federal budget meant writing away and buying a hefty paper copy.
  • According to Portio Research7.8 trillion SMS messages were sent in 2011, and it is expected that 2012's number will come in at ten trillion.
  • This was the strategy in Tehran, Tunisia, Cairo, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Lebanon, and Kuwait.
  • We have seen it most recently and most profoundly in the Arab Spring, where the motto we see again and again is Ash-sha'b yurid isqat an-nizam, or "The people want to bring down the regime."
  • But if that is the case, they will fall in due course.
  • Around the world, more than a billion mobile devices that both take and send photographs are currently in use, spread even to the poorest parts of the globe.
  • We saw the results of this in the 2009 Iranian protests, when these devices captured and relayed powerful, real-time images of events.
  • In point #29, we described how peace is served when mobile devices allow people to organize and communicate in a widely distributed fashion.
  • In point #29, we described how peace is served when mobile devices allow people to organize and communicate in a widely distributed fashion.
  • In just a few years, virtually all phones will be camera phones.
  • "Internet in a suitcase" and the "shadow Internet."
  • Two interesting government programs are under way in the United States, according to a June 2011 article in The New York Times.
  • The article also describes a second project where a group of young entrepreneurs who look as if they could be in a garage band are fitting deceptively innocent-looking hardware into a prototype 'Internet in a suitcase.'
  • Enabling people to communicate in a method with which their governments cannot interfere is a force for freedom and peace.
  • In the end, this means more peace.
  • Imagine if today everyone spoke one language and I said that in the future we will speak hundreds of different languages and not be able to understand each other.
  • Everyone in the future will learn English because it will be the language of the Internet and thus the language of the world and commerce.
  • To be successful in the world, for a while both English and one's native tongue will be requirements.
  • In the ancient world, it was Greek in the European arena.
  • In the ancient world, it was Greek in the European arena.
  • More people are learning English in China than there are people who speak it in the United States.
  • It is already the official language in more than fifty countries spread across every continent.
  • These nations will play a substantial role in shaping this new English, as they bring grammatical structure, idioms, and nuanced words from their native tongue.
  • It is easy to be suspicious of the person who speaks in some strange tongue.
  • During World War I in the United States, fourteen states outlawed speaking German.
  • In Montana, where 10 percent of residents spoke German and another 10 percent were of German descent, ministers weren't allowed to preach in German to congregants who understood no English, and one town publicly burned German textbooks, the Bozeman Daily Chronicle reported.
  • In Montana, where 10 percent of residents spoke German and another 10 percent were of German descent, ministers weren't allowed to preach in German to congregants who understood no English, and one town publicly burned German textbooks, the Bozeman Daily Chronicle reported.
  • In the future, we will need no translators, because we will understand each other.
  • In 2000, Africa had fewer than five million Internet users.
  • In Central and South America in 2000 were eighteen million Internet users; today, more than two hundred million.
  • In Central and South America in 2000 were eighteen million Internet users; today, more than two hundred million.
  • In 2006, roughly a billion people had access to the Internet.
  • The Internet is still in its adolescence.
  • If it were a person, it still couldn't even order a beer to toast itself for all it has done in such a short time.
  • Oddly, it could, however, join the military and go fight in a war overseas.
  • In Russia, Joseph Stalin had thousands of writers, intellectuals, and scientists arrested and put into concentration camps.
  • In 1966, Mao Zedong closed the universities in China and sent their students and professors to the country to farm.
  • In 1966, Mao Zedong closed the universities in China and sent their students and professors to the country to farm.
  • In 1980, Iran closed the universities.
  • When there was a coup in Burma, now Myanmar, in 1988, they closed the universities.
  • On the other end of the education spectrum, college degrees are up: A recent Harvard University study reports that 6.7 percent of the world has a college degree, up from 5.9 percent in 2000.
  • A shift in power to the young.
  • However, at present—and for the future as far as we can see—growth in technology outpaces growth in wealth.
  • Because young people generally understand and utilize technology better than older people, we will see a shift in power and influence toward the young.
  • In the past, political alliances were sealed by marriages among monarchs or nobles.
  • We see this process democratized and popularized in the world today.
  • According to Pew Research Center data reported in USA Today in 2011, Marriages between spouses of different races and ethnicities are more common than ever before ...
  • A record 15 percent—about one out of every seven—of new marriages in 2008 landed in the 'Marrying Out' category.
  • This is a force for peace, as more and more people have family members in more than one culture and share the interests of more than one nationality.
  • American universities are thought by many to be among the best in the world.
  • Being educated in the United States has long been a mark of distinction for the elites of other nations.
  • But the notion of "elites" is broadening, as is the number of non-Americans who study in the United States.
  • In 2010, almost 700,000 international students were studying in America's colleges and universities.
  • In 2010, almost 700,000 international students were studying in America's colleges and universities.
  • According to Allan Goodman, president and CEO of the Institute of International Education, The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world.
  • Here is a fact to get your head around: In 1980, about seven million Americans had a passport.
  • In 2011, more than one hundred million Americans had passports.
  • In addition, more than one billion of the world's seven billion people visited a country other than their own in 2011.
  • In addition, more than one billion of the world's seven billion people visited a country other than their own in 2011.
  • American English is taught in schools and American slang is practiced in bars everywhere.
  • One might have expected to find YouTube making its cameo in the earlier "communication" section, but I deliberately moved it here.
  • I do not think the importance of YouTube lies in its role as a communication method nor as a fundamentally new means of distribution of media.
  • In an era when cameras were cumbersome and the number of channels on TV could be counted on one hand with enough fingers left over to snap, very little video of any kind was seen.
  • Now video is everywhere—on my phone, in my cab in New York, and in the elevator as I zoom to the fourteenth floor.
  • Whatever did we do without TV in elevators?
  • The range of subject matter on YouTube is as incomprehensibly large as the range in quality.
  • Now, on a regular basis, videos appear which bring to life something that would otherwise be merely an ill-formed image in our minds.
  • Instead of reading words on a page and trying to imagine a concept, we can see it, as the old expression goes, in Technicolor.
  • Nationalism, in my use of the term, is being an uncritical fan of your country.
  • Can you imagine the public reaction to that today: A quarter of a million people killed or wounded in a single day?
  • In World War I, in the Battle of the Somme, were over a million casualties, and the action advanced the Allied line just seven miles, or about two deaths for every inch of ground.
  • In World War I, in the Battle of the Somme, were over a million casualties, and the action advanced the Allied line just seven miles, or about two deaths for every inch of ground.
  • Another million people were lost in the Battle of Verdun.
  • In World War II, even more battles had a million casualties each.
  • This is the present reality in a world defined by the ease of communication.
  • In the future, nations still will have differences.
  • In the end, violence will become obsolete.
  • We value our humanity, and insofar as life in the future seems different from our life today, it somehow seems less human.
  • So let's address it head-on: In this world of the future, do we lose our humanity?
  • My answer to that begins in the past, in the time of William Shakespeare.
  • Colleges offer degree programs in Shakespeare.
  • His plays run in every major city in the English-speaking world, and Hollywood makes movies of them—good movies!
  • All kinds of artists have come and gone in the last four centuries, popular in their time but forgotten now.
  • All these things are the same today as they were in Shakespeare's time, and because of that, his stories are still very relevant to us.
  • In Othello is a character named Iago, an evil man who never does anything illegal himself but is always planting ideas in other people's minds, to get them to do his dirty work.
  • In Othello is a character named Iago, an evil man who never does anything illegal himself but is always planting ideas in other people's minds, to get them to do his dirty work.
  • While Simonides was outside, the roof of the house caved in and killed everyone.
  • In this way, you are processing aurally, which is much slower but more focused than silent reading.
  • Processing aurally was familiar to Augustine while reading silently was revelatory, so noteworthy that he wrote it in his autobiography.
  • I see us today in a situation like those historical ones.
  • In both those cases, a technology or technique came along that actually changed the way people think.
  • In one case, the technology, writing, probably resulted in our memories getting worse, but we gained much more than we lost.
  • In one case, the technology, writing, probably resulted in our memories getting worse, but we gained much more than we lost.
  • In the second case, the technique of reading without vocalizing allowed for faster reading and a new, visual way to process verbal information—again, a net gain.
  • So in the present and future, when a technology comes along that represents such a change—that saves details of our activities with which to advise us later, or has us speaking to machines as if they were creatures—it will simply be more of the same.
  • So it was natural that to earn extra money, Jason and I would buy cool, old cars we found in junkyards for a few hundred dollars apiece.
  • I remember in autumn of '87 thinking it was perfectly reasonable to take the red 1964 Corvair convertible for a test drive, despite its lack of functioning brakes.
  • Though the world foreseen in this book may seem far away to you, I believe it will be achieved—and once achieved, that it will grow in stability over time.
  • We have achieved all that we have today in a very low-tech world.
  • In the next eighteen months, we will double that.
  • Once they become more educated, they are better able to participate in the modern economy.
  • We are a tiny dot of life suspended in a nearly infinite universe.
  • We all saw what happened on 9/11, and it is likely similar acts will occur in the future.
  • In spite of the massive benefits civilization offers to every person in every station of life, a crazy few will always see it very differently.
  • In spite of the massive benefits civilization offers to every person in every station of life, a crazy few will always see it very differently.
  • Their ability to inflict carnage will rise in the future.
  • Anyone who loves civilization necessarily appreciates the role of government in protecting liberties.
  • The government operating in its correct role is instrumental to civilization.
  • In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.
  • In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.
  • As a government grows in size, even if the growth is in social programs, it inevitably grows in its intrusion on civil liberty.
  • Or how IBM got flattened in the PC wars.
  • Four of the problems I address in this book—ignorance, disease, famine, and poverty—are purely technical problems.
  • Many technological problems I don't address in this book, but I believe technology will provide solutions for those also.
  • Are we moving in the direction of the solution now?
  • It is based on the idea that what we believe about the future determines what we do in the present.
  • My goal is not to convince people that the world will be perfect in the future.
  • As a historian, I know it has been the vanity of every age to think it represents a high point in history.
  • After all, we live in a universe that looks like it has plenty of room for us to expand into.
  • Today, all of our eggs are in a lone planetary basket, Earth.
  • At the time in history when our future has never looked brighter, it is baffling that some people are more pessimistic than ever.
  • We were not born in that age that had no word for change.
  • No, quite the opposite: We live in what can only be termed the Age of Change.
  • And because it changed for the better, wondrously better, we can proudly claim our part in its forming.
  • The woman paints the child's experiences in her own fantasy.
  • I was born on June 27, 1880, in Tuscumbia, a little town of northern Alabama.
  • They used to hang in long festoons from our porch, filling the whole air with their fragrance, untainted by any earthy smell; and in the early morning, washed in the dew, they felt so soft, so pure, I could not help wondering if they did not resemble the asphodels of God's garden.
  • I came, I saw, I conquered, as the first baby in the family always does.
  • But in the excitement of carrying me to church my father lost the name on the way, very naturally, since it was one in which he had declined to have a part.
  • I am told that while I was still in long dresses I showed many signs of an eager, self-asserting disposition.
  • Even after my illness I remembered one of the words I had learned in these early months.
  • The impulse gone, I fell down and cried for her to take me up in her arms.
  • One brief spring, musical with the song of robin and mocking-bird, one summer rich in fruit and roses, one autumn of gold and crimson sped by and left their gifts at the feet of an eager, delighted child.
  • There was great rejoicing in the family that morning, but no one, not even the doctor, knew that I should never see or hear again.
  • I only know that I sat in my mother's lap or clung to her dress as she went about her household duties.
  • My hands felt every object and observed every motion, and in this way I learned to know many things.
  • My mother, moreover, succeeded in making me understand a good deal.
  • Indeed, I owe to her loving wisdom all that was bright and good in my long night.
  • But I cannot remember any instance in which this feeling prevented me from repeating the naughtiness when I failed to get what I wanted.
  • Martha Washington understood my signs, and I seldom had any difficulty in making her do just as I wished.
  • The guinea-fowl likes to hide her nest in out-of-the-way places, and it was one of my greatest delights to hunt for the eggs in the long grass.
  • We were sadly in the way, but that did not interfere with our pleasure in the least.
  • I did not then know why Belle acted in this way; but I knew she was not doing as I wished.
  • This vexed me and the lesson always ended in a one-sided boxing match.
  • Many incidents of those early years are fixed in my memory, isolated, but clear and distinct, making the sense of that silent, aimless, dayless life all the more intense.
  • The fire leaped into life; the flames encircled me so that in a moment my clothes were blazing.
  • One morning I locked my mother up in the pantry, where she was obliged to remain three hours, as the servants were in a detached part of the house.
  • After my teacher, Miss Sullivan, came to me, I sought an early opportunity to lock her in her room.
  • My father was most loving and indulgent, devoted to his home, seldom leaving us, except in the hunting season.
  • His special pride was the big garden where, it was said, he raised the finest watermelons and strawberries in the county; and to me he brought the first ripe grapes and the choicest berries.
  • I remember his caressing touch as he led me from tree to tree, from vine to vine, and his eager delight in whatever pleased me.
  • I was in the North, enjoying the last beautiful days of the summer of 1896, when I heard the news of my father's death.
  • She sat in my mother's lap constantly, where I used to sit, and seemed to take up all her care and time.
  • His methods had probably died with him; and if they had not, how was a little girl in a far-off town in Alabama to receive the benefit of them?
  • My father made holes in these so that I could string them, and for a long time they kept me happy and contented.
  • Curled up in a corner of the seat I amused myself for hours making funny little holes in bits of cardboard.
  • She raised my hand to her eyes in a questioning way, and I nodded energetically.
  • The beads were sewed in the right place and I could not contain myself for joy; but immediately I lost all interest in the doll.
  • When we arrived in Baltimore, Dr. Chisholm received us kindly: but he could do nothing.
  • This was in the summer of 1886.
  • The most important day I remember in all my life is the one on which my teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, came to me.
  • I guessed vaguely from my mother's signs and from the hurrying to and fro in the house that something unusual was about to happen, so I went to the door and waited on the steps.
  • "Light! give me light!" was the wordless cry of my soul, and the light of love shone on me in that very hour.
  • I did not know that I was spelling a word or even that words existed; I was simply making my fingers go in monkey-like imitation.
  • In the days that followed I learned to spell in this uncomprehending way a great many words, among them pin, hat, cup and a few verbs like sit, stand and walk.
  • In the days that followed I learned to spell in this uncomprehending way a great many words, among them pin, hat, cup and a few verbs like sit, stand and walk.
  • In despair she had dropped the subject for the time, only to renew it at the first opportunity.
  • In the still, dark world in which I lived there was no strong sentiment or tenderness.
  • In the still, dark world in which I lived there was no strong sentiment or tenderness.
  • There were barriers still, it is true, but barriers that could in time be swept away.
  • Long before I learned to do a sum in arithmetic or describe the shape of the earth, Miss Sullivan had taught me to find beauty in the fragrant woods, in every blade of grass, and in the curves and dimples of my baby sister's hand.
  • The shade was grateful, and the tree was so easy to climb that with my teacher's assistance I was able to scramble to a seat in the branches.
  • It was so cool up in the tree that Miss Sullivan proposed that we have our luncheon there.
  • The small twigs snapped and fell about me in showers.
  • I crouched down in the fork of the tree.
  • It was the sweet allurement of the mimosa tree in full bloom that finally overcame my fears.
  • Yes, there it was, all quivering in the warm sunshine, its blossom-laden branches almost touching the long grass.
  • Was there ever anything so exquisitely beautiful in the world before!
  • I had some difficulty in holding on, for the branches were very large and the bark hurt my hands.
  • After that I spent many happy hours in my tree of paradise, thinking fair thoughts and dreaming bright dreams.
  • I had found a few early violets in the garden and brought them to my teacher.
  • I smelt the violets in her hand and asked, half in words, half in signs, a question which meant, "Is love the sweetness of flowers?"
  • I asked, pointing in the direction from which the heat came.
  • A day or two afterward I was stringing beads of different sizes in symmetrical groups--two large beads, three small ones, and so on.
  • Finally I noticed a very obvious error in the sequence and for an instant I concentrated my attention on the lesson and tried to think how I should have arranged the beads.
  • In a flash I knew that the word was the name of the process that was going on in my head.
  • In a flash I knew that the word was the name of the process that was going on in my head.
  • For a long time I was still--I was not thinking of the beads in my lap, but trying to find a meaning for "love" in the light of this new idea.
  • The sun had been under a cloud all day, and there had been brief showers; but suddenly the sun broke forth in all its southern splendour.
  • "Love is something like the clouds that were in the sky before the sun came out," she replied.
  • The conversation he hears in his home stimulates his mind and suggests topics and calls forth the spontaneous expression of his own thoughts.
  • This she did by repeating to me as far as possible, verbatim, what she heard, and by showing me how I could take part in the conversation.
  • How much more this difficulty must be augmented in the case of those who are both deaf and blind!
  • As soon as I could spell a few words my teacher gave me slips of cardboard on which were printed words in raised letters.
  • One day, Miss Sullivan tells me, I pinned the word girl on my pinafore and stood in the wardrobe.
  • On the shelf I arranged the words, is, in, wardrobe.
  • Often everything in the room was arranged in object sentences.
  • All my early lessons have in them the breath of the woods--the fine, resinous odour of pine needles, blended with the perfume of wild grapes.
  • Few know what joy it is to feel the roses pressing softly into the hand, or the beautiful motion of the lilies as they sway in the morning breeze.
  • Another favourite haunt of mine was the orchard, where the fruit ripened early in July.
  • Oh, the delight with which I gathered up the fruit in my pinafore, pressed my face against the smooth cheeks of the apples, still warm from the sun, and skipped back to the house!
  • She made raised maps in clay, so that I could feel the mountain ridges and valleys, and follow with my fingers the devious course of rivers.
  • From the first I was not interested in the science of numbers.
  • Miss Sullivan tried to teach me to count by stringing beads in groups, and by arranging kintergarten straws I learned to add and subtract.
  • In this same leisurely manner I studied zoology and botany.
  • After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.
  • We bought a lily and set it in a sunny window.
  • Once there were eleven tadpoles in a glass globe set in a window full of plants.
  • He had made his leap, he had seen the great world, and was content to stay in his pretty glass house under the big fuchsia tree until he attained the dignity of froghood.
  • Then he went to live in the leafy pool at the end of the garden, where he made the summer nights musical with his quaint love-song.
  • How much of my delight in all beautiful things is innate, and how much is due to her influence, I can never tell.
  • I feel that her being is inseparable from my own, and that the footsteps of my life are in hers.
  • All the best of me belongs to her--there is not a talent, or an aspiration or a joy in me that has not been awakened by her loving touch.
  • Every one in the family prepared surprises for me, but what pleased me most, Miss Sullivan and I prepared surprises for everybody else.
  • My friends did all they could to excite my curiosity by hints and half-spelled sentences which they pretended to break off in the nick of time.
  • I danced and capered round the tree in an ecstasy.
  • In the pleasure of doing this, I did not stop to look at my own gifts; but when I was ready for them, my impatience for the real Christmas to begin almost got beyond control.
  • At last I fell asleep with a new doll and a white bear in my arms.
  • I found surprises, not in the stocking only, but on the table, on all the chairs, at the door, on the very window-sill; indeed, I could hardly walk without stumbling on a bit of Christmas wrapped up in tissue paper.
  • Every morning after breakfast I prepared his bath, made his cage clean and sweet, filled his cups with fresh seed and water from the well-house, and hung a spray of chickweed in his swing.
  • The next important event in my life was my visit to Boston, in May, 1888.
  • As if it were yesterday I remember the preparations, the departure with my teacher and my mother, the journey, and finally the arrival in Boston.
  • On the seat opposite me sat my big rag doll, Nancy, in a new gingham dress and a beruffled sunbonnet, looking at me out of two bead eyes.
  • What joy to talk with other children in my own language!
  • In the school where Laura Bridgman was taught I was in my own country.
  • In the school where Laura Bridgman was taught I was in my own country.
  • I knew I could not see; but it did not seem possible that all the eager, loving children who gathered round me and joined heartily in my frolics were also blind.
  • But they were so happy and contented that I lost all sense of pain in the pleasure of their companionship.
  • One day spent with the blind children made me feel thoroughly at home in my new environment, and I looked eagerly from one pleasant experience to another as the days flew swiftly by.
  • While we were in Boston we visited Bunker Hill, and there I had my first lesson in history.
  • This was my first trip on the ocean and my first voyage in a steamboat.
  • I was more interested, I think, in the great rock on which the Pilgrims landed than in anything else in Plymouth.
  • I have often held in my hand a little model of the Plymouth Rock which a kind gentleman gave me at Pilgrim Hall, and I have fingered its curves, the split in the centre and the embossed figures "1620," and turned over in my mind all that I knew about the wonderful story of the Pilgrims.
  • I idealized them as the bravest and most generous men that ever sought a home in a strange land.
  • I was keenly surprised and disappointed years later to learn of their acts of persecution that make us tingle with shame, even while we glory in the courage and energy that gave us our "Country Beautiful."
  • Among the many friends I made in Boston were Mr. William Endicott and his daughter.
  • I also remember the beach, where for the first time I played in the sand.
  • I thrust out my hands to grasp some support, I clutched at the water and at the seaweed which the waves tossed in my face.
  • But all my frantic efforts were in vain.
  • The waves seemed to be playing a game with me, and tossed me from one to another in their wild frolic.
  • At last, however, the sea, as if weary of its new toy, threw me back on the shore, and in another instant I was clasped in my teacher's arms.
  • After I had recovered from my first experience in the water, I thought it great fun to sit on a big rock in my bathing-suit and feel wave after wave dash against the rock, sending up a shower of spray which quite covered me.
  • One day Miss Sullivan attracted my attention to a strange object which she had captured basking in the shallow water.
  • In the autumn I returned to my Southern home with a heart full of joyous memories.
  • The treasures of a new, beautiful world were laid at my feet, and I took in pleasure and information at every turn.
  • Three frolicsome little streams ran through it from springs in the rocks above, leaping here and tumbling there in laughing cascades wherever the rocks tried to bar their way.
  • The opening was filled with ferns which completely covered the beds of limestone and in places hid the streams.
  • In places the wild muscadine and scuppernong vines stretched from tree to tree, making arbours which were always full of butterflies and buzzing insects.
  • It was delightful to lose ourselves in the green hollows of that tangled wood in the late afternoon, and to smell the cool, delicious odours that came up from the earth at the close of day.
  • In the evening, by the campfire, the men played cards and whiled away the hours in talk and sport.
  • In the evening, by the campfire, the men played cards and whiled away the hours in talk and sport.
  • The men slept in the hall outside our door, and I could feel the deep breathing of the dogs and the hunters as they lay on their improvised beds.
  • At last the men mounted, and, as they say in the old songs, away went the steeds with bridles ringing and whips cracking and hounds racing ahead, and away went the champion hunters "with hark and whoop and wild halloo!"
  • Later in the morning we made preparations for a barbecue.
  • A fire was kindled at the bottom of a deep hole in the ground, big sticks were laid crosswise at the top, and meat was hung from them and turned on spits.
  • I called him Black Beauty, as I had just read the book, and he resembled his namesake in every way, from his glossy black coat to the white star on his forehead.
  • We always returned to the cottage with armfuls of laurel, goldenrod, ferns and gorgeous swamp-flowers such as grow only in the South.
  • I did not eat them; but I loved their fragrance and enjoyed hunting for them in the leaves and grass.
  • I had never crossed it until one day Mildred, Miss Sullivan and I were lost in the woods, and wandered for hours without finding a path.
  • After my first visit to Boston, I spent almost every winter in the North.
  • The birds had flown, and their empty nests in the bare trees were filled with snow.
  • The earth seemed benumbed by his icy touch, and the very spirits of the trees had withdrawn to their roots, and there, curled up in the dark, lay fast asleep.
  • A snowy night closed upon the world, and in the morning one could scarcely recognize a feature of the landscape.
  • In the evening a wind from the northeast sprang up, and the flakes rushed hither and thither in furious melee.
  • In the evening a wind from the northeast sprang up, and the flakes rushed hither and thither in furious melee.
  • High mounds, pyramids heaped in fantastic shapes, and impenetrable drifts lay scattered in every direction.
  • Half walking in the paths, half working our way through the lesser drifts, we succeeded in reaching a pine grove just outside a broad pasture.
  • The trees stood motionless and white like figures in a marble frieze.
  • The rays of the sun fell upon the trees, so that the twigs sparkled like diamonds and dropped in showers when we touched them.
  • In places the shore of the lake rises abruptly from the water's edge.
  • It was in the spring of 1890 that I learned to speak.
  • I used to sit in my mother's lap all day long and keep my hands on her face because it amused me to feel the motions of her lips; and I moved my lips, too, although I had forgotten what talking was.
  • My thoughts would often rise and beat up like birds against the wind, and I persisted in using my lips and voice.
  • But I persisted, and an accident soon occurred which resulted in the breaking down of this great barrier--I heard the story of Ragnhild Kaata.
  • It is an unspeakable boon to me to be able to speak in winged words that need no interpretation.
  • As I talked, happy thoughts fluttered up out of my words that might perhaps have struggled in vain to escape my fingers.
  • But it must not be supposed that I could really talk in this short time.
  • Miss Fuller and Miss Sullivan could understand me, but most people would not have understood one word in a hundred.
  • In reading my teacher's lips I was wholly dependent on my fingers: I had to use the sense of touch in catching the vibrations of the throat, the movements of the mouth and the expression of the face; and often this sense was at fault.
  • In reading my teacher's lips I was wholly dependent on my fingers: I had to use the sense of touch in catching the vibrations of the throat, the movements of the mouth and the expression of the face; and often this sense was at fault.
  • In such cases I was forced to repeat the words or sentences, sometimes for hours, until I felt the proper ring in my own voice.
  • In such cases I was forced to repeat the words or sentences, sometimes for hours, until I felt the proper ring in my own voice.
  • Discouragement and weariness cast me down frequently; but the next moment the thought that I should soon be at home and show my loved ones what I had accomplished, spurred me on, and I eagerly looked forward to their pleasure in my achievement.
  • It astonished me to find how much easier it is to talk than to spell with the fingers, and I discarded the manual alphabet as a medium of communication on my part; but Miss Sullivan and a few friends still use it in speaking to me, for it is more convenient and more rapid than lip-reading.
  • The mere spelling is, of course, no more a conscious act than it is in writing.
  • My eyes fill with tears now as I think how my mother pressed me close to her, speechless and trembling with delight, taking in every syllable that I spoke, while little Mildred seized my free hand and kissed it and danced, and my father expressed his pride and affection in a big silence.
  • The winter of 1892 was darkened by the one cloud in my childhood's bright sky.
  • Joy deserted my heart, and for a long, long time I lived in doubt, anxiety and fear.
  • My thoughts flowed easily; I felt a sense of joy in the composition.
  • At that time I eagerly absorbed everything I read without a thought of authorship, and even now I cannot be quite sure of the boundary line between my ideas and those I find in books.
  • Some one asked me if I had read it in a book.
  • Mr. Anagnos was delighted with "The Frost King," and published it in one of the Perkins Institution reports.
  • This was the pinnacle of my happiness, from which I was in a little while dashed to earth.
  • I was to be Ceres in a kind of masque given by the blind girls.
  • How well I remember the graceful draperies that enfolded me, the bright autumn leaves that wreathed my head, and the fruit and grain at my feet and in my hands, and beneath all the piety of the masque the oppressive sense of coming ill that made my heart heavy.
  • Something I said made her think she detected in my words a confession that I did remember Miss Canby's story of "The Frost Fairies," and she laid her conclusions before Mr. Anagnos, although I had told her most emphatically that she was mistaken.
  • As I lay in my bed that night, I wept as I hope few children have wept.
  • Miss Sullivan had never heard of "The Frost Fairies" or of the book in which it was published.
  • In my trouble I received many messages of love and sympathy.
  • For a long time, when I wrote a letter, even to my mother, I was seized with a sudden feeling of terror, and I would spell the sentences over and over, to make sure that I had not read them in a book.
  • I have read "The Frost Fairies" since, also the letters I wrote in which I used other ideas of Miss Canby's.
  • I find in one of them, a letter to Mr. Anagnos, dated September 29, 1891, words and sentiments exactly like those of the book.
  • This habit of assimilating what pleased me and giving it out again as my own appears in much of my early correspondence and my first attempts at writing.
  • In a composition which I wrote about the old cities of Greece and Italy, I borrowed my glowing descriptions, with variations, from sources I have forgotten.
  • Mr. Anagnos, in speaking of my composition on the cities, has said, "These ideas are poetic in their essence."
  • It shows me that I could express my appreciation of beautiful and poetic ideas in clear and animated language.
  • Everything I found in books that pleased me I retained in my memory, consciously or unconsciously, and adapted it.
  • My only regret is that it resulted in the loss of one of my dearest friends, Mr. Anagnos.
  • Since the publication of "The Story of My Life" in the Ladies' Home Journal, Mr. Anagnos has made a statement, in a letter to Mr. Macy, that at the time of the "Frost King" matter, he believed I was innocent.
  • The summer and winter following the "Frost King" incident I spent with my family in Alabama.
  • At other times, in the midst of a paragraph I was writing, I said to myself, "Suppose it should be found that all this was written by some one long ago!"
  • We went to Niagara in March, 1893.
  • In the most evident sense they mean everything.
  • Every day in imagination I made a trip round the world, and I saw many wonders from the uttermost parts of the earth--marvels of invention, treasuries of industry and skill and all the activities of human life actually passed under my finger tips.
  • Mr. Higinbotham, President of the World's Fair, kindly gave me permission to touch the exhibits, and with an eagerness as insatiable as that with which Pizarro seized the treasures of Peru, I took in the glories of the Fair with my fingers.
  • Whenever it was possible, I touched the machinery while it was in motion, so as to get a clearer idea how the stones were weighed, cut, and polished.
  • I searched in the washings for a diamond and found it myself--the only true diamond, they said, that was ever found in the United States.
  • Dr. Bell went everywhere with us and in his own delightful way described to me the objects of greatest interest.
  • In the electrical building we examined the telephones, autophones, phonographs, and other inventions, and he made me understand how it is possible to send a message on wires that mock space and outrun time, and, like Prometheus, to draw fire from the sky.
  • Before October, 1893, I had studied various subjects by myself in a more or less desultory manner.
  • I had a French grammar in raised print, and as I already knew some French, I often amused myself by composing in my head short exercises, using the new words as I came across them, and ignoring rules and other technicalities as much as possible.
  • I even tried, without aid, to master the French pronunciation, as I found all the letters and sounds described in the book.
  • Miss Sullivan and I were at that time in Hulton, Pennsylvania, visiting the family of Mr. William Wade.
  • He taught me Latin grammar principally; but he often helped me in arithmetic, which I found as troublesome as it was uninteresting.
  • Mr. Irons also read with me Tennyson's "In Memoriam."
  • I thought I might just as well describe my pet in order to know it--order, vertebrate; division, quadruped; class, mammalia; genus, felinus; species, cat; individual, Tabby.
  • I was just beginning to read Caesar's "Gallic War" when I went to my home in Alabama.
  • There it was arranged that I should go to the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in New York City.
  • I went there in October, 1894, accompanied by Miss Sullivan.
  • Indeed, I think I made more progress in German than in any of my other studies.
  • I could not read her lips easily; so my progress was much slower than in German.
  • My progress in lip-reading and speech was not what my teachers and I had hoped and expected it would be.
  • When I was not guessing, I was jumping at conclusions, and this fault, in addition to my dullness, aggravated my difficulties more than was right or necessary.
  • The two years in New York were happy ones, and I look back to them with genuine pleasure.
  • I remember especially the walks we all took together every day in Central Park, the only part of the city that was congenial to me.
  • I never lost a jot of my delight in this great park.
  • I loved to have it described every time I entered it; for it was beautiful in all its aspects, and these aspects were so many that it was beautiful in a different way each day of the nine months I spent in New York.
  • In the spring we made excursions to various places of interest.
  • The teachers at the Wright-Humason School were always planning how they might give the pupils every advantage that those who hear enjoy--how they might make much of few tendencies and passive memories in the cases of the little ones--and lead them out of the cramping circumstances in which their lives were set.
  • Mr. John P. Spaulding, of Boston, died in February, 1896.
  • He, who made every one happy in a beautiful, unobtrusive way, was most kind and tender to Miss Sullivan and me.
  • So long as we felt his loving presence and knew that he took a watchful interest in our work, fraught with so many difficulties, we could not be discouraged.
  • His going away left a vacancy in our lives that has never been filled.
  • In October, 1896, I entered the Cambridge School for Young Ladies, to be prepared for Radcliffe.
  • The thought of going to college took root in my heart and became an earnest desire, which impelled me to enter into competition for a degree with seeing and hearing girls, in the face of the strong opposition of many true and wise friends.
  • Of course my instructors had had no experience in teaching any but normal pupils, and my only means of conversing with them was reading their lips.
  • I had had, moreover, a good start in French, and received six months' instruction in Latin; but German was the subject with which I was most familiar.
  • In spite, however, of these advantages, there were serious drawbacks to my progress.
  • For a while, indeed, I had to copy my Latin in braille, so that I could recite with the other girls.
  • I could not make notes in class or write exercises; but I wrote all my compositions and translations at home on my typewriter.
  • In study hours she had to look up new words for me and read and reread notes and books I did not have in raised print.
  • In study hours she had to look up new words for me and read and reread notes and books I did not have in raised print.
  • I took the greatest delight in these German books, especially Schiller's wonderful lyrics, the history of Frederick the Great's magnificent achievements and the account of Goethe's life.
  • Mr. Gilman instructed me part of the year in English literature.
  • I wondered more and more, while Burke's masterly speech rolled on in mighty surges of eloquence, how it was that King George and his ministers could have turned a deaf ear to his warning prophecy of our victory and their humiliation.
  • In a different way Macaulay's "Life of Samuel Johnson" was interesting.
  • At the Cambridge school, for the first time in my life, I enjoyed the companionship of seeing and hearing girls of my own age.
  • I lived with several others in one of the pleasant houses connected with the school, the house where Mr. Howells used to live, and we all had the advantage of home life.
  • So Mildred stayed with me in Cambridge, and for six happy months we were hardly ever apart.
  • It makes me most happy to remember the hours we spent helping each other in study and sharing our recreation together.
  • The subjects I offered were Elementary and Advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman history, making nine hours in all.
  • I passed in everything, and received "honours" in German and English.
  • Perhaps an explanation of the method that was in use when I took my examinations will not be amiss here.
  • It was thought advisable for me to have my examinations in a room by myself, because the noise of the typewriter might disturb the other girls.
  • I wish to say here that I have not had this advantage since in any of my examinations.
  • In that case I correct only such mistakes as I can recall in the few minutes allowed, and make notes of these corrections at the end of my paper.
  • In that case I correct only such mistakes as I can recall in the few minutes allowed, and make notes of these corrections at the end of my paper.
  • If I passed with higher credit in the preliminaries than in the finals, there are two reasons.
  • In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
  • In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
  • All the other preliminary examinations were conducted in the same manner.
  • I remember that the day the Latin paper was brought to us, Professor Schilling came in and informed me I had passed satisfactorily in German.
  • The classes I was in were very large, and it was impossible for the teachers to give me special instruction.
  • In a word, every study had its obstacles.
  • Just before the books came, Mr. Gilman had begun to remonstrate with Miss Sullivan on the ground that I was working too hard, and in spite of my earnest protestations, he reduced the number of my recitations.
  • In the end the difference of opinion between Mr. Gilman and Miss Sullivan resulted in my mother's withdrawing my sister Mildred and me from the Cambridge school.
  • In the end the difference of opinion between Mr. Gilman and Miss Sullivan resulted in my mother's withdrawing my sister Mildred and me from the Cambridge school.
  • Miss Sullivan and I spent the rest of the winter with our friends, the Chamberlins in Wrentham, twenty-five miles from Boston.
  • In October, 1898, we returned to Boston.
  • For eight months Mr. Keith gave me lessons five times a week, in periods of about an hour.
  • He explained each time what I did not understand in the previous lesson, assigned new work, and took home with him the Greek exercises which I had written during the week on my typewriter, corrected them fully, and returned them to me.
  • In this way my preparation for college went on without interruption.
  • I found it much easier and pleasanter to be taught by myself than to receive instruction in class.
  • My tutor had plenty of time to explain what I did not understand, so I got on faster and did better work than I ever did in school.
  • I still found more difficulty in mastering problems in mathematics than I did in any other of my studies.
  • The college authorities did not allow Miss Sullivan to read the examination papers to me; so Mr. Eugene C. Vining, one of the instructors at the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was employed to copy the papers for me in American braille.
  • The proctor was also a stranger, and did not attempt to communicate with me in any way.
  • The braille worked well enough in the languages, but when it came to geometry and algebra, difficulties arose.
  • I was sorely perplexed, and felt discouraged wasting much precious time, especially in algebra.
  • It is true that I was familiar with all literary braille in common use in this country--English, American, and New York Point; but the various signs and symbols in geometry and algebra in the three systems are very different, and I had used only the English braille in my algebra.
  • Two days before the examinations, Mr. Vining sent me a braille copy of one of the old Harvard papers in algebra.
  • To my dismay I found that it was in the American notation.
  • I had always done my work in braille or in my head.
  • But if they unintentionally placed obstacles in my way, I have the consolation of knowing that I overcame them all.
  • I knew that there were obstacles in the way; but I was eager to overcome them.
  • Before me I saw a new world opening in beauty and light, and I felt within me the capacity to know all things.
  • In the wonderland of Mind I should be as free as another.
  • Gradually I began to find that there were disadvantages in going to college.
  • But in college there is no time to commune with one's thoughts.
  • In the French course I read some of the works of Corneille, Moliere, Racine, Alfred de Musset and Sainte-Beuve, and in the German those of Goethe and Schiller.
  • In the French course I read some of the works of Corneille, Moliere, Racine, Alfred de Musset and Sainte-Beuve, and in the German those of Goethe and Schiller.
  • I am frequently asked how I overcome the peculiar conditions under which I work in college.
  • The lectures are spelled into my hand as rapidly as possible, and much of the individuality of the lecturer is lost to me in the effort to keep in the race.
  • The words rush through my hand like hounds in pursuit of a hare which they often miss.
  • You revel in their fine thoughts.
  • The trouble is that very few of their laborious explanations stick in the memory.
  • They fly hither and thither in my thought like blind birds beating the air with ineffectual wings.
  • It is impossible, I think, to read in one day four or five different books in different languages and treating of widely different subjects, and not lose sight of the very ends for which one reads.
  • You ransack your budget of historic facts much as you would hunt for a bit of silk in a rag-bag.
  • You are sure it is somewhere in your mind near the top--you saw it there the other day when you were looking up the beginnings of the Reformation.
  • In desperation you seize the budget and dump everything out, and there in a corner is your man, serenely brooding on his own private thought, unconscious of the catastrophe which he has brought upon you.
  • In desperation you seize the budget and dump everything out, and there in a corner is your man, serenely brooding on his own private thought, unconscious of the catastrophe which he has brought upon you.
  • It comes over me that in the last two or three pages of this chapter I have used figures which will turn the laugh against me.
  • Ah, here they are--the mixed metaphors mocking and strutting about before me, pointing to the bull in the china shop assailed by hailstones and the bugbears with pale looks, an unanalyzed species!
  • While my days at Radcliffe were still in the future, they were encircled with a halo of romance, which they have lost; but in the transition from romantic to actual I have learned many things I should never have known had I not tried the experiment.
  • One of them is the precious science of patience, which teaches us that we should take our education as we would take a walk in the country, leisurely, our minds hospitably open to impressions of every sort.
  • Indeed, books have meant so much more in my education than in that of others, that I shall go back to the time when I began to read.
  • I read my first connected story in May, 1887, when I was seven years old, and from that day to this I have devoured everything in the shape of a printed page that has come within the reach of my hungry finger tips.
  • At first I had only a few books in raised print--"readers" for beginners, a collection of stories for children, and a book about the earth called "Our World."
  • It was during my first visit to Boston that I really began to read in good earnest.
  • I was permitted to spend a part of each day in the Institution library, and to wander from bookcase to bookcase, and take down whatever book my fingers lighted upon.
  • And read I did, whether I understood one word in ten or two words on a page.
  • One day my teacher found me in a corner of the library poring over the pages of "The Scarlet Letter."
  • Then my teacher went to visit some friends in Boston, leaving me for a short time.
  • It was a warm afternoon in August.
  • We were sitting together in a hammock which swung from two solemn pines at a short distance from the house.
  • We had hurried through the dish-washing after luncheon, in order that we might have as long an afternoon as possible for the story.
  • The air was balmy, with a tang of the sea in it.
  • I took the book in my hands and tried to feel the letters with an intensity of longing that I can never forget.
  • From "Little Lord Fauntleroy" I date the beginning of my true interest in books.
  • I read them in the intervals between study and play with an ever-deepening sense of pleasure.
  • Circumscribed as my life was in so many ways, I had to look between the covers of books for news of the world that lay outside my own.
  • I read La Fontaine's "Fables" first in an English translation, and enjoyed them only after a half-hearted fashion.
  • Later I read the book again in French, and I found that, in spite of the vivid word-pictures, and the wonderful mastery of language, I liked it no better.
  • I do not know why it is, but stories in which animals are made to talk and act like human beings have never appealed to me very strongly.
  • I feel a genuine interest in the animals themselves, because they are real animals and not caricatures of men.
  • In my fancy the pagan gods and goddesses still walked on earth and talked face to face with men, and in my heart I secretly built shrines to those I loved best.
  • In my fancy the pagan gods and goddesses still walked on earth and talked face to face with men, and in my heart I secretly built shrines to those I loved best.
  • I was familiar with the story of Troy before I read it in the original, and consequently I had little difficulty in making the Greek words surrender their treasures after I had passed the borderland of grammar.
  • Great poetry, whether written in Greek or in English, needs no other interpreter than a responsive heart.
  • It is not necessary that one should be able to define every word and give it its principal parts and its grammatical position in the sentence in order to understand and appreciate a fine poem.
  • Virgil is serene and lovely like a marble Apollo in the moonlight; Homer is a beautiful, animated youth in the full sunlight with the wind in his hair.
  • The unusual language and repetition made the story seem unreal.
  • But how shall I speak of the glories I have since discovered in the Bible?
  • Still there is much in the Bible against which every instinct of my being rebels, so much that I regret the necessity which has compelled me to read it through from beginning to end.
  • There is something impressive, awful, in the simplicity and terrible directness of the book of Esther.
  • Could there be anything more dramatic than the scene in which Esther stands before her wicked lord?
  • She knows her life is in his hands; there is no one to protect her from his wrath.
  • Her beautiful, unselfish spirit shines out like a bright star in the night of a dark and cruel age.
  • Anger seized me, my fingers refused to move, I sat rigid for one long moment, the blood throbbing in my temples, and all the hatred that a child can feel concentrated in my heart.
  • Even now I cannot find it in my heart to condemn them utterly.
  • My delight in them is as varied as my moods.
  • In my college reading I have become somewhat familiar with French and German literature.
  • When he speaks, it is not to impress others, but because his heart would burst if he did not find an outlet for the thoughts that burn in his soul.
  • Then, too, there is in German literature a fine reserve which I like; but its chief glory is the recognition I find in it of the redeeming potency of woman's self-sacrificing love.
  • This thought pervades all German literature and is mystically expressed in Goethe's "Faust":
  • In a word, literature is my Utopia.
  • More than once in the course of my story I have referred to my love of the country and out-of-door sports.
  • In the same manner I can also tell when I am pulling against the current.
  • I have had the same strange sensation even in the heart of the city.
  • In the summer of 1901 I visited Nova Scotia, and had opportunities such as I had not enjoyed before to make the acquaintance of the ocean.
  • After spending a few days in Evangeline's country, about which Longfellow's beautiful poem has woven a spell of enchantment, Miss Sullivan and I went to Halifax, where we remained the greater part of the summer.
  • And at night what soothing, wondrous hours we spent in the shadow of the great, silent men-of-war.
  • There was a regatta in the Northwest Arm, in which the boats from the different warships were engaged.
  • We went in a sail-boat along with many others to watch the races.
  • As they passed us, the large craft and the gunboats in the harbour saluted and the seamen shouted applause for the master of the only little sail-boat that ventured out into the storm.
  • Last summer I spent in one of the loveliest nooks of one of the most charming villages in New England.
  • I joined in all their sports and rambles through the woods and frolics in the water.
  • The prattle of the little ones and their pleasure in the stories I told them of elf and gnome, of hero and wily bear, are pleasant things to remember.
  • Mr. Chamberlin initiated me into the mysteries of tree and wild-flower, until with the little ear of love I heard the flow of sap in the oak, and saw the sun glint from leaf to leaf.
  • Thus it is that Even as the roots, shut in the darksome earth, Share in the tree-top's joyance, and conceive Of sunshine and wide air and winged things, By sympathy of nature, so do I gave evidence of things unseen.
  • This inherited capacity is a sort of sixth sense--a soul-sense which sees, hears, feels, all in one.
  • I have many tree friends in Wrentham.
  • I had another tree friend, gentle and more approachable than the great oak--a linden that grew in the dooryard at Red Farm.
  • But I must not forget that I was going to write about last summer in particular.
  • In Wrentham we caught echoes of what was happening in the world--war, alliance, social conflict.
  • In Wrentham we caught echoes of what was happening in the world--war, alliance, social conflict.
  • We heard of the cruel, unnecessary fighting in the far-away Pacific, and learned of the struggles going on between capital and labour.
  • In the country one sees only Nature's fair works, and one's soul is not saddened by the cruel struggle for mere existence that goes on in the crowded city.
  • In the country one sees only Nature's fair works, and one's soul is not saddened by the cruel struggle for mere existence that goes on in the crowded city.
  • In yonder city's dingy alleys the sun shines not, and the air is foul.
  • It is impossible not to think of all this when I return to the country after a year of work in town.
  • It is splendid to feel the wind blowing in my face and the springy motion of my iron steed.
  • He has a long pedigree, a crooked tail and the drollest "phiz" in dogdom.
  • The squares are cut out, so that the men stand in them firmly.
  • Each checker has a hole in the middle in which a brass knob can be placed to distinguish the king from the commons.
  • The chessmen are of two sizes, the white larger than the black, so that I have no trouble in following my opponent's maneuvers by moving my hands lightly over the board after a play.
  • If I happen to be all alone and in an idle mood, I play a game of solitaire, of which I am very fond.
  • I use playing cards marked in the upper right-hand corner with braille symbols which indicate the value of the card.
  • I feel in Diana's posture the grace and freedom of the forest and the spirit that tames the mountain lion and subdues the fiercest passions.
  • My soul delights in the repose and gracious curves of the Venus; and in Barre's bronzes the secrets of the jungle are revealed to me.
  • In imagination I can hear Homer singing, as with unsteady, hesitating steps he gropes his way from camp to camp--singing of life, of love, of war, of the splendid achievements of a noble race.
  • Be this as it may, I know that I can feel the heart-throbs of the ancient Greeks in their marble gods and goddesses.
  • I enjoy having a play described to me while it is being acted on the stage far more than reading it, because then it seems as if I were living in the midst of stirring events.
  • In the king's face, which he wore as a mask, there was a remoteness and inaccessibility of grief which I shall never forget.
  • The first time I saw him act was while at school in New York.
  • I had often read the story, but I had never felt the charm of Rip's slow, quaint, kind ways as I did in the play.
  • I have a picture of old Rip in my fingers which they will never lose.
  • I have also seen him in "The Rivals."
  • Once while I was calling on him in Boston he acted the most striking parts of "The Rivals" for me.
  • Then the great actor gave his coat a hitch and his mouth a twitch, and in an instant I was in the village of Falling Water and felt Schneider's shaggy head against my knee.
  • Mr. Jefferson recited the best dialogues of "Rip Van Winkle," in which the tear came close upon the smile.
  • Elsie Leslie, the little actress, was in Boston, and Miss Sullivan took me to see her in "The Prince and the Pauper."
  • After the play I was permitted to go behind the scenes and meet her in her royal costume.
  • Everything has its wonders, even darkness and silence, and I learn, whatever state I may be in, therein to be content.
  • Then comes hope with a smile and whispers, "There is joy in self-forgetfulness."
  • So I try to make the light in others' eyes my sun, the music in others' ears my symphony, the smile on others' lips my happiness.
  • Some of them would be found written in our literature and dear to the hearts of many, while others would be wholly unknown to most of my readers.
  • Those are red-letter days in our lives when we meet people who thrill us like a fine poem, people whose handshake is brimful of unspoken sympathy, and whose sweet, rich natures impart to our eager, impatient spirits a wonderful restfulness which, in its essence, is divine.
  • In a word, while such friends are near us we feel that all is well.
  • They are like people who when walking with you try to shorten their steps to suit yours; the hypocrisy in both cases is equally exasperating.
  • Others there are whose hands have sunbeams in them, so that their grasp warms my heart.
  • My spirit could not reach up to his, but he gave me a real sense of joy in life, and I never left him without carrying away a fine thought that grew in beauty and depth of meaning as I grew.
  • God in all that liberates and lifts, In all that humbles, sweetens and consoles.
  • God in all that liberates and lifts, In all that humbles, sweetens and consoles.
  • In spite of the lapse of years, they seem so close to me that I should not think it strange if at any moment they should clasp my hand and speak words of endearment as they used to before they went away.
  • He knew so much and was so genial that it was impossible to feel dull in his presence.
  • It was early in the spring, just after I had learned to speak.
  • There was an odour of print and leather in the room which told me that it was full of books, and I stretched out my hand instinctively to find them.
  • He made me sit in his armchair, while he brought different interesting things for me to examine, and at his request I recited "The Chambered Nautilus," which was then my favorite poem.
  • One beautiful summer day, not long after my meeting with Dr. Holmes, Miss Sullivan and I visited Whittier in his quiet home on the Merrimac.
  • He had a book of his poems in raised print from which I read "In School Days."
  • He had a book of his poems in raised print from which I read "In School Days."
  • He was delighted that I could pronounce the words so well, and said that he had no difficulty in understanding me.
  • He said he was the little boy in the poem, and that the girl's name was Sally, and more which I have forgotten.
  • I also recited "Laus Deo," and as I spoke the concluding verses, he placed in my hands a statue of a slave from whose crouching figure the fetters were falling, even as they fell from Peter's limbs when the angel led him forth out of prison.
  • What he has taught we have seen beautifully expressed in his own life--love of country, kindness to the least of his brethren, and a sincere desire to live upward and onward.
  • Here in Dr. Bell's laboratory, or in the fields on the shore of the great Bras d'Or, I have spent many delightful hours listening to what he had to tell me about his experiments, and helping him fly kites by means of which he expects to discover the laws that shall govern the future air-ship.
  • Dr. Bell is proficient in many fields of science, and has the art of making every subject he touches interesting, even the most abstruse theories.
  • He is never quite so happy as when he has a little deaf child in his arms.
  • Most of them I met first in the house of my good friend, Mr. Laurence Hutton.
  • One does not need to read "A Boy I Knew" to understand him--the most generous, sweet-natured boy I ever knew, a good friend in all sorts of weather, who traces the footprints of love in the life of dogs as well as in that of his fellowmen.
  • She has oftenest advised and helped me in my progress through college.
  • This reminds me that Dr. Hale used to give a personal touch to his letters to me by pricking his signature in braille.
  • I feel the twinkle of his eye in his handshake.
  • One is Mrs. William Thaw, of Pittsburgh, whom I have often visited in her home, Lyndhurst.
  • She is always doing something to make some one happy, and her generosity and wise counsel have never failed my teacher and me in all the years we have known her.
  • Helen Keller's letters are important, not only as a supplementary story of her life, but as a demonstration of her growth in thought and expression--the growth which in itself has made her distinguished.
  • The best passages are those in which she talks about herself, and gives her world in terms of her experience of it.
  • To them and to a few friends with whom she is in closest sympathy she writes with intimate frankness whatever she is thinking about.
  • Many of those written before 1892 were published in the reports of the Perkins Institution for the Blind.
  • From the letters after the year 1892 I have culled in the spirit of one making an anthology, choosing the passages best in style and most important from the point of view of biography.
  • In that year Miss Keller entered college.
  • Three months and a half after the first word was spelled into her hand, she wrote in pencil this letter
  • Two words are almost illegible, and the angular print slants in every direction.
  • By the following September Helen shows improvement in fulness of construction and more extended relations of thought.
  • A few weeks later her style is more nearly correct and freer in movement.
  • I and teacher did go to church sunday mr. lane did read in book and talk Lady did play organ.
  • I did give man money in basket.
  • I did read in my book about fox and box. fox can sit in the box.
  • I do like to read in my book. you do love me.
  • I and Father and aunt did go to see you in Washington.
  • I saw doctor in Washington.
  • I can read stories in my book.
  • I will go to Boston in June and I will buy father gloves, and James nice collar, and Simpson cuffs.
  • Men and boys do make carpets in mills.
  • Men and women do make wool cloth in mills.
  • Cotton grows on large stalks in fields.
  • The next two letters mention her visit in January to her relatives in Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Teacher told me about kind gentleman I shall be glad to read pretty story I do read stories in my book about tigers and lions and sheep.
  • I am coming to Boston in June to see little blind girls and I will come to see you.
  • I found box of candy in Mr. Grave's pocket.
  • Teacher and I went to walk in the yard, and I learned about how flowers and trees grow.
  • Sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • We will go to Boston in June.
  • I do love to run and hop and skip with Robert in bright warm sun.
  • I do read stories in my book about lions and tigers and bears.
  • Yates is digging in garden.
  • My cousin Frank lives in Louisville.
  • In this account of the picnic we get an illuminating glimpse of Miss Sullivan's skill in teaching her pupil during play hours.
  • In this account of the picnic we get an illuminating glimpse of Miss Sullivan's skill in teaching her pupil during play hours.
  • They make a pleasant shade and the little birds love to swing to and fro and sing sweetly up in the trees.
  • Rabbits hop and squirrels run and ugly snakes do crawl in the woods.
  • Cousin Arthur made me a swing in the ash tree.
  • On May 26th they arrived in Boston and went to the Perkins Institution; here Helen met the little blind girls with whom she had corresponded the year before.
  • Early in July she went to Brewster, Massachusetts, and spent the rest of the summer.
  • She likes to sit in my little rocking-chair and put her kitty to sleep.
  • Next summer Mildred will go out in the garden with me and pick the big sweet strawberries and then she will be very happy.
  • When Capt. Baker gets well he will take me in his big ship to Africa.
  • I went in bathing almost every day and Carrie and Frank and little Helen and I had fun.
  • We splashed and jumped and waded in the deep water.
  • West Newton is not far from Boston and we went there in the steam cars very quickly.
  • Mrs. Freeman and Carrie and Ethel and Frank and Helen came to station to meet us in a huge carriage.
  • Then we rode for a long time to see all the beautiful things in West Newton.
  • Lucy and Dora and Charles were born in China.
  • I was born in America, and Mr. Anagnos was born in Greece.
  • Mr. Drew says little girls in China cannot talk on their fingers but I think when I go to China I will teach them.
  • She showed me a tiny atze that very rich ladies in China wear because their feet never grow large.
  • We came home in horse cars because it was Sunday and steam cars do not go often on Sunday.
  • I saw little Willie Swan in the car and he gave me a juicy pear.
  • Her visit to Plymouth was in July.
  • This letter, written three months later, shows how well she remembered her first lesson in history.
  • I read pretty stories in the book you sent me, about Charles and his boat, and Arthur and his dream, and Rosa and the sheep.
  • I have been in a large boat.
  • Many years ago there lived in England many good people, but the king and his friends were not kind and gentle and patient with good people, because the king did not like to have the people disobey him.
  • I did see the rock in Plymouth and a little ship like the Mayflower and the cradle that dear little Peregrine slept in and many old things that came in the Mayflower.
  • She assimilated words and practised with them, sometimes using them intelligently, sometimes repeating them in a parrot-like fashion.
  • It was in this way that she learned to use correctly words of sound and vision which express ideas outside of her experience.
  • I hope you will come to Alabama to visit me and I will take you to ride in my little cart and I think you will like to see me on my dear little pony's back.
  • When I am thirteen years old I am going to travel in many strange and beautiful countries.
  • I shall climb very high mountains in Norway and see much ice and snow.
  • Puer is boy in Latin, and Mutter is mother in German.
  • Coal is found in the ground, too.
  • I have been reading in my book about astronomers.
  • When we are sleeping quietly in our beds, they are watching the beautiful sky through the telescope.
  • A little girl in a story was not courageous.
  • In a few days the beautiful spring will be here.
  • He had climbed the high mountains in Switzerland and visited beautiful churches in Italy and France, and he saw a great many ancient castles.
  • It was very pleasant out in the shady woods, and we all enjoyed the picnic very much.
  • Mildred is out in the yard playing, and mother is picking the delicious strawberries.
  • Mildred and I had our pictures taken while we were in Huntsville.
  • I think of them every day and I love them dearly in my heart.
  • It shows how much the gift of writing is, in the early stages of its development, the gift of mimicry.
  • Oh, it was a lovely and delicate doll! but the little girl's brother, a tall lad, had taken the doll, and set it up in a high tree in the garden, and had run away.
  • Already she began to see quite plainly the little elves in their tall pointed hats, dancing down the dusky alleys, and peeping from between the bushes, and they seemed to come nearer and nearer; and she stretched her hands up towards the tree in which the doll sat and they laughed, and pointed their fingers at her.
  • My Dear Miss Riley:--I wish you were here in the warm, sunny south today.
  • In the evening, when it is cool and pleasant, we would walk in the yard, and catch the grasshoppers and butterflies.
  • In the evening, when it is cool and pleasant, we would walk in the yard, and catch the grasshoppers and butterflies.
  • Only once afterward in fifteen years was their constant companionship broken for more than a few days at a time.
  • All the beautiful flowers are in bloom now.
  • I think we shall have a beautiful time out in the cool, pleasant woods.
  • What was the name of the little boy who fell in love with the beautiful star?
  • Cousin Leila thinks he will walk in a little while.
  • Then I will take his soft chubby hand in mine, and go out in the bright sunshine with him.
  • Mildred is the dearest and sweetest little maiden in the world.
  • I read in my books every day.
  • The mocking bird does not live in the cold north.
  • I do not know what I shall do in the afternoon yet.
  • My Dear Mr. Wade:--I have just received a letter from my mother, telling me that the beautiful mastiff puppy you sent me had arrived in Tuscumbia safely.
  • I am studying in Boston, with my dear teacher.
  • This letter is indorsed in Whittier's hand, "Helen A. Keller--deaf dumb and blind--aged nine years."
  • Yesterday I read "In School Days" and "My Playmate," and I enjoyed them greatly.
  • It is very pleasant to live here in our beautiful world.
  • When I walk out in my garden I cannot see the beautiful flowers but I know that they are all around me; for is not the air sweet with their fragrance?
  • One carried me in his arms so that my feet would not touch the water.
  • You must keep your lovely new montre in it.
  • If it is too warm in Tuscumbia for little sister to wear her pretty mittens, she can keep them because her sister made them for her.
  • I am going to have a Christmas tree in the parlor and teacher will hang all of my gifts upon it.
  • Teacher has been sick in bed for many days.
  • Mr. and Miss Endicott came to see me, and I went to ride in the carriage.
  • Mr. Anagnos is in Athens now.
  • This, the first of Helen's letters to Dr. Holmes, written soon after a visit to him, he published in "Over the Teacups." [Atlantic Monthly, May, 1890]
  • I am studying about insects in zoology, and I have learned many things about butterflies.
  • Last evening I went out in the yard and spoke to the moon.
  • When I was a very little child I used to sit in my mother's lap all the time, because I was very timid, and did not like to be left by myself.
  • I was very, very sad to part with all of my friends in Boston, but I was so eager to see my baby sister I could hardly wait for the train to take me home.
  • Mildred has grown much taller and stronger than she was when I went to Boston, and she is the sweetest and dearest little child in the world.
  • Why does the dear Father in heaven think it best for us to have very great sorrow sometimes?
  • How did God tell people that his home was in heaven?
  • I should like very much to see you to-day Is the sun very hot in Boston now? this afternoon if it is cool enough I shall take Mildred for a ride on my donkey.
  • It has followed me across the ocean and found me in this magnificent great city which I should like to tell you all about if I could take time for it and make my letter long enough.
  • Some time when you come and see me in my study in Boston I shall be glad to talk to you about it all if you care to hear.
  • It is from the power of love which is in our own hearts.
  • We like to think that the sunshine and the winds and the trees are able to love in some way of their own, for it would make us know that they were happy if we knew that they could love.
  • All the love that is in our hearts comes from him, as all the light which is in the flowers comes from the sun.
  • A great deal of the trouble that is in the world is medicine which is very bad to take, but which it is good to take because it makes us better.
  • Perhaps people would be better in a great many ways, for they could not fight as they do now.
  • You are spared the pain of many sights and sounds, which you are only too happy in escaping.
  • Everybody will feel an interest in dear little Helen; everybody will want to do something for her; and, if she becomes an ancient, gray-haired woman, she is still sure of being thoughtfully cared for.
  • Your parents and friends must take great satisfaction in your progress.
  • It does great credit, not only to you, but to your instructors, who have so broken down the walls that seemed to shut you in that now your outlook seems more bright and cheerful than that of many seeing and hearing children.
  • This letter was written to some gentlemen in Gardiner, Maine, who named a lumber vessel after her.
  • It makes me very happy to know that I have kind and loving friends in the far-away State of Maine.
  • I did not imagine, when I studied about the forests of Maine, that a strong and beautiful ship would go sailing all over the world, carrying wood from those rich forests, to build pleasant homes and schools and churches in distant countries.
  • Helen and Miss Sullivan returned to the Perkins Institution early in November.
  • I am sorry to say that our train was delayed in several places, which made us late in reaching New York.
  • When we got to Jersey City at six o'clock Friday evening we were obliged to cross the Harlem River in a ferry-boat.
  • When we awoke we were in Boston.
  • The hills in Virginia were very lovely.
  • Jack Frost had dressed them in gold and crimson.
  • The grass was as green as though it was springtime, and the golden ears of corn gathered together in heaps in the great fields looked very pretty.
  • In Harrisburg we saw a donkey like Neddy.
  • There are many new books in the library.
  • The sun knows that you like to see the world covered with beautiful white snow and so he kept back all his brightness, and let the little crystals form in the sky.
  • Then the sun will appear in all his radiance and fill the world with light.
  • I wonder how many years there will be in eternity.
  • Of course the sun did not shine, but we had great open wood fires in the rooms, which were all very sweet with roses and other flowers, which were sent to me from distant friends; and fruits of all kinds from California and other places.
  • Tommy Stringer, who appears in several of the following letters, became blind and deaf when he was four years old.
  • For a while he was kept in the general hospital at Allegheny.
  • From here he was to be sent to an almshouse, for at that time there was no other place for him in Pennsylvania.
  • It makes me very happy indeed to know that I have such dear friends in other lands.
  • And now I want to tell you what the dog lovers in America are going to do.
  • I have chosen this paper because I want the spray of violets in the corner to tell you of my grateful love.
  • It is very beautiful to think that people far away in England feel sorry for a little helpless child in America.
  • I used to think, when I read in my books about your great city, that when I visited it the people would be strangers to me, but now I feel differently.
  • I wonder if the May-days in England are as beautiful as they are here.
  • I hope too, that Bishop Brooks' whole life will be as rich in happiness as the month of May is full of blossoms and singing birds.
  • Before a teacher was found for Tommy and while he was still in the care of Helen and Miss Sullivan, a reception was held for him at the kindergarten.
  • All of these she answered herself, and she made public acknowledgment in letters to the newspapers.
  • I tried to imagine my gentle poet when he was a school-boy, and I wondered if it was in Andover he learned the songs of the birds and the secrets of the shy little woodland children.
  • I am sure his heart was always full of music, and in God's beautiful world he must have heard love's sweet replying.
  • When I came home teacher read to me "The School-boy," for it is not in our print.
  • Did you know that the blind children are going to have their commencement exercises in Tremont Temple, next Tuesday afternoon?
  • I hope our kind friend Dr. Ellis will come too, and take Tom in his arms.
  • It is Sunday morning, and while I sit here in the library writing this letter you are teaching hundreds of people some of the grand and beautiful things about their heavenly Father.
  • When the Perkins Institution closed in June, Helen and her teacher went south to Tuscumbia, where they remained until December.
  • There is a hiatus of several months in the letters, caused by the depressing effect on Helen and Miss Sullivan of the "Frost King" episode.
  • He has, in truth, behaved very strangely ever since we came to Brewster.
  • Perhaps the Old Sea God as he lay asleep upon the shore, heard the soft music of growing things--the stir of life in the earth's bosom, and his stormy heart was angry, because he knew that his and Winter's reign was almost at an end.
  • But lo! the lovely maiden only smiles more sweetly, and breathes upon the icy battlements of her enemies, and in a moment they vanish, and the glad Earth gives her a royal welcome.
  • This letter was reproduced in facsimile in St. Nicholas, June, 1892.
  • The small letters are all made in the grooves, while the long ones extend above and below them.
  • In May, 1892, Helen gave a tea in aid of the kindergarten for the blind.
  • In May, 1892, Helen gave a tea in aid of the kindergarten for the blind.
  • Need I tell you that I was more than delighted to hear that you are really interested in the "tea"?
  • You remember teacher and I told you Sunday that I wanted to have a little tea in aid of the kindergarten.
  • Kind people will not disappoint me, when they know that I plead for helpless little children who live in darkness and ignorance.
  • There was no light in my soul.
  • Sometimes we sat in the hammock, and teacher read to me.
  • You could not read Braille; for it is written in dots, not at all like ordinary letters.
  • The reports which you have read in the paper about me are not true at all.
  • I am always delighted when anyone writes me a beautiful thought which I can treasure in my memory forever.
  • I often think of the pleasant time we had all together in Boston last spring.
  • Put your whole heart in the good work, my child, and it cannot fail.
  • In March Helen and Miss Sullivan went North, and spent the next few months traveling and visiting friends.
  • In reading this letter about Niagara one should remember that Miss Keller knows distance and shape, and that the size of Niagara is within her experience after she has explored it, crossed the bridge and gone down in the elevator.
  • In reading this letter about Niagara one should remember that Miss Keller knows distance and shape, and that the size of Niagara is within her experience after she has explored it, crossed the bridge and gone down in the elevator.
  • TO MRS. KATE ADAMS KELLER South Boston, April 13, 1893. ...Teacher, Mrs. Pratt and I very unexpectedly decided to take a journey with dear Dr. Bell Mr. Westervelt, a gentleman whom father met in Washington, has a school for the deaf in Rochester.
  • When the reception was over we went back to the hotel and teacher slept quite unconscious of the surprise which was in store for her.
  • You can never imagine how I felt when I stood in the presence of Niagara until you have the same mysterious sensations yourself.
  • I suppose you feel so, too, when you gaze up to the stars in the stillness of the night, do you not?...
  • We went down a hundred and twenty feet in an elevator that we might see the violent eddies and whirlpools in the deep gorge below the Falls.
  • I was only doing as the Canadians do, while I was in their country, and besides I honor England's good queen.
  • His beautiful word-pictures made us feel as if we were sitting in the shadow of San Marco, dreaming, or sailing upon the moonlit canal....
  • That is my castle in the air.
  • Her visit to the World's Fair she described in a letter to Mr. John P. Spaulding, which was published in St. Nicholas, and is much like the following letter.
  • In a prefatory note which Miss Sullivan wrote for St. Nicholas, she says that people frequently said to her, "Helen sees more with her fingers than we do with our eyes."
  • TO THE CHIEFS OF THE DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF BUILDINGS AND EXHIBITS
  • GENTLEMEN--The bearer, Miss Helen Keller, accompanied by Miss Sullivan, is desirous of making a complete inspection of the Exposition in all Departments.
  • Please favour her with every facility to examine the exhibits in the several Departments, and extend to her such other courtesies as may be possible.
  • I sat in King Ludwig's armchair and felt like a queen when Dr. Gillett remarked that I had many loyal subjects.
  • There are forty-seven letters in their alphabets.
  • He invited me to visit his museum in Salem the next time I go to Boston.
  • We also rode in the Ferris wheel, and on the ice-railway, and had a sail in the Whale-back....
  • In the spring of 1893 a club was started in Tuscumbia, of which Mrs. Keller was president, to establish a public library.
  • In the spring of 1893 a club was started in Tuscumbia, of which Mrs. Keller was president, to establish a public library.
  • Several hundred books, including many fine ones, were sent to me in a short time, as well as money and encouragement.
  • Every day I find how little I know, but I do not feel discouraged since God has given me an eternity in which to learn more.
  • I have only a few moments left in which to answer your questions about the "Helen Keller" Public Library.
  • At present there is no library of any sort in the town.
  • My mother and several of my friends said they would help me with the establishment of a public library.
  • They have now about 100 books and about $55 in money, and a kind gentleman has given us land on which to erect a library building.
  • But in the meantime the club has rented a little room in a central part of the town, and the books which we already have are free to all. 3.
  • Only a few of my kind friends in Boston know anything about the library.
  • We are all discoverers in one sense, being born quite ignorant of all things; but I hardly think that is what she meant.
  • In February Helen and Miss Sullivan returned to Tuscumbia.
  • In the summer they attended the meeting at Chautauqua of the American Association for the Promotion of the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, where Miss Sullivan read a paper on Helen Keller's education.
  • In the fall Helen and Miss Sullivan entered the Wright-Humason School in New York, which makes a special of lip-reading and voice-culture.
  • In the fall Helen and Miss Sullivan entered the Wright-Humason School in New York, which makes a special of lip-reading and voice-culture.
  • The ancient cannon, which look seaward, wear a very menacing expression; but I doubt if there is any unkindness in their rusty old hearts.
  • Liberty is a gigantic figure of a woman in Greek draperies, holding in her right hand a torch....
  • The glorious bay lay calm and beautiful in the October sunshine, and the ships came and went like idle dreams; those seaward going slowly disappeared like clouds that change from gold to gray; those homeward coming sped more quickly like birds that seek their mother's nest....
  • ...You know our kind teachers take us to see everything which they think will interest us, and we learn a great deal in that delightful way.
  • Here we are once more in the great metropolis!
  • After we had had our breakfast, Teacher asked one of the train-men in the station if the New York train was made up.
  • He said no, it would not be called for about fifteen minutes; so we sat down to wait; but in a moment the man came back and asked Teacher if we would like to go to the train at once.
  • We had a quiet but very pleasant time in Hulton.
  • He has lately had several books printed in England for me, "Old Mortality," "The Castle of Otranto" and "King of No-land."...
  • How noble and kingly the King was, especially in his misfortunes!
  • We think of you so, so often! and our hearts go out to you in tenderest sympathy; and you know better than this poor letter can tell you how happy we always are to have you with us!
  • We left the city last Thursday night, and arrived in Brewster Friday afternoon.
  • We missed the Cape Cod train Friday morning, and so we came down to Provincetown in the steamer Longfellow.
  • We spent about three weeks in Boston, after leaving New York, and I need not tell you we had a most delightful time.
  • We visited our good friends, Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlin, at Wrentham, out in the country, where they have a lovely home.
  • We also went in bathing several times.
  • Perhaps our guardian angel gathers them up as we drop them, and will give them back to us in the beautiful sometime when we have grown wiser, and learned how to use them rightly.
  • But, however this may be, I cannot now write the letter which has lain in my thought for you so long.
  • He died last Saturday at my home in Tuscumbia, and I was not there.
  • The "examinations" mentioned in this letter were merely tests given in the school, but as they were old Harvard papers, it is evident that in some subjects Miss Keller was already fairly well prepared for Radcliffe.
  • You must tell Mr. Howells when you see him, that we are living in his house....
  • I think you remember Mr. Chamberlin, the "Listener" in the Boston Transcript.
  • Then the interference of Mr. Gilman resulted in Mrs. Keller's withdrawing Miss Helen and her sister, Miss Mildred, from the school.
  • What an inexpressible joy it will be to read about Achilles, and Ulysses, and Andromache and Athene, and the rest of my old friends in their own glorious language!
  • Some one balances the toboggan on the very crest of the hill, while we get on, and when we are ready, off we dash down the side of the hill in a headlong rush, and, leaping a projection, plunge into a snow-drift and go swimming far across the pond at a tremendous rate!...
  • I find I get on faster, and do better work with Mr. Keith than I did in the classes at the Cambridge School, and I think it was well that I gave up that kind of work.
  • My teacher and other friends think I could ride a Columbia tandem in the country with perfect safety.
  • But the weather and the scenery were so beautiful, and it was such fun to go scooting over the smoother part of the road, I didn't mind the mishaps in the least.
  • It is like a beautiful maiden, who always lived in a palace, surrounded by a magnificent court; while the "Iliad" is like a splendid youth, who has had the earth for his playground.
  • By and by we shall take a little walk in the Public Gardens.
  • But alas! they are not, and I shall have to content myself with a stroll in the Gardens.
  • Somehow, after the great fields and pastures and lofty pine-groves of the country, they seem shut-in and conventional.
  • You will think I'm pining away for my beloved Wrentham, which is true in one sense and not in another.
  • How funny they must have looked in their "rough-rider" costumes, mounted upon their fiery steeds!
  • Why, I can do long, complicated quadratic equations in my head quite easily, and it is great fun!
  • In it there would be no suggestion of hatred or revenge, nor a trace of the old-time belief that might makes right.
  • A kind friend took me over in the morning to the Boston Art Museum.
  • She had previously obtained permission from General Loring, Supt. of the Museum, for me to touch the statues, especially those which represented my old friends in the "Iliad" and "Aeneid."
  • But somehow, I should prefer to see the originals in the place where Genius meant them to remain, not only as a hymn of praise to the gods, but also as a monument of the glory of Greece.
  • As to the two-handed alphabet, I think it is much easier for those who have sight than the manual alphabet; for most of the letters look like the large capitals in books; but I think when it comes to teaching a deaf-blind person to spell, the manual alphabet is much more convenient, and less conspicuous....
  • There is but one cloud in my sky at present; but that is one which casts a dark shadow over my life, and makes me very anxious at times.
  • I feel as if I ought to give up the idea of going to college altogether: for not all the knowledge in the world could make me happy, if obtained at such a cost.
  • I would like so much to show him in some way how deeply I appreciate all that he is doing for me, and I cannot think of anything better to do.
  • How I should delight in their beauty and color!
  • However, I am glad that I am not debarred from all pleasure in the pictures.
  • I have his "Jungle-Book" in raised print, and what a splendid, refreshing book it is!
  • Then the world has advanced one step in its heavenward march.
  • We shall all live together in a small cottage on one of the lakes at Wrentham, while my dear teacher takes a much needed rest.
  • She reads the lips well, and if she cannot understand a phrase, her friends write it in her hand, and in this way she converses with strangers.
  • I cannot make out anything written in my hand, so you see, Ragnhild has got ahead of me in some things.
  • TO MRS. LAURENCE HUTTON Wrentham, July 29, 1899. ...I passed in all the subjects I offered, and with credit in advanced Latin....
  • They would not allow Teacher to read any of the papers to me; so the papers were copied for me in braille.
  • This arrangement worked very well in the languages, but not nearly so well in the Mathematics.
  • She said I had already shown the world that I could do the college work, by passing all my examinations successfully, in spite of many obstacles.
  • But, while we were discussing plans for the winter, a suggestion which Dr. Hale had made long ago flashed across Teacher's mind--that I might take courses somewhat like those offered at Radcliffe, under the instruction of the professors in these courses.
  • Why, you yourself seem to think that I taught you American braille, when you do not know a single letter in the system!
  • The college authorities would not permit Miss Sullivan to read the examination papers to me; so Mr. Eugene C. Vining, one of the instructors at the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was employed to copy the papers for me in braille.
  • Mr. Vining was a perfect stranger to me, and could not communicate with me except by writing in braille.
  • The Proctor also was a stranger, and did not attempt to communicate with me in any way; and, as they were both unfamiliar with my speech, they could not readily understand what I said to them.
  • However, the braille worked well enough in the languages; but when it came to Geometry and Algebra, it was different.
  • I was sorely perplexed, and felt quite discouraged, and wasted much precious time, especially in Algebra.
  • Now there is one more fact, which I wish to state very plainly, in regard to what Mr. Gilman wrote to you.
  • I never received any direct instruction in the Gilman School.
  • Dear Frau Grote learned the manual alphabet, and used to teach me herself; but this was in private lessons, which were paid for by my friends.
  • In the German class Miss Sullivan interpreted to me as well as she could what the teacher said.
  • Perhaps, if you would send a copy of this to the head of the Cambridge School, it might enlighten his mind on a few subjects, on which he seems to be in total darkness just now....
  • In French Teacher is reading "Columba" to me.
  • We could hear the yells of the boys and the cheers of the lookers-on as plainly in our room as if we had been on the field.
  • But, in spite of all their wild efforts, neither side was scored, and we all laughed and said, "Oh, well now the pot can't call the kettle black!"...
  • We went to St. Bartholomew's Sunday, and I have not felt so much at home in a church since dear Bishop Brooks died.
  • I stood in the middle of the church, where the vibrations from the great organ were strongest, and I felt the mighty waves of sound beat against me, as the great billows beat against a little ship at sea.
  • In Latin, I am reading Horace's odes.
  • You know a student's life is of necessity somewhat circumscribed and narrow and crowds out almost everything that is not in books....
  • In college I should wish to continue most, if not all of these subjects.
  • In college she, or possibly in some subjects some one else, would of necessity be with me in the lecture-room and at recitations.
  • In college she, or possibly in some subjects some one else, would of necessity be with me in the lecture-room and at recitations.
  • My friends think it very strange that they should hesitate so long, especially when I have not asked them to simplify my work in the least, but only to modify it so as to meet the existing circumstances.
  • In the fall Miss Keller entered Radcliffe College.
  • TO MR. JOHN HITZ 14 Coolidge Ave., Cambridge, Nov. 26, 1900. ...--has already communicated with you in regard to her and my plan of establishing an institution for deaf and blind children.
  • My friends thought we might have one or two pupils in our own home, thereby securing to me the advantage of being helpful to others without any of the disadvantages of a large school.
  • I considered this suggestion carefully, then I told Mr. Rhoades that I should be proud and glad to have wise friends to whom I could always turn for advice in all important matters.
  • However Mr. Bell suggested that--and all her friends who are interested in her scheme should organize an association for the promotion of the education of the deaf and blind, Teacher and myself being included of course.
  • At the same time Dr. Bell added that I could rest content and fight my way through Radcliffe in competition with seeing and hearing girls, while the great desire of my heart was being fulfilled.
  • Radcliffe girls are always up to their ears in work.
  • The courses at Radcliffe are elective, only certain courses in English are prescribed.
  • Many of my friends would be well pleased if I would take two or even one course a year, but I rather object to spending the rest of my life in college....
  • Last October I heard of an unusually bright little girl in Texas.
  • She has never been taught; but they say she can sew and likes to help others in this sort of work.
  • I also know a child at the Institution for the Deaf in Mississippi.
  • The dear, sweet little girl, it makes my heart ache to think how utterly she is cut off from all that is good and desirable in life.
  • I was in New York not long ago and I saw Miss Rhoades, who told me that she had seen Katie McGirr.
  • She said Katie was very sweet indeed, but sadly in need of proper instruction.
  • A few days ago I met Tommy Stringer in the railroad station at Wrentham.
  • TO MRS. LAURENCE HUTTON 14 Coolidge Avenue, Cambridge, December 27, 1900. ...So you read about our class luncheon in the papers?
  • How in the world do the papers find out everything, I wonder.
  • Did I tell you in my last letter that I had a new dress, a real party dress with low neck and short sleeves and quite a train?
  • I have worn it only once, but then I felt that Solomon in all his glory was not to be compared with me!
  • A gentleman in Philadelphia has just written to my teacher about a deaf and blind child in Paris, whose parents are Poles.
  • TO MR. WILLIAM WADE Cambridge, February 2, 1901. ...By the way, have you any specimens of English braille especially printed for those who have lost their sight late in life or have fingers hardened by long toil, so that their touch is less sensitive than that of other blind people?
  • Even Greek can be embossed in it, as you know.
  • It is evident that the blind should have a good magazine, not a special magazine for the blind, but one of our best monthlies, printed in embossed letters.
  • A little bird had already sung the good news in my ear; but it was doubly pleasant to have it straight from you.
  • It would be splendid to have The Great Round World printed in "language that can be felt."
  • To be able to read for one's self what is being willed, thought and done in the world--the world in whose joys and sorrows, failures and successes one feels the keenest interest--that would indeed be a happiness too deep for words.
  • I trust that the effort of The Great Round World to bring light to those who sit in darkness will receive the encouragement and support it so richly deserves.
  • The Indiana was the largest and finest ship in the Harbor, and we felt very proud of her.
  • He had just constructed a boat that could be propelled by a kite with the wind in its favor, and one day he tried experiments to see if he could steer the kite against the wind.
  • On one of them I noticed that the strings were of wire, and having had some experience in bead work, I said I thought they would break.
  • After that he asked me if the strings were all right and changed them at once when I answered in the negative.
  • It was written out of my heart, and perhaps that is why it met a sympathetic response in other hearts.
  • I know you will be amused when I tell you that I am deeply interested in politics.
  • What is remarkable in her career is already accomplished, and whatever she may do in the future will be but a relatively slight addition to the success which distinguishes her now.
  • He quoted the passages in which she explains that college is not the "universal Athens" she had hoped to find, and cited the cases of other remarkable persons whose college life had proved disappointing.
  • But it is to be remembered that Miss Keller has written many things in her autobiography for the fun of writing them, and the disillusion, which the writer of the editorial took seriously, is in great part humorous.
  • In her account of her early education Miss Keller is not giving a scientifically accurate record of her life, nor even of the important events.
  • She cannot know in detail how she was taught, and her memory of her childhood is in some cases an idealized memory of what she has learned later from her teacher and others.
  • That is why her teacher's records may be found to differ in some particulars from Miss Keller's account.
  • The way in which Miss Keller wrote her story shows, as nothing else can show, the difficulties she had to overcome.
  • When Miss Keller puts her work in typewritten form, she cannot refer to it again unless some one reads it to her by means of the manual alphabet.
  • In rewriting the story, Miss Keller made corrections on separate pages on her braille machine.
  • Miss Sullivan, who is an excellent critic, made suggestions at many points in the course of composition and revision.
  • In this way she is able to get the meaning of those half sentences which we complete unconsciously from the tone of the voice or the twinkle of the eye.
  • Skill in the use of words and her habit of playing with them make her ready with mots and epigrams.
  • Her success has been complete, for in trying to be like other people she has come most fully to be herself.
  • When a psychologist asked her if Miss Keller spelled on her fingers in her sleep, Miss Sullivan replied that she did not think it worth while to sit up and watch, such matters were of so little consequence.
  • If others are aglow with music, a responding glow, caught sympathetically, shines in her face.
  • In the same way her response to music is in part sympathetic, although she enjoys it for its own sake.
  • In the same way her response to music is in part sympathetic, although she enjoys it for its own sake.
  • When the organ was played for her in St. Bartholomew's, the whole building shook with the great pedal notes, but that does not altogether account for what she felt and enjoyed.
  • The vibration of the air as the organ notes swelled made her sway in answer.
  • It is amusing to read in one of the magazines of 1895 that Miss Keller "has a just and intelligent appreciation of different composers from having literally felt their music, Schumann being her favourite."
  • She reaches out and touches the leaves, and the world of growing things is hers, as truly as it is ours, to enjoy while she holds the leaves in her fingers and smells the blossoms, and to remember when the walk is done.
  • When she is in a new place, especially an interesting place like Niagara, whoever accompanies her--usually, of course, Miss Sullivan--is kept busy giving her an idea of visible details.
  • A comparative experience drawn from written descriptions and from her teacher's words has kept her free from errors in her use of terms of sound and vision.
  • This sense is not, however, so finely developed as in some other blind people.
  • Laura Bridgman could tell minute shades of difference in the size of thread, and made beautiful lace.
  • She was slower than he expected her to be in identifying them by their relative weight and size.
  • Large statues, of which she can feel the sweep of line with her whole hand, she knows in their higher esthetic value.
  • When she was at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston she stood on a step-ladder and let both hands play over the statues.
  • It is, however, in her daily life that one can best measure the delicacy of her senses and her manual skill.
  • She gropes her way without much certainty in rooms where she is quite familiar.
  • Even people who know her fairly well have written in the magazines about Miss Sullivan's "mysterious telegraphic communications" with her pupil.
  • The manual alphabet is that in use among all educated deaf people.
  • Green's "Short History of the English People" is in six large volumes.
  • The time that one of Miss Keller's friends realizes most strongly that she is blind is when he comes on her suddenly in the dark and hears the rustle of her fingers across the page.
  • Braille is especially useful in making single manuscript copies of books.
  • Books for the blind are very limited in number.
  • Miss Keller talks to herself absent-mindedly in the manual alphabet.
  • Miss Sullivan says that both she and Miss Keller remember "in their fingers" what they have said.
  • For Miss Keller to spell a sentence in the manual alphabet impresses it on her mind just as we learn a thing from having heard it many times and can call back the memory of its sound.
  • Miss Keller is distinctly not a singular proof of occult and mysterious theories, and any attempt to explain her in that way fails to reckon with her normality.
  • All that she is, all that she has done, can be explained directly, except such things in every human being as never can be explained.
  • They are, I think, the only ones of their kind in America.
  • What her good friend, Charles Dudley Warner, wrote about her in Harper's Magazine in 1896 was true then, and it remains true now:
  • I believe she is the purest-minded human ever in existence....
  • Some time ago, when a policeman shot dead her dog, a dearly loved daily companion, she found in her forgiving heart no condemnation for the man; she only said, 'If he had only known what a good dog she was, he wouldn't have shot her.'
  • In consequence her mind is not only vigorous, but it is pure.
  • She is in love with noble things, with noble thoughts, and with the characters of noble men and women.
  • Miss Sullivan writes in a letter of 1891:
  • There is never the least false sententiousness in what she says.
  • She means everything so thoroughly that her very quotations, her echoes from what she has read, are in truth original.
  • Her logic and her sympathy are in excellent balance.
  • Her sympathy is of the swift and ministering sort which, fortunately, she has found so often in other people.
  • She was intensely pro-Boer and wrote a strong argument in favour of Boer independence.
  • Both Mr. Gilman and Mr. Keith, the teachers who prepared her for college, were struck by her power of constructive reasoning; and she was excellent in pure mathematics, though she seems never to have enjoyed it much.
  • In the diary that she kept at the Wright-Humason School in New York she wrote on October 18, 1894, "I find that I have four things to learn in my school life here, and indeed, in life--to think clearly without hurry or confusion, to love everybody sincerely, to act in everything with the highest motives, and to trust in dear God unhesitatingly."
  • In the diary that she kept at the Wright-Humason School in New York she wrote on October 18, 1894, "I find that I have four things to learn in my school life here, and indeed, in life--to think clearly without hurry or confusion, to love everybody sincerely, to act in everything with the highest motives, and to trust in dear God unhesitatingly."
  • Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe was born in Boston, November 10, 1801, and died in Boston, January 9, 1876.
  • He was a great philanthropist, interested especially in the education of all defectives, the feeble-minded, the blind, and the deaf.
  • As head of the Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston, he heard of Laura Bridgman and had her brought to the Institution on October 4, 1837.
  • Dr. Howe was an experimental scientist and had in him the spirit of New England transcendentalism with its large faith and large charities.
  • Science and faith together led him to try to make his way into the soul which he believed was born in Laura Bridgman as in every other human being.
  • His success convinced him that language can be conveyed through type to the mind of the blind-deaf child, who, before education, is in the state of the baby who has not learned to prattle; indeed, is in a much worse state, for the brain has grown in years without natural nourishment.
  • Too much cannot be said in praise of Dr. Howe's work.
  • He never forgot to keep his records of Laura Bridgman in the fashion of one who works in a laboratory.
  • This in itself is a great comment on the difference between Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller.
  • Helen Keller became so rapidly a distinctive personality that she kept her teacher in a breathless race to meet the needs of her pupil, with no time or strength to make a scientific study.
  • In some ways this is unfortunate.
  • Miss Sullivan knew at the beginning that Helen Keller would be more interesting and successful than Laura Bridgman, and she expresses in one of her letters the need of keeping notes.
  • But neither temperament nor training allowed her to make her pupil the object of any experiment or observation which did not help in the child's development.
  • When she first wrote from Tuscumbia to Mr. Michael Anagnos, Dr. Howes son-in-law and his successor as Director of the Perkins Institution, about her work with her pupil, the Boston papers began at once to publish exaggerated accounts of Helen Keller.
  • In a letter dated April 10, 1887, only five weeks after she went to Helen Keller, she wrote to a friend:
  • On March 4, 1888, she writes in a letter:
  • One paper has Helen demonstrating problems in geometry by means of her playing blocks.
  • In December, 1887, appeared the first report of the Director of the Perkins Institution, which deals with Helen Keller.
  • For this report Miss Sullivan prepared, in reluctant compliance with the request of Mr. Anagnos, an account of her work.
  • Of this report Miss Sullivan wrote in a letter dated October 30, 1887:
  • As Mr. Anagnos was the head of a great institution, what he said had much more effect than the facts in Miss Sullivan's account on which he based his statements.
  • In a year after she first went to Helen Keller, Miss Sullivan found herself and her pupil the centre of a stupendous fiction.
  • For this report Miss Sullivan wrote the fullest and largest account she has ever written; and in this report appeared the "Frost King," which is discussed fully in a later chapter.
  • Although Miss Sullivan is still rather amused than distressed when some one, even one of her friends, makes mistakes in published articles about her and Miss Keller, still she sees that Miss Keller's book should include all the information that the teacher could at present furnish.
  • In these letters we have an almost weekly record of Miss Sullivan's work.
  • Many people have thought that any attempt to find the principles in her method would be nothing but a later theory superimposed on Miss Sullivan's work.
  • But it is evident that in these letters she was making a clear analysis of what she was doing.
  • Very early in her life she became almost totally blind, and she entered the Perkins Institution October 7, 1880, when she was fourteen years old.
  • Mr. Anagnos says in his report of 1887: She was obliged to begin her education at the lowest and most elementary point; but she showed from the very start that she had in herself the force and capacity which insure success....
  • In 1886 she graduated from the Perkins Institution.
  • Mr. Anagnos wrote in the report of the Perkins Institution, dated November 27, 1888: At my urgent request, Helen, accompanied by her mother and her teacher, came to the North in the last week of May, and spent several months with us as our guests....
  • But whether Helen stays at home or makes visits in other parts of the country, her education is always under the immediate direction and exclusive control of her teacher.
  • No one interferes with Miss Sullivan's plans, or shares in her tasks.
  • Here follow in order Miss Sullivan's letters and the most important passages from the reports.
  • For the ease of the reader I have, with Miss Sullivan's consent, made the extracts run together continuously and supplied words of connection and the resulting necessary changes in syntax, and Miss Sullivan has made slight changes in the phrasing of her reports and also of her letters, which were carelessly written.
  • The first letter is dated March 6, 1887, three days after her arrival in Tuscumbia.
  • Captain Keller met us in the yard and gave me a cheery welcome and a hearty handshake.
  • As we approached the house I saw a child standing in the doorway, and Captain Keller said, There she is.
  • I attracted her attention by showing her my watch and letting her hold it in her hand.
  • Friends had probably brought her candy in their bags, and she expected to find some in mine.
  • I made her understand, by pointing to a trunk in the hall and to myself and nodding my head, that I had a trunk, and then made the sign that she had used for eating, and nodded again.
  • She understood in a flash and ran downstairs to tell her mother, by means of emphatic signs, that there was some candy in a trunk for her.
  • She returned in a few minutes and helped me put away my things.
  • She is large, strong, and ruddy, and as unrestrained in her movements as a young colt.
  • She has none of those nervous habits that are so noticeable and so distressing in blind children.
  • Her hands are in everything; but nothing holds her attention for long.
  • Dear child, her restless spirit gropes in the dark.
  • Then I took the doll, meaning to give it back to her when she had made the letters; but she thought I meant to take it from her, and in an instant she was in a temper, and tried to seize the doll.
  • She made the letters rapidly, and I gave her the cake, which she ate in a great hurry, thinking, I suppose, that I might take it from her.
  • She began to work delightedly and finished the card in a few minutes, and did it very neatly indeed.
  • She had no further trouble and filled the string quickly, too quickly, in fact.
  • She puts her hands in our plates and helps herself, and when the dishes are passed, she grabs them and takes out whatever she wants.
  • This morning I would not let her put her hand in my plate.
  • I let her see that I was eating, but did not let her put her hand in the plate.
  • In a few minutes she yielded and finished her breakfast peaceably.
  • It was another hour before I succeeded in getting her napkin folded.
  • Since I wrote you, Helen and I have gone to live all by ourselves in a little garden-house about a quarter of a mile from her home, only a short distance from Ivy Green, the Keller homestead.
  • I very soon made up my mind that I could do nothing with Helen in the midst of the family, who have always allowed her to do exactly as she pleased.
  • So they were all willing to give in for the sake of peace.
  • I told her that in my opinion the child ought to be separated from the family for a few weeks at least--that she must learn to depend on and obey me before I could make any headway.
  • There is a piazza in front, covered with vines that grow so luxuriantly that you have to part them to see the garden beyond.
  • She devoted herself to her dolls the first evening, and when it was bedtime she undressed very quietly, but when she felt me get into bed with her, she jumped out on the other side, and nothing that I could do would induce her to get in again.
  • I never saw such strength and endurance in a child.
  • I finally succeeded in getting her on the bed and covered her up, and she lay curled up as near the edge of the bed as possible.
  • As I have said before, she is wonderfully bright and active and as quick as lightning in her movements.
  • We had a good frolic this morning out in the garden.
  • She lets me kiss her now, and when she is in a particularly gentle mood, she will sit in my lap for a minute or two; but she does not return my caresses.
  • It now remains my pleasant task to direct and mould the beautiful intelligence that is beginning to stir in the child-soul.
  • Already people remark the change in Helen.
  • Her father looks in at us morning and evening as he goes to and from his office, and sees her contentedly stringing her beads or making horizontal lines on her sewing-card, and exclaims, "How quiet she is!"
  • When he succeeded in forming it to suit her, she patted him on his woolly head so vigorously that I thought some of his slips were intentional.
  • The back of the greatest obstacle in the path of progress is broken.
  • I have told Captain and Mrs. Keller that they must not interfere with me in any way.
  • The improvement they cannot help seeing in their child has given them more confidence in me.
  • We almost live in the garden, where everything is growing and blooming and glowing.
  • Helen loves to dig and play in the dirt like any other child.
  • At ten we come in and string beads for a few minutes.
  • Her father says he is going to fit up a gymnasium for her in the pump-house; but we both like a good romp better than set exercises.
  • We visit the horses and mules in their stalls and hunt for eggs and feed the turkeys.
  • Often, when the weather is fine, we drive from four to six, or go to see her aunt at Ivy Green or her cousins in the town.
  • Helen has taken the second great step in her education.
  • In a previous letter I think I wrote you that "mug" and "milk" had given Helen more trouble than all the rest.
  • Then it occurred to me that with the help of this new word I might succeed in straightening out the "mug-milk" difficulty.
  • All the way back to the house she was highly excited, and learned the name of every object she touched, so that in a few hours she had adDED THIRTY NEW WORDS TO HER VOCABULARY.
  • Last night when I got in bed, she stole into my arms of her own accord and kissed me for the first time, and I thought my heart would burst, so full was it of joy.
  • I see an improvement in Helen day to day, almost from hour to hour.
  • In response to questions she points out prettily her nose, mouth, eye, chin, cheek, ear.
  • These observations have given me a clue to the method to be followed in teaching Helen language.I SHALL TALK INTO HER HAND AS WE TALK INTO THE BABY'S EARS.
  • I SHALL USE COMPLETE SENTENCES IN TALKING TO HER, and fill out the meaning with gestures and her descriptive signs when necessity requires it; but I shall not try to keep her mind fixed on any one thing.
  • We play a little game which I find most useful in developing the intellect, and which incidentally answers the purpose of a language lesson.
  • When we first played this game two or three days ago, she showed no ingenuity at all in finding the object.
  • Again, when I hid the spool, she looked for it in a little box not more than an inch long; and she very soon gave up the search.
  • Let him go and come freely, let him touch real things and combine his impressions for himself, instead of sitting indoors at a little round table, while a sweet-voiced teacher suggests that he build a stone wall with his wooden blocks, or make a rainbow out of strips of coloured paper, or plant straw trees in bead flower-pots.
  • She came tearing upstairs a few minutes ago in a state of great excitement.
  • She led the way to the pump-house, and there in the corner was one of the setters with five dear little pups!
  • She was much interested in the feeding process, and spelled "mother-dog" and "baby" several times.
  • She screamed with glee when the little things squealed and squirmed in their efforts to get back to their mother, and spelled, "Baby--eat large."
  • Then we sit down under a tree, or in the shade of a bush, and talk about it.
  • This gratifies the child's love of approbation and keeps up her interest in things.
  • You see, my mind is undisciplined, full of skips and jumps, and here and there a lot of things huddled together in dark corners.
  • How I long to put it in order!
  • Usually we take one of the little "Readers" up in a big tree near the house and spend an hour or two finding the words Helen already knows.
  • It would astonish you to see how many words she learns in an hour in this pleasant manner.
  • If she finds anything in her way, she flings it on the floor, no matter what it is: a glass, a pitcher, or even a lamp.
  • She went through these motions several times, mimicking every movement, then she stood very still for a moment with a troubled look on her face, which suddenly cleared, and she spelled, "Good Helen," and wreathed her face in a very large, artificial smile.
  • She begins to spell the minute she wakes up in the morning, and continues all day long.
  • I gave her my braille slate to play with, thinking that the mechanical pricking of holes in the paper would amuse her and rest her mind.
  • The other night when I went to bed, I found Helen sound asleep with a big book clasped tightly in her arms.
  • When I asked her about it in the morning, she said, "Book--cry," and completed her meaning by shaking and other signs of fear.
  • I told her that the book wasn't afraid, and must sleep in its case, and that "girl" mustn't read in bed.
  • I had no idea a short time ago how to go to work; I was feeling about in the dark; but somehow I know now, and I know that I know.
  • Already people are taking a deep interest in Helen.
  • She is no ordinary child, and people's interest in her education will be no ordinary interest.
  • Yesterday Helen took off her clothes and sat in her skin all the afternoon.
  • She is much interested in some little chickens that are pecking their way into the world this morning.
  • I let her hold a shell in her hand, and feel the chicken "chip, chip."
  • Her astonishment, when she felt the tiny creature inside, cannot be put in a letter.
  • You would be amused to see me hold a squealing pig in my arms, while Helen feels it all over, and asks countless questions--questions not easy to answer either.
  • It's queer how ready people always are with advice in any real or imaginary emergency, and no matter how many times experience has shown them to be wrong, they continue to set forth their opinions, as if they had received them from the Almighty!
  • She has counted everything in the house, and is now busy counting the words in her primer.
  • If she could see and hear, I suppose she would get rid of her superfluous energy in ways which would not, perhaps, tax her brain so much, although I suspect that the ordinary child takes his play pretty seriously.
  • She wanted to know if men were shooting in the sky when she felt the thunder, and if the trees and flowers drank all the rain.
  • Her every waking moment is spent in the endeavour to satisfy her innate desire for knowledge, and her mind works so incessantly that we have feared for her health.
  • In one lesson I taught her these words: BEDSTEAD, MATTRESS, SHEET, BLANKET, COMFORTER, SPREAD, PILLOW.
  • She enjoys punching holes in paper with the stiletto, and I supposed it was because she could examine the result of her work; but we watched her one day, and I was much surprised to find that she imagined she was writing a letter.
  • She will insist on having her hair put in curl papers when she is so sleepy she can scarcely stand.
  • She discovered a hole in her boot the other morning, and, after breakfast, she went to her father and spelled, "Helen new boot Simpson (her brother) buggy store man."
  • I found her in a terrible passion.
  • She stood very still for a moment, and it was evident from her face, which was flushed and troubled, that a struggle was going on in her mind.
  • She was very much excited when we went upstairs; so I tried to interest her in a curious insect called a stick-bug.
  • It's the queerest thing I ever saw--a little bundle of fagots fastened together in the middle.
  • I remember how unbearable I used to find the inquisitiveness of my friends' children; but I know now that these questions indicate the child's growing interest in the cause of things.
  • Who put chickens in eggs?
  • We had a beautiful time in Huntsville.
  • The first evening she learned the names of all the people in the hotel, about twenty, I think.
  • She has talked incessantly since her return about what she did in Huntsville, and we notice a very decided improvement in her ability to use language.
  • She remembers all that I told her about it, and in telling her mother REPEATED THE VERY WORDS AND PHRASES I HAD USED IN DESCRIBING IT TO HER.
  • She remembers all that I told her about it, and in telling her mother REPEATED THE VERY WORDS AND PHRASES I HAD USED IN DESCRIBING IT TO HER.
  • In conclusion she asked her mother if she should like to see "very high mountain and beautiful cloudcaps."
  • But it hardly seems possible that any mere words should convey to one who has never seen a mountain the faintest idea of its grandeur; and I don't see how any one is ever to know what impression she did receive, or the cause of her pleasure in what was told her about it.
  • "New puppies," "new calves" and "new babies" keep Helen's interest in the why and wherefore of things at white heat.
  • From the beginning, I HAVE MADE IT A PRACTICE TO ANSWER ALL HELEN'S QUESTIONS TO THE BEST OF MY ABILITY IN A WAY INTELLIGIBLE TO HER, and at the same time truthfully.
  • It was no doubt because of this ignorance that I rushed in where more experienced angels fear to tread.
  • There isn't a living soul in this part of the world to whom I can go for advice in this, or indeed, in any other educational difficulty.
  • The only thing for me to do in a perplexity is to go ahead, and learn by making mistakes.
  • But in this case I don't think I made a mistake.
  • I took Helen and my Botany, "How Plants Grow," up in the tree, where we often go to read and study, and I told her in simple words the story of plantlife.
  • I reminded her of the corn, beans and watermelon-seed she had planted in the spring, and told her that the tall corn in the garden, and the beans and watermelon vines had grown from those seeds.
  • The mother bird lays her eggs in a nest and keeps them warm until the birdlings are hatched.
  • I had no difficulty in making it clear to her that if plants and animals didn't produce offspring after their kind, they would cease to exist, and everything in the world would soon die.
  • She wanted to know who made fire under the ground, and if it was like the fire in stoves, and if it burned the roots of plants and trees.
  • She was much pleased with the letter, and after she had asked all the questions she could think of, she took it to her mother, who was sewing in the hall, and read it to her.
  • In the meantime Mildred had got the letter and crept away with it.
  • Mrs. Keller took the baby in her arms, and when we had succeeded in pacifying her, I asked Helen, "What did you do to baby?"
  • She has the true language-impulse, and shows great fertility of resource in making the words at her command convey her meaning.
  • Lately she has been much interested in colour.
  • She found the word "brown" in her primer and wanted to know its meaning.
  • We sat in the hammock; but there was no rest for the weary there.
  • She likes to have me tell her what I see in pictures.
  • "What colour is think?" was one of the restful questions she asked, as we swung to and fro in the hammock.
  • Only those who are with her daily can realize the rapid advancement which she is making in the acquisition of language.
  • She rarely misuses or omits one in conversation.
  • She now tells stories in which the imagination plays an important part.
  • In her reports Miss Sullivan speaks of "lessons" as if they came in regular order.
  • In her reports Miss Sullivan speaks of "lessons" as if they came in regular order.
  • This is the effect of putting it all in a summary.
  • Very soon she learned the difference between ON and IN, though it was some time before she could use these words in sentences of her own.
  • Very soon she learned the difference between ON and IN, though it was some time before she could use these words in sentences of her own.
  • In connection with this lesson she learned the names of the members of the family and the word IS.
  • "Helen is in wardrobe," "Mildred is in crib," "Box is on table," "Papa is on bed," are specimens of sentences constructed by her during the latter part of April.
  • She perceived the difference in size at once.
  • A slip on which was printed, in raised letters, the word BOX was placed on the object, and the same experiment was tried with a great many articles, but she did not immediately comprehend that the label-name represented the thing.
  • Indeed, she was much displeased because I could not find her name in the book.
  • Just then I had no sentences in raised letters which she could understand; but she would sit for hours feeling each word in her book.
  • Day after day she moved her pencil in the same tracks along the grooved paper, never for a moment expressing the least impatience or sense of fatigue.
  • For a whole evening she will sit at the table writing whatever comes into her busy brain; and I seldom find any difficulty in reading what she has written.
  • Her progress in arithmetic has been equally remarkable.
  • I wished her to make the groups of threes and supposed she would then have to count them in order to know what number fifteen threes would make.
  • The circus people were much interested in Helen, and did everything they could to make her first circus a memorable event.
  • She fed the elephants, and was allowed to climb up on the back of the largest, and sit in the lap of the "Oriental Princess," while the elephant marched majestically around the ring.
  • One of the leopards licked her hands, and the man in charge of the giraffes lifted her up in his arms so that she could feel their ears and see how tall they were.
  • Some of them cried, and the wild man of Borneo shrank from her sweet little face in terror.
  • In order to answer her questions, I have been obliged to read a great deal about animals.
  • I find it hard to realize that Christmas is almost here, in spite of the fact that Helen talks about nothing else.
  • They fix beautiful thoughts in her memory.
  • I do not think anyone can read, or talk for that matter, until he forgets words and sentences in the technical sense.
  • Who made tree grow in house?
  • She placed them in a chair, resisting all temptation to look at them until every child had received his gifts.
  • It was very sweet to see the children's eager interest in Helen, and their readiness to give her pleasure.
  • Constant repetition makes it easier to learn how to spell a word.
  • I SEE NO SENSE IN "FAKING" CONVERSATION FOR THE SAKE OF TEACHING LANGUAGE.
  • The ring you sent her was in the toe of the stocking, and when I told her you gave it to Santa Claus for her, she said, "I do love Mrs. Hopkins."
  • The other day Helen came across the word grandfather in a little story and asked her mother, "Where is grandfather?" meaning her grandfather.
  • So far, her only knowledge of death is in connection with things to eat.
  • After talking about the various things that carpenters make, she asked me, "Did carpenter make me?" and before I could answer, she spelled quickly, "No, no, photographer made me in Sheffield."
  • She said: Pencil is very tired in head.
  • In a flash she answered, "I think Uncle Frank is much (too) old to read very small letters."
  • Helen is more and more interested in colour.
  • Everything we have seen and heard is in the mind somewhere.
  • We had a splendid time in Memphis, but I didn't rest much.
  • The stores in Memphis are very good, and I managed to spend all the money that I had with me.
  • Helen was greatly interested in the boat, and insisted on being shown every inch of it from the engine to the flag on the flagstaff.
  • Dr. Bell writes that Helen's progress is without a parallel in the education of the deaf, or something like that and he says many nice things about her teacher.
  • I read in my book about large, fierce animals.
  • He lives in Hotsprings.
  • The Sunday-school was in session when we arrived, and I wish you could have seen the sensation Helen's entrance caused.
  • He put her answer down in his note book.
  • When it was time for the church service to begin, she was in such a state of excitement that I thought it best to take her away; but Captain Keller said, "No, she will be all right."
  • She wanted to show it to the little boy in the seat behind us.
  • When the communion service began, she smelt the wine, and sniffed so loud that every one in the church could hear.
  • Finally she got up from the table and went through the motion of picking seaweed and shells, and splashing in the water, holding up her skirts higher than was proper under the circumstances.
  • The next word that you receive from me will be in a yellow envelope, and it will tell you when we shall reach Boston.
  • Dr. Keller met us in Memphis.
  • I think it is her joyous interest in everything and everybody.
  • Another said, "Damn me! but I'd give everything I own in the world to have that little girl always near me."
  • Why, it is as easy to teach the name of an idea, if it is clearly formulated in the child's mind, as to teach the name of an object.
  • It would indeed be a herculean task to teach the words if the ideas did not already exist in the child's mind.
  • It is not the word, but the capacity to experience the sensation that counts in his education.
  • In one room some little tots were standing before the blackboard, painfully constructing "simple sentences."
  • These children were older in years, it is true, than the baby who lisps, "Papa kiss baby--pretty," and fills out her meaning by pointing to her new dress; but their ability to understand and use language was no greater.
  • It frequently happens that the perfume of a flower or the flavour of a fruit recalls to her mind some happy event in home life, or a delightful birthday party.
  • Her sense of touch has sensibly increased during the year, and has gained in acuteness and delicacy.
  • She responds quickly to the gentle pressure of affection, the pat of approval, the jerk of impatience, the firm motion of command, and to the many other variations of the almost infinite language of the feelings; and she has become so expert in interpreting this unconscious language of the emotions that she is often able to divine our very thoughts.
  • In my account of Helen last year, I mentioned several instances where she seemed to have called into use an inexplicable mental faculty; but it now seems to me, after carefully considering the matter, that this power may be explained by her perfect familiarity with the muscular variations of those with whom she comes into contact, caused by their emotions.
  • Helen felt the change in her mother's movements instantly, and asked, "What are we afraid of?"
  • When her attention was drawn to a marble slab inscribed with the name FLORENCE in relief, she dropped upon the ground as though looking for something, then turned to me with a face full of trouble, and asked, "Were is poor little Florence?"
  • Who put her in big hole?
  • A letter written to her mother in the course of the following week gave an account of her impression in her own words:
  • I put my little babies to sleep in Florence's little bed, and I take them to ride in her carriage.
  • She got in the ground, and she is very dirty, and she is cold.
  • Florence is very sad in big hole.
  • When she was very sick she tossed and moaned in bed.
  • She has a very sociable disposition, and delights in the companionship of those who can follow the rapid motions of her fingers; but if left alone she will amuse herself for hours at a time with her knitting or sewing.
  • When she is riding in the carriage she will not allow the driver to use the whip, because, she says, "poor horses will cry."
  • In a letter written soon afterward she says:
  • When traveling she drinks in thought and language.
  • Sitting beside her in the car, I describe what I see from the window--hills and valleys and the rivers; cotton-fields and gardens in which strawberries, peaches, pears, melons, and vegetables are growing; herds of cows and horses feeding in broad meadows, and flocks of sheep on the hillside; the cities with their churches and schools, hotels and warehouses, and the occupations of the busy people.
  • In this way, she learns countless new expressions without any apparent effort.
  • Naturally, there was at first a strong tendency on her part to use only the important words in a sentence.
  • In these early lessons I encouraged her in the use of different forms of expression for conveying the same idea.
  • In these early lessons I encouraged her in the use of different forms of expression for conveying the same idea.
  • In two or three months after I began to teach her she would say: "Helen wants to go to bed," or, "Helen is sleepy, and Helen will go to bed."
  • He had a bag in one hand.
  • I will go to Cincinnati in May and buy another child.
  • The blue-bird makes her nest in a hollow tree and her eggs are blue.
  • Teacher and I went to ride on Tennessee River, in a boat.
  • Boat did glide swiftly and I put hand in water and felt it flowing.
  • Little calf does run and leap in field.
  • In the autumn she went to a circus.
  • I watched her for some time as she moved about, trying to take long strides in order to carry out the idea I had given her of a camel's gait.
  • During the next two years neither Mr. Anagnos, who was in Europe for a year, nor Miss Sullivan wrote anything about Helen Keller for publication.
  • In 1892 appeared the Perkins Institution report for 1891, containing a full account of Helen Keller, including many of her letters, exercises, and compositions.
  • From Miss Sullivan's part of this report I give her most important comments and such biographical matter as does not appear elsewhere in the present volume.
  • Of course, you cannot help it, and I love you just as well as if you were the most beautiful creature in the world.
  • There was a hopeless look in the dull eye that I could not help noticing, and then, as I was thinking where I had seen that horse before, she looked full at me and said, 'Black Beauty, is that you?'
  • The words made a distinct picture in my mind.
  • I never knew before that there could be such a change in anything.
  • There were very few spots of sunshine in poor Ginger's life, and the sadnesses were so many!
  • Here begins Miss Sullivan's connected account in the report of 1891:
  • I have never known her to be willing to leave a lesson when she felt that there was anything in it which she did not understand.
  • If I suggest her leaving a problem in arithmetic until the next day, she answers, "I think it will make my mind stronger to do it now."
  • The tower stood complete in every part.
  • She has made considerable progress in the study of arithmetic.
  • She has nearly finished Colburn's mental arithmetic, her last work being in improper fractions.
  • She has also done some good work in written arithmetic.
  • The intellectual improvement which Helen has made in the past two years is shown more clearly in her greater command of language and in her ability to recognize nicer shades of meaning in the use of words, than in any other branch of her education.
  • In selecting books for Helen to read, I have never chosen them with reference to her deafness and blindness.
  • Of course, in the beginning it was necessary that the things described should be familiar and interesting, and the English pure and simple.
  • She had learned the printed letters, and for some time had amused herself by making simple sentences, using slips on which the words were printed in raised letters; but these sentences had no special relation to one another.
  • A mouse is in the box.
  • When she had read the words of the second sentence, I showed her that there really was a mouse in the box.
  • When she read, "Do not let the cat get the mouse!" she recognized the negation in the sentence, and seemed to know that the cat must not get the mouse.
  • By signs she made me understand that she wished another story, and I gave her a book containing very short stories, written in the most elementary style.
  • She ran her fingers along the lines, finding the words she knew and guessing at the meaning of others, in a way that would convince the most conservative of educators that a little deaf child, if given the opportunity, will learn to read as easily and naturally as ordinary children.
  • She often reads for two or three hours in succession, and then lays aside her book reluctantly.
  • Whenever she meets any one who is familiar with this system, she is delighted to use it in conversation.
  • In the case of Helen, as in that of Laura Bridgman, disappointment was inevitable.
  • In the case of Helen, as in that of Laura Bridgman, disappointment was inevitable.
  • It is impossible to isolate a child in the midst of society, so that he shall not be influenced by the beliefs of those with whom he associates.
  • Finally she one day demanded a name for the power, the existence of which she had already conceived in her own mind.
  • Through Charles Kingsley's "Greek Heroes" she had become familiar with the beautiful stories of the Greek gods and goddesses, and she must have met with the words GOD, HEAVEN, SOUL, and a great many similar expressions in books.
  • Love is only something in our hearts.
  • She had met with the expression Mother Nature in the course of her reading, and for a long time she was in the habit of ascribing to Mother Nature whatever she felt to be beyond the power of man to accomplish.
  • "I am thinking how very busy dear Mother Nature is in the springtime," she replied.
  • After May, 1890, it was evident to me that she had reached a point where it was impossible to keep from her the religious beliefs held by those with whom she was in daily contact.
  • Early in May she wrote on her tablet the following list of questions:
  • It is often necessary to remind her that there are infinitely many things that the wisest people in the world cannot explain.
  • The Rt. Rev. Phillips Brooks has explained to her in a beautiful way the fatherhood of God.
  • I have already told her in simple language of the beautiful and helpful life of Jesus, and of His cruel death.
  • When told of the instance in which Jesus raised the dead, she was much perplexed, saying, "I did not know life could come back into the dead body!"
  • "Oh, yes!" she replied; "because last hour I was thinking very hard of Mr. Anagnos, and then my mind,"--then changing the word--"my soul was in Athens, but my body was here in the study."
  • I explained to her that the soul, too, is invisible, or in other words, that it is without apparent form.
  • When asked if she would not like to live ALWAYS in a beautiful country called heaven, her first question was, "Where is heaven?"
  • When told recently that Hungarians were born musicians, she asked in surprise, "Do they sing when they are born?"
  • When her friend added that some of the pupils he had seen in Budapest had more than one hundred tunes in their heads, she said, laughing, "I think their heads must be very noisy."
  • Is it blind? she asked; for in her mind the idea of being led was associated with blindness.
  • She was answered in the affirmative.
  • At first, the words, phrases and sentences which she used in expressing her thoughts were all reproductions of what we had used in conversation with her, and which her memory had unconsciously retained.
  • Their language is the memory of the language they hear spoken in their homes.
  • She had been living in a world she could not realize.
  • Good work in language presupposes and depends on a real knowledge of things.
  • In order to write one must have something to write about, and having something to write about requires some mental preparation.
  • I believe every child has hidden away somewhere in his being noble capacities which may be quickened and developed if we go about it in the right way; but we shall never properly develop the higher natures of our little ones while we continue to fill their minds with the so-called rudiments.
  • Let us lead them during the first years to find their greatest pleasure in Nature.
  • Let them run in the fields, learn about animals, and observe real things.
  • It may be true, as some maintain, that language cannot express to us much beyond what we have lived and experienced; but I have always observed that children manifest the greatest delight in the lofty, poetic language which we are too ready to think beyond their comprehension.
  • It is not necessary that a child should understand every word in a book before he can read with pleasure and profit.
  • Helen has had the best and purest models in language constantly presented to her, and her conversation and her writing are unconscious reproductions of what she has read.
  • Helen has the vitality of feeling, the freshness and eagerness of interest, and the spiritual insight of the artistic temperament, and naturally she has a more active and intense joy in life, simply as life, and in nature, books, and people than less gifted mortals.
  • All day long in their play-time and work-time Miss Sullivan kept spelling into her pupil's hand, and by that Helen Keller absorbed words, just as the child in the cradle absorbs words by hearing thousands of them before he uses one and by associating the words with the occasion of their utterance.
  • We do not take in a sentence word by word, but as a whole.
  • Books supplemented, perhaps equaled in importance the manual alphabet, as a means of teaching language.
  • Books are the storehouse of language, and any child, whether deaf or not, if he has his attention attracted in any way to printed pages, must learn.
  • When at the age of fourteen she had had but a few lessons in German, she read over the words of "Wilhelm Tell" and managed to get the story.
  • She got the language from the language itself, and this is, next to hearing the language spoken, the way for any one to get a foreign tongue, more vital and, in the end, easier than our schoolroom method of beginning with the grammar.
  • In the same way she played with Latin, learning not only from the lessons her first Latin teacher gave her, but from going over and over the words of a text, a game she played by herself.
  • Often I found her, when she had a little leisure, sitting in her favourite corner, in a chair whose arms supported the big volume prepared for the blind, and passing her finger slowly over the lines of Moliere's 'Le Medecin Malgre Lui,' chuckling to herself at the comical situations and humorous lines.
  • And the fact remains that she was taught by a method of teaching language to the deaf the essential principles of which are clearly expressed in Miss Sullivan's letters, written while she was discovering the method and putting it successfully into practice.
  • And it can be applied by any teacher to any healthy deaf child, and in the broadest interpretation of the principles, can be applied to the teaching of language of all kinds to all children.
  • Her method might not succeed so completely in the hands of any one else.
  • If Miss Keller is fond of language and not interested especially in mathematics, it is not surprising to find Miss Sullivan's interests very similar.
  • There is, then, a good deal that Miss Sullivan has done for Miss Keller which no other teacher can do in just the same way for any one else.
  • Any deaf child or deaf and blind child in good health can be taught.
  • When Miss Sullivan went out in the barnyard and picked up a little chicken and talked to Helen about it, she was giving a kind of instruction impossible inside four walls, and impossible with more than one pupil at a time.
  • That is just what the teacher of the deaf child must be, a child ready to play and romp, and interested in all childish things.
  • In the first place she had nineteen months' experience of sight and sound.
  • She expressed ideas in signs before she learned language.
  • Mrs. Keller writes me that before her illness Helen made signs for everything, and her mother thought this habit the cause of her slowness in learning to speak.
  • She recognized that others used their lips; she "saw" her father reading a paper and when he laid it down she sat in his chair and held the paper before her face.
  • Miss Sullivan has in addition a vigorous personality.
  • And finally all the conditions were good for that first nature school, in which the teacher and pupil played together, exploring together and educating themselves, pupil and teacher inseparable.
  • Her speech lacks variety and modulation; it runs in a sing-song when she is reading aloud; and when she speaks with fair degree of loudness, it hovers about two or three middle tones.
  • When she is telling a child's story, or one with pathos in it, her voice runs into pretty slurs from one tone to another.
  • This is like the effect of the slow dwelling on long words, not quite well managed, that one notices in a child who is telling a solemn story.
  • The principal thing that is lacking is sentence accent and variety in the inflection of phrases.
  • For no system of marks in a lexicon can tell one how to pronounce a word.
  • The only way is to hear it, especially in a language like English which is so full of unspellable, suppressed vowels and quasi-vowels.
  • When she was at the Wright-Humason School in New York, Dr. Humason tried to improve her voice, not only her word pronunciation, but the voice itself, and gave her lessons in tone and vocal exercises.
  • Children seldom have any difficulty in understanding her; which suggests that her deliberate measured speech is like theirs, before they come to the adult trick of running all the words of a phrase into one movement of the breath.
  • Miss Sullivan's account in her address at Chautauqua, in July, 1894, at the meeting of The American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, is substantially like Miss Keller's in points of fact.
  • She at once resolved to learn to speak, and from that day to this she has never wavered in that resolution.
  • From the first she was not content to be drilled in single sounds, but was impatient to pronounce words and sentences.
  • But there was satisfaction in seeing from day to day the evidence of growing mastery and the possibility of final success.
  • Teachers of the deaf often express surprise that Helen's speech is so good when she has not received any regular instruction in speech since the first few lessons given her by Miss Fuller.
  • I can only say in reply, "This is due to habitual imitation and practice! practice! practice!"
  • I knew that Laura Bridgman had shown the same intuitive desire to produce sounds, and had even learned to pronounce a few simple words, which she took great delight in using, and I did not doubt that Helen could accomplish as much as this.
  • In the very nature of things, articulation is an unsatisfactory means of education; while the use of the manual alphabet quickens and invigorates mental activity, since through it the deaf child is brought into close contact with the English language, and the highest and most abstract ideas may be conveyed to the mind readily and accurately.
  • Before describing the process of teaching Helen to speak, it may be well to state briefly to what extent she had used the vocal organs before she began to receive regular instruction in articulation.
  • When she was stricken down with the illness which resulted in her loss of sight and hearing, at the age of nineteen months, she was learning to talk.
  • This was in imitation of her mother's crooning to the baby.
  • She liked to feel the cat purr; and if by chance she felt a dog in the act of barking, she showed great pleasure.
  • She kept one hand on the singer's mouth, while the other rested on the piano, and she stood in this position as long as any one would sing to her, and afterward she would make a continuous sound which she called singing.
  • It will be seen that they contain three vowel and six consonant elements, and these formed the foundation for her first real lesson in speaking.
  • Hard consonants were, and indeed still are, very difficult for her to pronounce in connection with one another in the same word; she often suppresses the one and changes the other, and sometimes she replaces both by an analogous sound with soft aspiration.
  • Enough appears in the accounts by Miss Keller's teacher to show the process by which she reads the lips with her fingers, the process by which she was taught to speak, and by which, of course, she can listen to conversation now.
  • In reading the lips she is not so quick or so accurate as some reports declare.
  • President Roosevelt had little difficulty last spring in making Miss Keller understand him, and especially requested Miss Sullivan not to spell into her hand.
  • Other people say they have no success in making Miss Keller "hear" them.
  • The ability to read the lips helps Miss Keller in getting corrections of her pronunciation from Miss Sullivan and others, just as it was the means of her learning to speak at all, but it is rather an accomplishment than a necessity.
  • It must be remembered that speech contributed in no way to her fundamental education, though without the ability to speak she could hardly have gone to higher schools and to college.
  • If you knew all the joy I feel in being able to speak to you to-day, I think you would have some idea of the value of speech to the deaf, and you would understand why I want every little deaf child in all this great world to have an opportunity to learn to speak.
  • It seems very strange to me that there should be this difference of opinion; I cannot understand how any one interested in our education can fail to appreciate the satisfaction we feel in being able to express our thoughts in living words.
  • Any teacher of composition knows that he can bring his pupils to the point of writing without errors in syntax or in the choice of words.
  • No teacher could have made Helen Keller sensitive to the beauties of language and to the finer interplay of thought which demands expression in melodious word groupings.
  • In this, as in all other things, Miss Sullivan has been the wise teacher.
  • In this, as in all other things, Miss Sullivan has been the wise teacher.
  • If Miss Sullivan wrote fine English, the beauty of Helen Keller's style would, in part, be explicable at once.
  • Her service as a teacher of English is not to be measured by her own skill in composition.
  • The reason why she read to her pupil so many good books is due, in some measure, to the fact that she had so recently recovered her eyesight.
  • In Captain Keller's library she found excellent books, Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare," and better still Montaigne.
  • There is, moreover, a reason why Helen Keller writes good English, which lies in the very absence of sight and hearing.
  • I refer to the "Frost King" episode, which I shall explain in detail.
  • Miss Keller has given her account of it, and the whole matter was discussed in the first Volta Bureau Souvenir from which I quote at length:
  • * In this paper Miss Sullivan says: During this winter (1891-92) I went with her into the yard while a light snow was falling, and let her feel the falling flakes.
  • As we went in she repeated these words, 'Out of the cloud-folds of his garments Winter shakes the snow.'
  • The teachers at the Institution expressed the opinion that the description did not appear in any book in raised print in that library; but one lady, Miss Marrett, took upon herself the task of examining books of poems in ordinary type, and was rewarded by finding the following lines in one of Longfellow's minor poems, entitled 'Snowflakes':
  • It would seem that Helen had learned and treasured the memory of this expression of the poet, and this morning in the snow-storm had found its application.
  • One warm, sunny day in early spring, when we were at the North, the balmy atmosphere appears to have brought to her mind the sentiment expressed by Longfellow in "Hiawatha," and she almost sings with the poet: "The ground was all aquiver with the stir of new life.
  • I knew that in that sunny land spring had come in all its splendour.
  • About the same time, in a letter to a friend, in which she makes mention of her Southern home, she gives so close a reproduction from a poem by one of her favourite authors that I will give extracts from Helen's letter and from the poem itself:
  • In a letter to a friend at the Perkins Institution, dated May 17, 1889, she gives a reproduction from one of Hans Christian Andersen's stories, which I had read to her not long before.
  • This letter is published in the Perkins Institution Report (1891), p. 204.
  • The original story was read to her from a copy of "Andersen's Stories," published by Leavitt & Allen Bros., and may be found on p. 97 of Part I. in that volume.
  • In one of his letters, speaking of how God in every way tells us of His love, he says, "I think he writes it even upon the walls of the great house of nature which we live in, that he is our Father."
  • In one of his letters, speaking of how God in every way tells us of His love, he says, "I think he writes it even upon the walls of the great house of nature which we live in, that he is our Father."
  • The pictures the language paints on her memory appear to make an indelible impression; and many times, when an experience comes to her similar in character, the language starts forth with wonderful accuracy, like the reflection from a mirror.
  • In mentioning a visit to Lexington, Mass., she writes: As we rode along we could see the forest monarchs bend their proud forms to listen to the little children of the woodlands whispering their secrets.
  • This is shown in a little story she wrote in October last at the home of her parents in Tuscumbia, which she called "Autumn Leaves."
  • This story, "Frost Fairies," appeared in a book written by Miss Margaret T. Canby, entitled "Birdie and his Fairy Friends."
  • Careful examination was made of the books in raised print in the library of the Perkins Institution to learn if any extracts from this volume could be found there; but nothing was discovered.
  • Helen and I spent the summer of 1888 with Mrs. Hopkins at her home in Brewster, Mass., where she kindly relieved me a part of the time, of the care of Helen.
  • But as she was not able to find her copy, and applications for the volume at bookstores in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Albany, and other places resulted only in failure, search was instituted for the author herself.
  • This became a difficult task, as her publishers in Philadelphia had retired from business many years ago; however, it was eventually discovered that her residence is at Wilmington, Delaware, and copies of the second edition of the book, 1889, were obtained from her.
  • Under date of February 24, 1892, after mentioning the order of the publication of the stories in the magazine, she writes:
  • In the same letter she writes:
  • I shall write to her in a short time.
  • Can you tell me in what paper the article appeared accusing Helen of plagiarism, and giving passages from both stories?
  • Tell her there are a few bitter drops in every one's cup, and the only way is to take the bitter patiently, and the sweet thankfully.
  • I give below a portion of Miss Canby's story, "The Rose Fairies," and also Helen's letter to Mr. Anagnos containing her "dream," so that the likenesses and differences may be studied by those interested in the subject:
  • The fresh morning air blew softly in his face, as if to welcome him and be his merry playmate; and the bright eye of Mr. Sun looked at him with a warm and glowing smile; but Birdie soon walked on to find something to play with.
  • As he came in sight of the rose-bushes that grew near the side of the house, he suddenly clapped his hands, and with a little shout of joy stopped to look at them; they were all covered with lovely rosebuds.
  • Some were red, some white, and others pale pink, and they were just peeping out of the green leaves, as rosy-faced children peep out from their warm beds in wintertime before they are quite willing to get up.
  • "Lazy roses, wake up," said he, giving the branches a gentle shake; but only the dew fell off in bright drops, and the flowers were still shut up.
  • Here the similarity in the language of the story to that in the letter ceases.
  • One pleasant morning in the beautiful springtime, I thought I was sitting on the soft grass under my dear mother's window, looking very earnestly at the rose-bushes which were growing all around me.
  • The fresh morning air blew gently in my face, as if to welcome me, and be my merry playmate, and the sun looked at me with a warm and tender smile.
  • "The Frost Fairies" and "The Frost Kings" are given in full, as the differences are as important as the resemblances:
  • Every year Santa Claus takes a journey over the world in a sleigh drawn by a strong and rapid steed called "Rudolph."
  • He has two neighbours, who live still farther north; one is King Winter, a cross and churlish old monarch, who is hard and cruel, and delights in making the poor suffer and weep; but the other neighbour is Santa Claus, a fine, good-natured, jolly old soul, who loves to do good, and who brings presents to the poor, and to nice little children at Christmas.
  • Still, for awhile, the frost fairies did not notice this strange occurrence, for they were down on the grass, so far below the tree-tops that the wonderful shower of treasure was a long time in reaching them; but at last one of them said, Hark!
  • King Frost frowned and looked very angry at first, and his fairies trembled for fear and cowered still lower in their hiding-places; but just then two little children came dancing through the wood, and though they did not see King Frost or the fairies, they saw the beautiful colour of the leaves, and laughed with delight, and began picking great bunches to take to their mother.
  • Then the fairies thanked him for his forgiveness, and promised to work very hard to please him; and the good-natured king took them all up in his arms, and carried them safely home to his palace.
  • King Frost lives in a beautiful palace far to the North, in the land of perpetual snow.
  • What we had supposed to be peaks were in reality a thousand glittering spires.
  • The walls are curiously constructed of massive blocks of ice which terminate in cliff-like towers.
  • The fairies promised obedience, and were off in a twinkling, dragging the heavy jars and vases along after them as well as they could, now and then grumbling a little at having such a hard task, for they were idle fairies and loved to play better than to work.
  • At length every jar and vase was cracked or broken, and the precious stones they contained were melting, too, and running in little streams over the trees and bushes of the forest.
  • Then looking around more closely, they saw that much of the treasure was already melted, for the oaks and maples were arrayed in gorgeous dresses of gold and crimson and emerald.
  • Their fears were well founded, for their long absence had alarmed the King, and he mounted North Wind and went out in search of his tardy couriers.
  • At first King Frost was very angry, and the fairies trembled and crouched lower in their hiding-places, and I do not know what might have happened to them if just then a party of boys and girls had not entered the wood.
  • "The leaves are as lovely as the flowers!" cried they, in their delight.
  • Another fact is of great significance in this connection.
  • Now Helen, in her letter of February, 1890 (quoted above), alludes to this story of Miss Canby's as a dream "WHICH I HAD A LONG TIME AGO WHEN I WAS A VERY LITTLE CHILD."
  • (The following entry made by Helen in her diary speaks for itself.)
  • So much appears in the Volta Bureau Souvenir.
  • Soon after its appearance in print I was pained to learn, through the Goodson Gazette, that a portion of the story (eight or nine passages) is either a reproduction or adaptation of Miss Margaret Canby's "Frost Fairies."
  • I immediately instituted an inquiry to ascertain the facts in the case.
  • At my request, one of the teachers in the girls' department examined Helen in regard to the construction of the story.
  • Such rich treasures must be kept in a safe place, and so she had imagined them stored in jars and vases in one part of the royal palace.
  • In answer to my question she recited a part of the poem called 'Freaks of the Frost,' and she referred to a little piece about winter, in one of the school readers.
  • In answer to my question she recited a part of the poem called 'Freaks of the Frost,' and she referred to a little piece about winter, in one of the school readers.
  • The only person that we supposed might possibly have read the story to Helen was her friend, Mrs. Hopkins, whom she was visiting at the time in Brewster.
  • I asked Miss Sullivan to go at once to see Mrs. Hopkins and ascertain the facts in the matter.
  • The result of her investigation is embodied in the printed note herewith enclosed. [This note is a statement of the bare facts and an apology, which Mr. Anagnos inserted in his report of the Perkins Institute.]
  • I have scarcely any doubt that Miss Canby's little book was read to Helen, by Mrs. Hopkins, in the summer of 1888.
  • On Miss Sullivan's return to Brewster, she read to Helen the story of "Little Lord Fauntleroy," which she had purchased in Boston for the purpose.
  • The episode had a deadening effect on Helen Keller and on Miss Sullivan, who feared that she had allowed the habit of imitation, which has in truth made Miss Keller a writer, to go too far.
  • In this case Helen Keller held almost intact in her mind, unmixed with other ideas, the words of a story which at the time it was read to her she did not fully understand.
  • In this case Helen Keller held almost intact in her mind, unmixed with other ideas, the words of a story which at the time it was read to her she did not fully understand.
  • The reason that we do not observe this process in ordinary children is, because we seldom observe them at all, and because they are fed from so many sources that the memories are confused and mutually destructive.
  • The style of her version is in some respects even better than the style of Miss Canby's story.
  • It is original in the same way that a poet's version of an old story is original.
  • Words often make the thought, and the master of words will say things greater than are in him.
  • A remarkable example is a paragraph from Miss Keller's sketch in the Youth's Companion.
  • It was a word that created these thoughts in her mind.
  • The Lord's prayer in signs is not the Lord's prayer in English.
  • In the early years of her education she had only good things to read; some were, indeed, trivial and not excellent in style, but not one was positively bad in manner or substance.
  • In the early years of her education she had only good things to read; some were, indeed, trivial and not excellent in style, but not one was positively bad in manner or substance.
  • "A new word opens its heart to me," she writes in a letter; and when she uses the word its heart is still open.
  • When she came to retell the story in a fuller form, the echo was still in her mind of the phrases she had written nine years before.
  • From the early sketch I take a few passages which seem to me, without making very much allowance for difference in time, almost as good as anything she has written since:
  • In the cold, dreary month of February, when I was nineteen months old, I had a serious illness.
  • My mother sat beside my little bed and tried to soothe my feverish moans while in her troubled heart she prayed, "Father in Heaven, spare my baby's life!"
  • But the fever grew and flamed in my eyes, and for several days my kind physician thought I would die.
  • As soon as my strength returned, I began to take an interest in what the people around me were doing.
  • I would cling to my mother's dress as she went about her household duties, and my little hands felt every object and observed every motion, and in this way I learned a great many things.
  • The next morning I awoke with joy in my heart.
  • I met Teacher in the hall, and begged to be taken to the sea at once.
  • I do not know whether the difference or the similarity in phrasing between the child's version and the woman's is the more remarkable.
  • In the years when she was growing out of childhood, her style lost its early simplicity and became stiff and, as she says, "periwigged."
  • In these years the fear came many times to Miss Sullivan lest the success of the child was to cease with childhood.
  • At times Miss Keller seemed to lack flexibility, her thoughts ran in set phrases which she seemed to have no power to revise or turn over in new ways.
  • Then came the work in college--original theme writing with new ideals of composition or at least new methods of suggesting those ideals.
  • This book, her first mature experiment in writing, settles the question of her ability to write.
  • The style of the Bible is everywhere in Miss Keller's work, just as it is in the style of most great English writers.
  • Writing for other people, she should in many cases be true to outer fact rather than to her own experience.
  • In her style, as in what she writes about, we must concede to the artist what we deny to the autobiographer.
  • In her style, as in what she writes about, we must concede to the artist what we deny to the autobiographer.
  • It is true, on the other hand, that in her descriptions, she is best from the point of view of art when she is faithful to her own sensations; and this is precisely true of all artists.
  • These extracts are from her exercises in her course in composition, where she showed herself at the beginning of her college life quite without rival among her classmates.
  • Yes, it is a tomb in which hope, joy and the power of acting nobly lie buried.
  • Beside the tomb sits a weary soul, rejoicing neither in the joys of the past nor in the possibilities of the future, but seeking consolation in forgetfulness.
  • If they would only expend the same amount of energy loving their fellow men, the devil would die in his own tracks of ennui.
  • They are regarded generally as far more appropriate in books and in public discourses than in the parlor or at the table.
  • To be sure, I take the keenest interest in everything that concerns those who surround me; it is this very interest which makes it so difficult for me to carry on a conversation with some people who will not talk or say what they think, but I should not be sorry to find more friends ready to talk with me now and then about the wonderful things I read.
  • This was my first real experience in college life, and a delightful experience it was!
  • For the first time since my entrance into Radcliffe I had the opportunity to make friends with all my classmates...
  • The very fact that the nineteenth century has not produced many authors whom the world may count among the greatest of all time does not in my opinion justify the remark, "There may come a time when people cease to write."
  • New experiences and events call forth new ideas and stir men to ask questions unthought of before, and seek a definite answer in the depths of human knowledge.
  • Let the dead past bury its dead, Act, act in the living present, Heart within and God overhead.
  • A little later, when the rush and heat of achievement relax, we can begin to expect the appearance of grand men to celebrate in glorious poetry and prose the deeds and triumphs of the last few centuries.
  • It is very interesting to watch a plant grow, it is like taking part in creation.
  • When all outside is cold and white, when the little children of the woodland are gone to their nurseries in the warm earth, and the empty nests on the bare trees fill with snow, my window-garden glows and smiles, making summer within while it is winter without.
  • It is wonderful to see flowers bloom in the midst of a snow-storm!
  • What mysterious force guided the seedling from the dark earth up to the light, through leaf and stem and bud, to glorious fulfilment in the perfect flower?
  • More even than this, in your wickedness you destroy the peaceful homes of your clients!
  • They strut about on the stage of the play like they were very famous actors.
  • I wake terror-stricken with the words ringing in my ears, "An answer or your life!"
  • I rarely have dreams that are not in keeping with what I really think and feel, but one night my very nature seemed to change, and I stood in the eye of the world a mighty man and a terrible.
  • Naturally I love peace and hate war and all that pertains to war; I see nothing admirable in the ruthless career of Napoleon, save its finish.
  • I shall never forget how the fury of battle throbbed in my veins--it seemed as if the tumultuous beating of my heart would stop my breath.
  • I was very fond of bananas, and one night I dreamed that I found a long string of them in the dining-room, near the cupboard, all peeled and deliciously ripe, and all I had to do was to stand under the string and eat as long as I could eat.
  • One cold winter night I was alone in my room.
  • Suddenly I felt my bed shake, and a wolf seemed to spring on me and snarl in my face.
  • I dared not scream, and I dared not stay in bed.
  • The instant I felt its warmth I was reassured, and I sat a long time watching it climb higher and higher in shining waves.
  • At last sleep surprised me, and when Miss Sullivan returned she found me wrapped in a blanket by the hearth.
  • There are also rare and beautiful moments when I see and hear in Dreamland.
  • What if in my waking hours a sound should ring through the silent halls of hearing?
  • In most books, the I, or first person, is omitted; in this it will be retained; that, in respect to egotism, is the main difference.
  • In most books, the I, or first person, is omitted; in this it will be retained; that, in respect to egotism, is the main difference.
  • Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination--what Wilberforce is there to bring that about?
  • Think, also, of the ladies of the land weaving toilet cushions against the last day, not to betray too green an interest in their fates!
  • There is no play in them, for this comes after work.
  • Some things are really necessaries of life in some circles, the most helpless and diseased, which in others are luxuries merely, and in others still are entirely unknown.
  • This was not the light in which I hoed them.
  • What distant and different beings in the various mansions of the universe are contemplating the same one at the same moment!
  • We should live in all the ages of the world in an hour; ay, in all the worlds of the ages.
  • The greater part of what my neighbors call good I believe in my soul to be bad, and if I repent of anything, it is very likely to be my good behavior.
  • To many creatures there is in this sense but one necessary of life, Food.
  • So, we are told, the New Hollander goes naked with impunity, while the European shivers in his clothes.
  • According to Liebig, man's body is a stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs.
  • In cold weather we eat more, in warm less.
  • In cold weather we eat more, in warm less.
  • The grand necessity, then, for our bodies, is to keep warm, to keep the vital heat in us.
  • The summer, in some climates, makes possible to man a sort of Elysian life.
  • They make shift to live merely by conformity, practically as their fathers did, and are in no sense the progenitors of a noble race of men.
  • Are we sure that there is none of it in our own lives?
  • If I should attempt to tell how I have desired to spend my life in years past, it would probably surprise those of my readers who are somewhat acquainted with its actual history; it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it.
  • No doubt, many of my townsmen have met me returning from this enterprise, farmers starting for Boston in the twilight, or woodchoppers going to their work.
  • It is true, I never assisted the sun materially in his rising, but, doubt not, it was of the last importance only to be present at it.
  • So many autumn, ay, and winter days, spent outside the town, trying to hear what was in the wind, to hear and carry it express!
  • However, in this case my pains were their own reward.
  • I have watered the red huckleberry, the sand cherry and the nettle-tree, the red pine and the black ash, the white grape and the yellow violet, which might have withered else in dry seasons.
  • Not long since, a strolling Indian went to sell baskets at the house of a well-known lawyer in my neighborhood.
  • You will export such articles as the country affords, purely native products, much ice and pine timber and a little granite, always in native bottoms.
  • It is a labor to task the faculties of a man--such problems of profit and loss, of interest, of tare and tret, and gauging of all kinds in it, as demand a universal knowledge.
  • It is said that a flood-tide, with a westerly wind, and ice in the Neva, would sweep St. Petersburg from the face of the earth.
  • Let him who has work to do recollect that the object of clothing is, first, to retain the vital heat, and secondly, in this state of society, to cover nakedness, and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe.
  • Could you, in such a case, tell surely of any company of civilized men which belonged to the most respected class?
  • A man who has at length found something to do will not need to get a new suit to do it in; for him the old will do, that has lain dusty in the garret for an indeterminate period.
  • But if my jacket and trousers, my hat and shoes, are fit to worship God in, they will do; will they not?
  • Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives.
  • The head monkey at Paris puts on a traveller's cap, and all the monkeys in America do the same.
  • I sometimes despair of getting anything quite simple and honest done in this world by the help of men.
  • On the whole, I think that it cannot be maintained that dressing has in this or any country risen to the dignity of an art.
  • In the long run men hit only what they aim at.
  • In our climate, in the summer, it was formerly almost solely a covering at night.
  • In our climate, in the summer, it was formerly almost solely a covering at night.
  • We may imagine a time when, in the infancy of the human race, some enterprising mortal crept into a hollow in a rock for shelter.
  • Every child begins the world again, to some extent, and loves to stay outdoors, even in wet and cold.
  • It was the natural yearning of that portion, any portion of our most primitive ancestor which still survived in us.
  • At last, we know not what it is to live in the open air, and our lives are domestic in more senses than we think.
  • However, if one designs to construct a dwelling-house, it behooves him to exercise a little Yankee shrewdness, lest after all he find himself in a workhouse, a labyrinth without a clue, a museum, an almshouse, a prison, or a splendid mausoleum instead.
  • I have seen Penobscot Indians, in this town, living in tents of thin cotton cloth, while the snow was nearly a foot deep around them, and I thought that they would be glad to have it deeper to keep out the wind.
  • Many a man is harassed to death to pay the rent of a larger and more luxurious box who would not have frozen to death in such a box as this.
  • The Indians had advanced so far as to regulate the effect of the wind by a mat suspended over the hole in the roof and moved by a string.
  • In the savage state every family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one half the families own a shelter.
  • In the savage state every family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one half the families own a shelter.
  • As I live, saith the Lord God, ye shall not have occasion any more to use this proverb in Israel.
  • I doubt if there are three such men in Concord.
  • But this puts an infinitely worse face on the matter, and suggests, beside, that probably not even the other three succeed in saving their souls, but are perchance bankrupt in a worse sense than they who fail honestly.
  • To get his shoestrings he speculates in herds of cattle.
  • This is the reason he is poor; and for a similar reason we are all poor in respect to a thousand savage comforts, though surrounded by luxuries.
  • And if the civilized man's pursuits are no worthier than the savage's, if he is employed the greater part of his life in obtaining gross necessaries and comforts merely, why should he have a better dwelling than the former?
  • It is a mistake to suppose that, in a country where the usual evidences of civilization exist, the condition of a very large body of the inhabitants may not be as degraded as that of savages.
  • Such too, to a greater or less extent, is the condition of the operatives of every denomination in England, which is the great workhouse of the world.
  • I hardly need refer now to the laborers in our Southern States who produce the staple exports of this country, and are themselves a staple production of the South.
  • But to confine myself to those who are said to be in moderate circumstances.
  • When I think of the benefactors of the race, whom we have apotheosized as messengers from heaven, bearers of divine gifts to man, I do not see in my mind any retinue at their heels, any carload of fashionable furniture.
  • Or what if I were to allow--would it not be a singular allowance?--that our furniture should be more complex than the Arab's, in proportion as we are morally and intellectually his superiors!
  • By the blushes of Aurora and the music of Memnon, what should be man's morning work in this world?
  • I would rather sit in the open air, for no dust gathers on the grass, unless where man has broken ground.
  • I would rather ride on earth in an ox cart, with a free circulation, than go to heaven in the fancy car of an excursion train and breathe a malaria all the way.
  • He dwelt, as it were, in a tent in this world, and was either threading the valleys, or crossing the plains, or climbing the mountain-tops.
  • There is actually no place in this village for a work of fine art, if any had come down to us, to stand, for our lives, our houses and streets, furnish no proper pedestal for it.
  • In the course of three or four years, when the country became adapted to agriculture, they built themselves handsome houses, spending on them several thousands.
  • In such a neighborhood as this, boards and shingles, lime and bricks, are cheaper and more easily obtained than suitable caves, or whole logs, or bark in sufficient quantities, or even well-tempered clay or flat stones.
  • In such a neighborhood as this, boards and shingles, lime and bricks, are cheaper and more easily obtained than suitable caves, or whole logs, or bark in sufficient quantities, or even well-tempered clay or flat stones.
  • They were pleasant spring days, in which the winter of man's discontent was thawing as well as the earth, and the life that had lain torpid began to stretch itself.
  • On the 1st of April it rained and melted the ice, and in the early part of the day, which was very foggy, I heard a stray goose groping about over the pond and cackling as if lost, or like the spirit of the fog.
  • Sometimes a rambler in the wood was attracted by the sound of my axe, and we chatted pleasantly over the chips which I had made.
  • By the middle of April, for I made no haste in my work, but rather made the most of it, my house was framed and ready for the raising.
  • The hens were driven in by my approach.
  • In her own words, they were "good boards overhead, good boards all around, and a good window"--of two whole squares originally, only the cat had passed out that way lately.
  • One large bundle held their all--bed, coffee-mill, looking-glass, hens--all but the cat; she took to the woods and became a wild cat, and, as I learned afterward, trod in a trap set for woodchucks, and so became a dead cat at last.
  • I took down this dwelling the same morning, drawing the nails, and removed it to the pond-side by small cartloads, spreading the boards on the grass there to bleach and warp back again in the sun.
  • I took particular pleasure in this breaking of ground, for in almost all latitudes men dig into the earth for an equable temperature.
  • Under the most splendid house in the city is still to be found the cellar where they store their roots as of old, and long after the superstructure has disappeared posterity remark its dent in the earth.
  • At length, in the beginning of May, with the help of some of my acquaintances, rather to improve so good an occasion for neighborliness than from any necessity, I set up the frame of my house.
  • No man was ever more honored in the character of his raisers than I. They are destined, I trust, to assist at the raising of loftier structures one day.
  • When it stormed before my bread was baked, I fixed a few boards over the fire, and sat under them to watch my loaf, and passed some pleasant hours in that way.
  • There is some of the same fitness in a man's building his own house that there is in a bird's building its own nest.
  • What does architecture amount to in the experience of the mass of men?
  • A sentimental reformer in architecture, he began at the cornice, not at the foundation.
  • What reasonable man ever supposed that ornaments were something outward and in the skin merely--that the tortoise got his spotted shell, or the shell-fish its mother-o'-pearl tints, by such a contract as the inhabitants of Broadway their Trinity Church?
  • They can do without architecture who have no olives nor wines in the cellar.
  • What if an equal ado were made about the ornaments of style in literature, and the architects of our bibles spent as much time about their cornices as the architects of our churches do?
  • It would signify somewhat, if, in any earnest sense, he slanted them and daubed it; but the spirit having departed out of the tenant, it is of a piece with constructing his own coffin--the architecture of the grave--and "carpenter" is but another name for "coffin-maker."
  • One man says, in his despair or indifference to life, take up a handful of the earth at your feet, and paint your house that color.
  • Tuition, for instance, is an important item in the term bill, while for the far more valuable education which he gets by associating with the most cultivated of his contemporaries no charge is made.
  • After all, the man whose horse trots a mile in a minute does not carry the most important messages; he is not an evangelist, nor does he come round eating locusts and wild honey.
  • You will in the meanwhile have earned your fare, and arrive there some time tomorrow, or possibly this evening, if you are lucky enough to get a job in season.
  • This spending of the best part of one's life earning money in order to enjoy a questionable liberty during the least valuable part of it reminds me of the Englishman who went to India to make a fortune first, in order that he might return to England and live the life of a poet.
  • I got out several cords of stumps in plowing, which supplied me with fuel for a long time, and left small circles of virgin mould, easily distinguishable through the summer by the greater luxuriance of the beans there.
  • I desire to speak impartially on this point, and as one not interested in the success or failure of the present economical and social arrangements.
  • I was more independent than any farmer in Concord, for I was not anchored to a house or farm, but could follow the bent of my genius, which is a very crooked one, every moment.
  • Man does some of his part of the exchange work in his six weeks of haying, and it is no boy's play.
  • This town is said to have the largest houses for oxen, cows, and horses hereabouts, and it is not behindhand in its public buildings; but there are very few halls for free worship or free speech in this county.
  • In Arcadia, when I was there, I did not see any hammering stone.
  • I love better to see stones in place.
  • For my part, I should like to know who in those days did not build them--who were above such trifling.
  • It appears from the above estimate, that my food alone cost me in money about twenty-seven cents a week.
  • I have made a satisfactory dinner, satisfactory on several accounts, simply off a dish of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) which I gathered in my cornfield, boiled and salted.
  • Bread I at first made of pure Indian meal and salt, genuine hoe-cakes, which I baked before my fire out of doors on a shingle or the end of a stick of timber sawed off in building my house; but it was wont to get smoked and to have a piny flavor.
  • In cold weather it was no little amusement to bake several small loaves of this in succession, tending and turning them as carefully as an Egyptian his hatching eggs.
  • In cold weather it was no little amusement to bake several small loaves of this in succession, tending and turning them as carefully as an Egyptian his hatching eggs.
  • They were a real cereal fruit which I ripened, and they had to my senses a fragrance like that of other noble fruits, which I kept in as long as possible by wrapping them in cloths.
  • When you have kneaded it well, mould it, and bake it under a cover, that is, in a baking kettle.
  • Every New Englander might easily raise all his own breadstuffs in this land of rye and Indian corn, and not depend on distant and fluctuating markets for them.
  • The human race is interested in these experiments, though a few old women who are incapacitated for them, or who own their thirds in mills, may be alarmed.
  • My furniture, part of which I made myself--and the rest cost me nothing of which I have not rendered an account--consisted of a bed, a table, a desk, three chairs, a looking-glass three inches in diameter, a pair of tongs and andirons, a kettle, a skillet, and a frying-pan, a dipper, a wash-bowl, two knives and forks, three plates, one cup, one spoon, a jug for oil, a jug for molasses, and a japanned lamp.
  • There is a plenty of such chairs as I like best in the village garrets to be had for taking them away.
  • What man but a philosopher would not be ashamed to see his furniture packed in a cart and going up country exposed to the light of heaven and the eyes of men, a beggarly account of empty boxes?
  • He was a lucky fox that left his tail in the trap.
  • "But what shall I do with my furniture?"--My gay butterfly is entangled in a spider's web then.
  • Even those who seem for a long while not to have any, if you inquire more narrowly you will find have some stored in somebody's barn.
  • After having taken medicine, and fasted for three days, all the fire in the town is extinguished.
  • On the fourth morning, the high priest, by rubbing dry wood together, produces new fire in the public square, from whence every habitation in the town is supplied with the new and pure flame.
  • The Mexicans also practised a similar purification at the end of every fifty-two years, in the belief that it was time for the world to come to an end.
  • For more than five years I maintained myself thus solely by the labor of my hands, and I found that, by working about six weeks in a year, I could meet all the expenses of living.
  • I have tried trade but I found that it would take ten years to get under way in that, and that then I should probably be on my way to the devil.
  • But I have since learned that trade curses everything it handles; and though you trade in messages from heaven, the whole curse of trade attaches to the business.
  • It is by a mathematical point only that we are wise, as the sailor or the fugitive slave keeps the polestar in his eye; but that is sufficient guidance for all our life.
  • Undoubtedly, in this case, what is true for one is truer still for a thousand, as a large house is not proportionally more expensive than a small one, since one roof may cover, one cellar underlie, and one wall separate several apartments.
  • To co-operate in the highest as well as the lowest sense, means to get our living together.
  • I heard it proposed lately that two young men should travel together over the world, the one without money, earning his means as he went, before the mast and behind the plow, the other carrying a bill of exchange in his pocket.
  • They would part at the first interesting crisis in their adventures.
  • I confess that I have hitherto indulged very little in philanthropic enterprises.
  • However, when I have thought to indulge myself in this respect, and lay their Heaven under an obligation by maintaining certain poor persons in all respects as comfortably as I maintain myself, and have even ventured so far as to make them the offer, they have one and all unhesitatingly preferred to remain poor.
  • While my townsmen and women are devoted in so many ways to the good of their fellows, I trust that one at least may be spared to other and less humane pursuits.
  • If I were to preach at all in this strain, I should say rather, Set about being good.
  • No--in this case I would rather suffer evil the natural way.
  • Philanthropy is not love for one's fellow-man in the broadest sense.
  • Howard was no doubt an exceedingly kind and worthy man in his way, and has his reward; but, comparatively speaking, what are a hundred Howards to us, if their philanthropy do not help us in our best estate, when we are most worthy to be helped?
  • Some show their kindness to the poor by employing them in their kitchens.
  • You boast of spending a tenth part of your income in charity; maybe you should spend the nine tenths so, and done with it.
  • A robust poor man, one sunny day here in Concord, praised a fellow-townsman to me, because, as he said, he was kind to the poor; meaning himself.
  • If anything ail a man, so that he does not perform his functions, if he have a pain in his bowels even--for that is the seat of sympathy--he forthwith sets about reforming--the world.
  • I believe that what so saddens the reformer is not his sympathy with his fellows in distress, but, though he be the holiest son of God, is his private ail.
  • In imagination I have bought all the farms in succession, for all were to be bought, and I knew their price.
  • In imagination I have bought all the farms in succession, for all were to be bought, and I knew their price.
  • Now, to speak the truth, I had but ten cents in the world, and it surpassed my arithmetic to tell, if I was that man who had ten cents, or who had a farm, or ten dollars, or all together.
  • I was in haste to buy it, before the proprietor finished getting out some rocks, cutting down the hollow apple trees, and grubbing up some young birches which had sprung up in the pasture, or, in short, had made any more of his improvements.
  • I think I shall not buy greedily, but go round and round it as long as I live, and be buried in it first, that it may please me the more at last.
  • The upright white hewn studs and freshly planed door and window casings gave it a clean and airy look, especially in the morning, when its timbers were saturated with dew, so that I fancied that by noon some sweet gum would exude from them.
  • It was suggestive somewhat as a picture in outlines.
  • It was not so much within doors as behind a door where I sat, even in the rainiest weather.
  • That way I looked between and over the near green hills to some distant and higher ones in the horizon, tinged with blue.
  • But in other directions, even from this point, I could not see over or beyond the woods which surrounded me.
  • Though the view from my door was still more contracted, I did not feel crowded or confined in the least.
  • Both place and time were changed, and I dwelt nearer to those parts of the universe and to those eras in history which had most attracted me.
  • We are wont to imagine rare and delectable places in some remote and more celestial corner of the system, behind the constellation of Cassiopeia's Chair, far from noise and disturbance.
  • I discovered that my house actually had its site in such a withdrawn, but forever new and unprofaned, part of the universe.
  • I got up early and bathed in the pond; that was a religious exercise, and one of the best things which I did.
  • It was Homer's requiem; itself an Iliad and Odyssey in the air, singing its own wrath and wanderings.
  • Then there is least somnolence in us; and for an hour, at least, some part of us awakes which slumbers all the rest of the day and night.
  • All memorable events, I should say, transpire in morning time and in a morning atmosphere.
  • Morning is when I am awake and there is a dawn in me.
  • The millions are awake enough for physical labor; but only one in a million is awake enough for effective intellectual exertion, only one in a hundred millions to a poetic or divine life.
  • How could I have looked him in the face?
  • Every man is tasked to make his life, even in its details, worthy of the contemplation of his most elevated and critical hour.
  • An honest man has hardly need to count more than his ten fingers, or in extreme cases he may add his ten toes, and lump the rest.
  • Instead of three meals a day, if it be necessary eat but one; instead of a hundred dishes, five; and reduce other things in proportion.
  • And if railroads are not built, how shall we get to heaven in season?
  • And when they run over a man that is walking in his sleep, a supernumerary sleeper in the wrong position, and wake him up, they suddenly stop the cars, and make a hue and cry about it, as if this were an exception.
  • Men say that a stitch in time saves nine, and so they take a thousand stitches today to save nine tomorrow.
  • "Pray tell me anything new that has happened to a man anywhere on this globe"--and he reads it over his coffee and rolls, that a man has had his eyes gouged out this morning on the Wachito River; never dreaming the while that he lives in the dark unfathomed mammoth cave of this world, and has but the rudiment of an eye himself.
  • To speak critically, I never received more than one or two letters in my life--I wrote this some years ago--that were worth the postage.
  • The penny-post is, commonly, an institution through which you seriously offer a man that penny for his thoughts which is so often safely offered in jest.
  • And I am sure that I never read any memorable news in a newspaper.
  • If we read of one man robbed, or murdered, or killed by accident, or one house burned, or one vessel wrecked, or one steamboat blown up, or one cow run over on the Western Railroad, or one mad dog killed, or one lot of grasshoppers in the winter--we never need read of another.
  • If he should give us an account of the realities he beheld there, we should not recognize the place in his description.
  • Men esteem truth remote, in the outskirts of the system, behind the farthest star, before Adam and after the last man.
  • In eternity there is indeed something true and sublime.
  • God himself culminates in the present moment, and will never be more divine in the lapse of all the ages.
  • Let us spend our lives in conceiving then.
  • Let us not be upset and overwhelmed in that terrible rapid and whirlpool called a dinner, situated in the meridian shallows.
  • If we are really dying, let us hear the rattle in our throats and feel cold in the extremities; if we are alive, let us go about our business.
  • I would drink deeper; fish in the sky, whose bottom is pebbly with stars.
  • I feel all my best faculties concentrated in it.
  • In accumulating property for ourselves or our posterity, in founding a family or a state, or acquiring fame even, we are mortal; but in dealing with truth we are immortal, and need fear no change nor accident.
  • In accumulating property for ourselves or our posterity, in founding a family or a state, or acquiring fame even, we are mortal; but in dealing with truth we are immortal, and need fear no change nor accident.
  • The oldest Egyptian or Hindoo philosopher raised a corner of the veil from the statue of the divinity; and still the trembling robe remains raised, and I gaze upon as fresh a glory as he did, since it was I in him that was then so bold, and it is he in me that now reviews the vision.
  • Yet I sustained myself by the prospect of such reading in future.
  • I read one or two shallow books of travel in the intervals of my work, till that employment made me ashamed of myself, and I asked where it was then that I lived.
  • The student may read Homer or Æschylus in the Greek without danger of dissipation or luxuriousness, for it implies that he in some measure emulate their heroes, and consecrate morning hours to their pages.
  • They seem as solitary, and the letter in which they are printed as rare and curious, as ever.
  • It is not in vain that the farmer remembers and repeats the few Latin words which he has heard.
  • They are the only oracles which are not decayed, and there are such answers to the most modern inquiry in them as Delphi and Dodona never gave.
  • To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.
  • The crowds of men who merely spoke the Greek and Latin tongues in the Middle Ages were not entitled by the accident of birth to read the works of genius written in those languages; for these were not written in that Greek or Latin which they knew, but in the select language of literature.
  • It may be translated into every language, and not only be read but actually breathed from all human lips;--not be represented on canvas or in marble only, but be carved out of the breath of life itself.
  • Their authors are a natural and irresistible aristocracy in every society, and, more than kings or emperors, exert an influence on mankind.
  • There is a work in several volumes in our Circulating Library entitled "Little Reading," which I thought referred to a town of that name which I had not been to.
  • The Skip of the Tip-Toe-Hop, a Romance of the Middle Ages, by the celebrated author of 'Tittle-Tol-Tan,' to appear in monthly parts; a great rush; don't all come together.
  • This sort of gingerbread is baked daily and more sedulously than pure wheat or rye-and-Indian in almost every oven, and finds a surer market.
  • There is in this town, with a very few exceptions, no taste for the best or for very good books even in English literature, whose words all can read and spell.
  • I know a woodchopper, of middle age, who takes a French paper, not for news as he says, for he is above that, but to "keep himself in practice," he being a Canadian by birth; and when I ask him what he considers the best thing he can do in this world, he says, beside this, to keep up and add to his English.
  • Or suppose he comes from reading a Greek or Latin classic in the original, whose praises are familiar even to the so-called illiterate; he will find nobody at all to speak to, but must keep silence about it.
  • We are underbred and low-lived and illiterate; and in this respect I confess I do not make any very broad distinction between the illiterateness of my townsman who cannot read at all and the illiterateness of him who has learned to read only what is for children and feeble intellects.
  • We have a comparatively decent system of common schools, schools for infants only; but excepting the half-starved Lyceum in the winter, and latterly the puny beginning of a library suggested by the State, no school for ourselves.
  • In this country, the village should in some respects take the place of the nobleman of Europe.
  • In this country, the village should in some respects take the place of the nobleman of Europe.
  • The one hundred and twenty-five dollars annually subscribed for a Lyceum in the winter is better spent than any other equal sum raised in the town.
  • If we live in the Nineteenth Century, why should we not enjoy the advantages which the Nineteenth Century offers?
  • Why should our life be in any respect provincial?
  • New England can hire all the wise men in the world to come and teach her, and board them round the while, and not be provincial at all.
  • I grew in those seasons like corn in the night, and they were far better than any work of the hands would have been.
  • A man must find his occasions in himself, it is true.
  • I had this advantage, at least, in my mode of life, over those who were obliged to look abroad for amusement, to society and the theatre, that my life itself was become my amusement and never ceased to be novel.
  • When my floor was dirty, I rose early, and, setting all my furniture out of doors on the grass, bed and bedstead making but one budget, dashed water on the floor, and sprinkled white sand from the pond on it, and then with a broom scrubbed it clean and white; and by the time the villagers had broken their fast the morning sun had dried my house sufficiently to allow me to move in again, and my meditations were almost uninterupted.
  • It was worth the while to see the sun shine on these things, and hear the free wind blow on them; so much more interesting most familiar objects look out of doors than in the house.
  • It looked as if this was the way these forms came to be transferred to our furniture, to tables, chairs, and bedsteads--because they once stood in their midst.
  • My house was on the side of a hill, immediately on the edge of the larger wood, in the midst of a young forest of pitch pines and hickories, and half a dozen rods from the pond, to which a narrow footpath led down the hill.
  • In my front yard grew the strawberry, blackberry, and life-everlasting, johnswort and goldenrod, shrub oaks and sand cherry, blueberry and groundnut.
  • Near the end of May, the sand cherry (Cerasus pumila) adorned the sides of the path with its delicate flowers arranged in umbels cylindrically about its short stems, which last, in the fall, weighed down with good-sized and handsome cherries, fell over in wreaths like rays on every side.
  • In August, the large masses of berries, which, when in flower, had attracted many wild bees, gradually assumed their bright velvety crimson hue, and by their weight again bent down and broke the tender limbs.
  • In August, the large masses of berries, which, when in flower, had attracted many wild bees, gradually assumed their bright velvety crimson hue, and by their weight again bent down and broke the tender limbs.
  • I too would fain be a track-repairer somewhere in the orbit of the earth.
  • If the snow lies deep, they strap on his snowshoes, and, with the giant plow, plow a furrow from the mountains to the seaboard, in which the cars, like a following drill-barrow, sprinkle all the restless men and floating merchandise in the country for seed.
  • Or perchance, at evening, I hear him in his stable blowing off the superfluous energy of the day, that he may calm his nerves and cool his liver and brain for a few hours of iron slumber.
  • The startings and arrivals of the cars are now the epochs in the village day.
  • Have not men improved somewhat in punctuality since the railroad was invented?
  • Do they not talk and think faster in the depot than they did in the stage-office?
  • There is something electrifying in the atmosphere of the former place.
  • There is no stopping to read the riot act, no firing over the heads of the mob, in this case.
  • Here goes lumber from the Maine woods, which did not go out to sea in the last freshet, risen four dollars on the thousand because of what did go out or was split up; pine, spruce, cedar--first, second, third, and fourth qualities, so lately all of one quality, to wave over the bear, and moose, and caribou.
  • I confess, that practically speaking, when I have learned a man's real disposition, I have no hopes of changing it for the better or worse in this state of existence.
  • It is advertised in the Cuttingsville Times.
  • And hark! here comes the cattle-train bearing the cattle of a thousand hills, sheepcots, stables, and cow-yards in the air, drovers with their sticks, and shepherd boys in the midst of their flocks, all but the mountain pastures, whirled along like leaves blown from the mountains by the September gales.
  • A carload of drovers, too, in the midst, on a level with their droves now, their vocation gone, but still clinging to their useless sticks as their badge of office.
  • They will not be in at the death.
  • At a sufficient distance over the woods this sound acquires a certain vibratory hum, as if the pine needles in the horizon were the strings of a harp which it swept.
  • It is new information and not merely a repetition of what was presented in the first chapter.
  • At evening, the distant lowing of some cow in the horizon beyond the woods sounded sweet and melodious, and at first I would mistake it for the voices of certain minstrels by whom I was sometimes serenaded, who might be straying over hill and dale; but soon I was not unpleasantly disappointed when it was prolonged into the cheap and natural music of the cow.
  • Regularly at half-past seven, in one part of the summer, after the evening train had gone by, the whip-poor-wills chanted their vespers for half an hour, sitting on a stump by my door, or upon the ridge-pole of the house.
  • Sometimes one would circle round and round me in the woods a few feet distant as if tethered by a string, when probably I was near its eggs.
  • But now one answers from far woods in a strain made really melodious by distance--Hoo hoo hoo, hoorer hoo; and indeed for the most part it suggested only pleasing associations, whether heard by day or night, summer or winter.
  • The note of this once wild Indian pheasant is certainly the most remarkable of any bird's, and if they could be naturalized without being domesticated, it would soon become the most famous sound in our woods, surpassing the clangor of the goose and the hooting of the owl; and then imagine the cackling of the hens to fill the pauses when their lords' clarions rested!
  • To walk in a winter morning in a wood where these birds abounded, their native woods, and hear the wild cockerels crow on the trees, clear and shrill for miles over the resounding earth, drowning the feebler notes of other birds--think of it!
  • Instead of no path to the front-yard gate in the Great Snow--no gate--no front-yard--and no path to the civilized world.
  • I go and come with a strange liberty in Nature, a part of herself.
  • As I walk along the stony shore of the pond in my shirt-sleeves, though it is cool as well as cloudy and windy, and I see nothing special to attract me, all the elements are unusually congenial to me.
  • The bullfrogs trump to usher in the night, and the note of the whip-poor-will is borne on the rippling wind from over the water.
  • Though it is now dark, the wind still blows and roars in the wood, the waves still dash, and some creatures lull the rest with their notes.
  • I could always tell if visitors had called in my absence, either by the bended twigs or grass, or the print of their shoes, and generally of what sex or age or quality they were by some slight trace left, as a flower dropped, or a bunch of grass plucked and thrown away, even as far off as the railroad, half a mile distant, or by the lingering odor of a cigar or pipe.
  • The thick wood is not just at our door, nor the pond, but somewhat is always clearing, familiar and worn by us, appropriated and fenced in some way, and reclaimed from Nature.
  • If it should continue so long as to cause the seeds to rot in the ground and destroy the potatoes in the low lands, it would still be good for the grass on the uplands, and, being good for the grass, it would be good for me.
  • I have never felt lonesome, or in the least oppressed by a sense of solitude, but once, and that was a few weeks after I came to the woods, when, for an hour, I doubted if the near neighborhood of man was not essential to a serene and healthy life.
  • But I was at the same time conscious of a slight insanity in my mood, and seemed to foresee my recovery.
  • In those driving northeast rains which tried the village houses so, when the maids stood ready with mop and pail in front entries to keep the deluge out, I sat behind my door in my little house, which was all entry, and thoroughly enjoyed its protection.
  • In those driving northeast rains which tried the village houses so, when the maids stood ready with mop and pail in front entries to keep the deluge out, I sat behind my door in my little house, which was all entry, and thoroughly enjoyed its protection.
  • In one heavy thunder-shower the lightning struck a large pitch pine across the pond, making a very conspicuous and perfectly regular spiral groove from top to bottom, an inch or more deep, and four or five inches wide, as you would groove a walking-stick.
  • I am tempted to reply to such--This whole earth which we inhabit is but a point in space.
  • Why should I feel lonely? is not our planet in the Milky Way?
  • And so I went home to my bed, and left him to pick his way through the darkness and the mud to Brighton--or Bright-town--which place he would reach some time in the morning.
  • With thinking we may be beside ourselves in a sane sense.
  • We are not wholly involved in Nature.
  • I may be either the driftwood in the stream, or Indra in the sky looking down on it.
  • To be in company, even with the best, is soon wearisome and dissipating.
  • We are for the most part more lonely when we go abroad among men than when we stay in our chambers.
  • The really diligent student in one of the crowded hives of Cambridge College is as solitary as a dervish in the desert.
  • Consider the girls in a factory--never alone, hardly in their dreams.
  • The value of a man is not in his skin, that we should touch him.
  • I have heard of a man lost in the woods and dying of famine and exhaustion at the foot of a tree, whose loneliness was relieved by the grotesque visions with which, owing to bodily weakness, his diseased imagination surrounded him, and which he believed to be real.
  • I have a great deal of company in my house; especially in the morning, when nobody calls.
  • I am no more lonely than the loon in the pond that laughs so loud, or than Walden Pond itself.
  • The sun is alone, except in thick weather, when there sometimes appear to be two, but one is a mock sun.
  • An elderly dame, too, dwells in my neighborhood, invisible to most persons, in whose odorous herb garden I love to stroll sometimes, gathering simples and listening to her fables; for she has a genius of unequalled fertility, and her memory runs back farther than mythology, and she can tell me the original of every fable, and on what fact every one is founded, for the incidents occurred when she was young.
  • A ruddy and lusty old dame, who delights in all weathers and seasons, and is likely to outlive all her children yet.
  • Not my or thy great-grandfather's, but our great-grandmother Nature's universal, vegetable, botanic medicines, by which she has kept herself young always, outlived so many old Parrs in her day, and fed her health with their decaying fatness.
  • When visitors came in larger and unexpected numbers there was but the third chair for them all, but they generally economized the room by standing up.
  • One inconvenience I sometimes experienced in so small a house, the difficulty of getting to a sufficient distance from my guest when we began to utter the big thoughts in big words.
  • Also, our sentences wanted room to unfold and form their columns in the interval.
  • In my house we were so near that we could not begin to hear--we could not speak low enough to be heard; as when you throw two stones into calm water so near that they break each other's undulations.
  • As the conversation began to assume a loftier and grander tone, we gradually shoved our chairs farther apart till they touched the wall in opposite corners, and then commonly there was not room enough.
  • So easy is it, though many housekeepers doubt it, to establish new and better customs in the place of the old.
  • These being boiled, there were at least forty looked for a share in them; the most eat of them.
  • This meal only we had in two nights and a day; and had not one of us bought a partridge, we had taken our journey fasting.
  • Another time when Winslow visited them, it being a season of plenty with them, there was no deficiency in this respect.
  • I had more visitors while I lived in the woods than at any other period in my life; I mean that I had some.
  • In this respect, my company was winnowed by my mere distance from town.
  • "I suppose there's no harm in going after such a thing to-day," says he.
  • He was about twenty-eight years old, and had left Canada and his father's house a dozen years before to work in the States, and earn money to buy a farm with at last, perhaps in his native country.
  • Frequently he would leave his dinner in the bushes, when his dog had caught a woodchuck by the way, and go back a mile and a half to dress it and leave it in the cellar of the house where he boarded, after deliberating first for half an hour whether he could not sink it in the pond safely till nightfall--loving to dwell long upon these themes.
  • He would say, as he went by in the morning, How thick the pigeons are!
  • I could get all I should want for a week in one day.
  • He was a skilful chopper, and indulged in some flourishes and ornaments in his art.
  • Sometimes I saw him at his work in the woods, felling trees, and he would greet me with a laugh of inexpressible satisfaction, and a salutation in Canadian French, though he spoke English as well.
  • In the winter he had a fire by which at noon he warmed his coffee in a kettle; and as he sat on a log to eat his dinner the chickadees would sometimes come round and alight on his arm and peck at the potato in his fingers; and he said that he "liked to have the little fellers about him."
  • In the winter he had a fire by which at noon he warmed his coffee in a kettle; and as he sat on a log to eat his dinner the chickadees would sometimes come round and alight on his arm and peck at the potato in his fingers; and he said that he "liked to have the little fellers about him."
  • In him the animal man chiefly was developed.
  • I asked him once if he was not sometimes tired at night, after working all day; and he answered, with a sincere and serious look, "Gorrappit, I never was tired in my life."
  • But the intellectual and what is called spiritual man in him were slumbering as in an infant.
  • He was so simply and naturally humble--if he can be called humble who never aspires--that humility was no distinct quality in him, nor could he conceive of it.
  • I sometimes found the name of his native parish handsomely written in the snow by the highway, with the proper French accent, and knew that he had passed.
  • A townsman told me that when he met him sauntering through the village in his small close-fitting cap, and whistling to himself, he reminded him of a prince in disguise.
  • I loved to sound him on the various reforms of the day, and he never failed to look at them in the most simple and practical light.
  • He had soaked hemlock leaves in water and drank it, and thought that was better than water in warm weather.
  • He could defend many institutions better than any philosopher, because, in describing them as they concerned him, he gave the true reason for their prevalence, and speculation had not suggested to him any other.
  • If I suggested any improvement in his mode of life, he merely answered, without expressing any regret, that it was too late.
  • Yet he thoroughly believed in honesty and the like virtues.
  • Half-witted men from the almshouse and elsewhere came to see me; but I endeavored to make them exercise all the wit they had, and make their confessions to me; in such cases making wit the theme of our conversation; and so was compensated.
  • I require of a visitor that he be not actually starving, though he may have the very best appetite in the world, however he got it.
  • Men of almost every degree of wit called on me in the migrating season.
  • One man proposed a book in which visitors should write their names, as at the White Mountains; but, alas!
  • Girls and boys and young women generally seemed glad to be in the woods.
  • They looked in the pond and at the flowers, and improved their time.
  • Men of business, even farmers, thought only of solitude and employment, and of the great distance at which I dwelt from something or other; and though they said that they loved a ramble in the woods occasionally, it was obvious that they did not.
  • Children come a-berrying, railroad men taking a Sunday morning walk in clean shirts, fishermen and hunters, poets and philosophers; in short, all honest pilgrims, who came out to the woods for freedom's sake, and really left the village behind, I was ready to greet with--"Welcome, Englishmen! welcome, Englishmen!" for I had had communication with that race.
  • My auxiliaries are the dews and rains which water this dry soil, and what fertility is in the soil itself, which for the most part is lean and effete.
  • Early in the morning I worked barefooted, dabbling like a plastic artist in the dewy and crumbling sand, but later in the day the sun blistered my feet.
  • It was the only open and cultivated field for a great distance on either side of the road, so they made the most of it; and sometimes the man in the field heard more of travellers' gossip and comment than was meant for his ear: "Beans so late! peas so late!"--for I continued to plant when others had begun to hoe--the ministerial husbandman had not suspected it.
  • Fellow-travellers as they rattled by compared it aloud with the fields which they had passed, so that I came to know how I stood in the agricultural world.
  • This was one field not in Mr. Coleman's report.
  • And, by the way, who estimates the value of the crop which nature yields in the still wilder fields unimproved by man?
  • The crop of English hay is carefully weighed, the moisture calculated, the silicates and the potash; but in all dells and pond-holes in the woods and pastures and swamps grows a rich and various crop only unreaped by man.
  • Mine was, as it were, the connecting link between wild and cultivated fields; as some states are civilized, and others half-civilized, and others savage or barbarous, so my field was, though not in a bad sense, a half-cultivated field.
  • It was a cheap sort of top dressing in which I had entire faith.
  • As I drew a still fresher soil about the rows with my hoe, I disturbed the ashes of unchronicled nations who in primeval years lived under these heavens, and their small implements of war and hunting were brought to the light of this modern day.
  • Or sometimes I watched a pair of hen-hawks circling high in the sky, alternately soaring and descending, approaching, and leaving one another, as if they were the embodiment of my own thoughts.
  • When I paused to lean on my hoe, these sounds and sights I heard and saw anywhere in the row, a part of the inexhaustible entertainment which the country offers.
  • I felt proud to know that the liberties of Massachusetts and of our fatherland were in such safe keeping; and as I turned to my hoeing again I was filled with an inexpressible confidence, and pursued my labor cheerfully with a calm trust in the future.
  • When they were growing, I used to hoe from five o'clock in the morning till noon, and commonly spent the rest of the day about other affairs.
  • That's Roman wormwood--that's pigweed--that's sorrel--that's piper-grass--have at him, chop him up, turn his roots upward to the sun, don't let him have a fibre in the shade, if you do he'll turn himself t' other side up and be as green as a leek in two days.
  • Many a lusty crest--waving Hector, that towered a whole foot above his crowding comrades, fell before my weapon and rolled in the dust.
  • "The earth," he adds elsewhere, "especially if fresh, has a certain magnetism in it, by which it attracts the salt, power, or virtue (call it either) which gives it life, and is the logic of all the labor and stir we keep about it, to sustain us; all dungings and other sordid temperings being but the vicars succedaneous to this improvement."
  • This is the result of my experience in raising beans: Plant the common small white bush bean about the first of June, in rows three feet by eighteen inches apart, being careful to select fresh round and unmixed seed.
  • We should really be fed and cheered if when we met a man we were sure to see that some of the qualities which I have named, which we all prize more than those other productions, but which are for the most part broadcast and floating in the air, had taken root and grown in him.
  • They all reflect and absorb his rays alike, and the former make but a small part of the glorious picture which he beholds in his daily course.
  • In his view the earth is all equally cultivated like a garden.
  • What though I value the seed of these beans, and harvest that in the fall of the year?
  • After hoeing, or perhaps reading and writing, in the forenoon, I usually bathed again in the pond, swimming across one of its coves for a stint, and washed the dust of labor from my person, or smoothed out the last wrinkle which study had made, and for the afternoon was absolutely free.
  • As I walked in the woods to see the birds and squirrels, so I walked in the village to see the men and boys; instead of the wind among the pines I heard the carts rattle.
  • I hardly ever failed, when I rambled through the village, to see a row of such worthies, either sitting on a ladder sunning themselves, with their bodies inclined forward and their eyes glancing along the line this way and that, from time to time, with a voluptuous expression, or else leaning against a barn with their hands in their pockets, like caryatides, as if to prop it up.
  • They, being commonly out of doors, heard whatever was in the wind.
  • These are the coarsest mills, in which all gossip is first rudely digested or cracked up before it is emptied into finer and more delicate hoppers within doors.
  • I observed that the vitals of the village were the grocery, the bar-room, the post-office, and the bank; and, as a necessary part of the machinery, they kept a bell, a big gun, and a fire-engine, at convenient places; and the houses were so arranged as to make the most of mankind, in lanes and fronting one another, so that every traveller had to run the gauntlet, and every man, woman, and child might get a lick at him.
  • Sometimes I bolted suddenly, and nobody could tell my whereabouts, for I did not stand much about gracefulness, and never hesitated at a gap in a fence.
  • It was very pleasant, when I stayed late in town, to launch myself into the night, especially if it was dark and tempestuous, and set sail from some bright village parlor or lecture room, with a bag of rye or Indian meal upon my shoulder, for my snug harbor in the woods, having made all tight without and withdrawn under hatches with a merry crew of thoughts, leaving only my outer man at the helm, or even tying up the helm when it was plain sailing.
  • I was never cast away nor distressed in any weather, though I encountered some severe storms.
  • It is darker in the woods, even in common nights, than most suppose.
  • I have heard of many going astray even in the village streets, when the darkness was so thick that you could cut it with a knife, as the saying is.
  • It is a surprising and memorable, as well as valuable experience, to be lost in the woods any time.
  • Often in a snow-storm, even by day, one will come out upon a well-known road and yet find it impossible to tell which way leads to the village.
  • In our most trivial walks, we are constantly, though unconsciously, steering like pilots by certain well-known beacons and headlands, and if we go beyond our usual course we still carry in our minds the bearing of some neighboring cape; and not till we are completely lost, or turned round--for a man needs only to be turned round once with his eyes shut in this world to be lost--do we appreciate the vastness and strangeness of nature.
  • In our most trivial walks, we are constantly, though unconsciously, steering like pilots by certain well-known beacons and headlands, and if we go beyond our usual course we still carry in our minds the bearing of some neighboring cape; and not till we are completely lost, or turned round--for a man needs only to be turned round once with his eyes shut in this world to be lost--do we appreciate the vastness and strangeness of nature.
  • However, I was released the next day, obtained my mended shoe, and returned to the woods in season to get my dinner of huckleberries on Fair Haven Hill.
  • I never fastened my door night or day, though I was to be absent several days; not even when the next fall I spent a fortnight in the woods of Maine.
  • These take place only in communities where some have got more than is sufficient while others have not enough.
  • Once in a while we sat together on the pond, he at one end of the boat, and I at the other; but not many words passed between us, for he had grown deaf in his later years, but he occasionally hummed a psalm, which harmonized well enough with my philosophy.
  • Sometimes, after staying in a village parlor till the family had all retired, I have returned to the woods, and, partly with a view to the next day's dinner, spent the hours of midnight fishing from a boat by moonlight, serenaded by owls and foxes, and hearing, from time to time, the creaking note of some unknown bird close at hand.
  • In clear weather, in summer, they appear blue at a little distance, especially if agitated, and at a great distance all appear alike.
  • In clear weather, in summer, they appear blue at a little distance, especially if agitated, and at a great distance all appear alike.
  • In stormy weather they are sometimes of a dark slate-color.
  • The sea, however, is said to be blue one day and green another without any perceptible change in the atmosphere.
  • Viewed from a hilltop it reflects the color of the sky; but near at hand it is of a yellowish tint next the shore where you can see the sand, then a light green, which gradually deepens to a uniform dark green in the body of the pond.
  • In some lights, viewed even from a hilltop, it is of a vivid green next the shore.
  • This is that portion, also, where in the spring, the ice being warmed by the heat of the sun reflected from the bottom, and also transmitted through the earth, melts first and forms a narrow canal about the still frozen middle.
  • It is a vitreous greenish blue, as I remember it, like those patches of the winter sky seen through cloud vistas in the west before sundown.
  • Making another hole directly over it with an ice chisel which I had, and cutting down the longest birch which I could find in the neighborhood with my knife, I made a slip-noose, which I attached to its end, and, letting it down carefully, passed it over the knob of the handle, and drew it by a line along the birch, and so pulled the axe out again.
  • The shore is composed of a belt of smooth rounded white stones like paving-stones, excepting one or two short sand beaches, and is so steep that in many places a single leap will carry you into water over your head; and were it not for its remarkable transparency, that would be the last to be seen of its bottom till it rose on the opposite side.
  • Perhaps on that spring morning when Adam and Eve were driven out of Eden Walden Pond was already in existence, and even then breaking up in a gentle spring rain accompanied with mist and a southerly wind, and covered with myriads of ducks and geese, which had not heard of the fall, when still such pure lakes sufficed them.
  • Even then it had commenced to rise and fall, and had clarified its waters and colored them of the hue they now wear, and obtained a patent of Heaven to be the only Walden Pond in the world and distiller of celestial dews.
  • It is a gem of the first water which Concord wears in her coronet.
  • This is particularly distinct to one standing on the middle of the pond in winter, just after a light snow has fallen, appearing as a clear undulating white line, unobscured by weeds and twigs, and very obvious a quarter of a mile off in many places where in summer it is hardly distinguishable close at hand.
  • The snow reprints it, as it were, in clear white type alto-relievo.
  • It is commonly higher in the winter and lower in the summer, though not corresponding to the general wet and dryness.
  • If the name was not derived from that of some English locality--Saffron Walden, for instance--one might suppose that it was called originally Walled-in Pond.
  • For four months in the year its water is as cold as it is pure at all times; and I think that it is then as good as any, if not the best, in the town.
  • In the winter, all water which is exposed to the air is colder than springs and wells which are protected from it.
  • The temperature of the Boiling Spring the same day was 45º, or the warmest of any water tried, though it is the coldest that I know of in summer, when, beside, shallow and stagnant surface water is not mingled with it.
  • Moreover, in summer, Walden never becomes so warm as most water which is exposed to the sun, on account of its depth.
  • In the warmest weather I usually placed a pailful in my cellar, where it became cool in the night, and remained so during the day; though I also resorted to a spring in the neighborhood.
  • In the warmest weather I usually placed a pailful in my cellar, where it became cool in the night, and remained so during the day; though I also resorted to a spring in the neighborhood.
  • Whoever camps for a week in summer by the shore of a pond, needs only bury a pail of water a few feet deep in the shade of his camp to be independent of the luxury of ice.
  • There are also a clean race of frogs and tortoises, and a few mussels in it; muskrats and minks leave their traces about it, and occasionally a travelling mud-turtle visits it.
  • Sometimes, when I pushed off my boat in the morning, I disturbed a great mud-turtle which had secreted himself under the boat in the night.
  • Ducks and geese frequent it in the spring and fall, the white-bellied swallows (Hirundo bicolor) skim over it, and the peetweets (Totanus macularius) "teeter" along its stony shores all summer.
  • You may see from a boat, in calm weather, near the sandy eastern shore, where the water is eight or ten feet deep, and also in some other parts of the pond, some circular heaps half a dozen feet in diameter by a foot in height, consisting of small stones less than a hen's egg in size, where all around is bare sand.
  • They are similar to those found in rivers; but as there are no suckers nor lampreys here, I know not by what fish they could be made.
  • I have in my mind's eye the western, indented with deep bays, the bolder northern, and the beautifully scalloped southern shore, where successive capes overlap each other and suggest unexplored coves between.
  • The forest has never so good a setting, nor is so distinctly beautiful, as when seen from the middle of a small lake amid hills which rise from the water's edge; for the water in which it is reflected not only makes the best foreground in such a case, but, with its winding shore, the most natural and agreeable boundary to it.
  • There is no rawness nor imperfection in its edge there, as where the axe has cleared a part, or a cultivated field abuts on it.
  • The trees have ample room to expand on the water side, and each sends forth its most vigorous branch in that direction.
  • Standing on the smooth sandy beach at the east end of the pond, in a calm September afternoon, when a slight haze makes the opposite shore-line indistinct, I have seen whence came the expression, "the glassy surface of a lake."
  • It is like molten glass cooled but not congealed, and the few motes in it are pure and beautiful like the imperfections in glass.
  • From a hilltop you can see a fish leap in almost any part; for not a pickerel or shiner picks an insect from this smooth surface but it manifestly disturbs the equilibrium of the whole lake.
  • It is wonderful with what elaborateness this simple fact is advertised--this piscine murder will out--and from my distant perch I distinguish the circling undulations when they are half a dozen rods in diameter.
  • Again the works of man shine as in the spring.
  • Ay, every leaf and twig and stone and cobweb sparkles now at mid-afternoon as when covered with dew in a spring morning.
  • In such a day, in September or October, Walden is a perfect forest mirror, set round with stones as precious to my eye as if fewer or rarer.
  • In such a day, in September or October, Walden is a perfect forest mirror, set round with stones as precious to my eye as if fewer or rarer.
  • It is a mirror which no stone can crack, whose quicksilver will never wear off, whose gilding Nature continually repairs; no storms, no dust, can dim its surface ever fresh;--a mirror in which all impurity presented to it sinks, swept and dusted by the sun's hazy brush--this the light dust-cloth--which retains no breath that is breathed on it, but sends its own to float as clouds high above its surface, and be reflected in its bosom still.
  • A field of water betrays the spirit that is in the air.
  • It is intermediate in its nature between land and sky.
  • In such transparent and seemingly bottomless water, reflecting the clouds, I seemed to be floating through the air as in a balloon, and their swimming impressed me as a kind of flight or hovering, as if they were a compact flock of birds passing just beneath my level on the right or left, their fins, like sails, set all around them.
  • In such transparent and seemingly bottomless water, reflecting the clouds, I seemed to be floating through the air as in a balloon, and their swimming impressed me as a kind of flight or hovering, as if they were a compact flock of birds passing just beneath my level on the right or left, their fins, like sails, set all around them.
  • When I approached carelessly and alarmed them, they made a sudden splash and rippling with their tails, as if one had struck the water with a brushy bough, and instantly took refuge in the depths.
  • When I first paddled a boat on Walden, it was completely surrounded by thick and lofty pine and oak woods, and in some of its coves grape-vines had run over the trees next the water and formed bowers under which a boat could pass.
  • That devilish Iron Horse, whose ear-rending neigh is heard throughout the town, has muddied the Boiling Spring with his foot, and he it is that has browsed off all the woods on Walden shore, that Trojan horse, with a thousand men in his belly, introduced by mercenary Greeks!
  • Though the woodchoppers have laid bare first this shore and then that, and the Irish have built their sties by it, and the railroad has infringed on its border, and the ice-men have skimmed it once, it is itself unchanged, the same water which my youthful eyes fell on; all the change is in me.
  • It is the work of a brave man surely, in whom there was no guile!
  • He rounded this water with his hand, deepened and clarified it in his thought, and in his will bequeathed it to Concord.
  • I have said that Walden has no visible inlet nor outlet, but it is on the one hand distantly and indirectly related to Flint's Pond, which is more elevated, by a chain of small ponds coming from that quarter, and on the other directly and manifestly to Concord River, which is lower, by a similar chain of ponds through which in some other geological period it may have flowed, and by a little digging, which God forbid, it can be made to flow thither again.
  • Flint's, or Sandy Pond, in Lincoln, our greatest lake and inland sea, lies about a mile east of Walden.
  • It is much larger, being said to contain one hundred and ninety-seven acres, and is more fertile in fish; but it is comparatively shallow, and not remarkably pure.
  • These wash back and forth in shallow water on a sandy bottom, and are sometimes cast on the shore.
  • Farmers are respectable and interesting to me in proportion as they are poor--poor farmers.
  • As if you were to raise your potatoes in the churchyard!
  • In these as in other respects, however, it is a lesser twin of Walden.
  • In these as in other respects, however, it is a lesser twin of Walden.
  • In the spring of '49 I talked with the man who lives nearest the pond in Sudbury, who told me that it was he who got out this tree ten or fifteen years before.
  • In the spring of '49 I talked with the man who lives nearest the pond in Sudbury, who told me that it was he who got out this tree ten or fifteen years before.
  • He sawed a channel in the ice toward the shore, and hauled it over and along and out on to the ice with oxen; but, before he had gone far in his work, he was surprised to find that it was wrong end upward, with the stumps of the branches pointing down, and the small end firmly fastened in the sandy bottom.
  • It was about a foot in diameter at the big end, and he had expected to get a good saw-log, but it was so rotten as to be fit only for fuel, if for that.
  • He had some of it in his shed then.
  • Several pretty large logs may still be seen lying on the bottom, where, owing to the undulation of the surface, they look like huge water snakes in motion.
  • Instead of the white lily, which requires mud, or the common sweet flag, the blue flag (Iris versicolor) grows thinly in the pure water, rising from the stony bottom all around the shore, where it is visited by hummingbirds in June; and the color both of its bluish blades and its flowers and especially their reflections, is in singular harmony with the glaucous water.
  • How much fairer than the pool before the farmer's door, in which his ducks swim!
  • The birds with their plumage and their notes are in harmony with the flowers, but what youth or maiden conspires with the wild luxuriant beauty of Nature?
  • Once it chanced that I stood in the very abutment of a rainbow's arch, which filled the lower stratum of the atmosphere, tinging the grass and leaves around, and dazzling me as if I looked through colored crystal.
  • It was a lake of rainbow light, in which, for a short while, I lived like a dolphin.
  • This was probably the same phenomenon to which I have referred, which is especially observed in the morning, but also at other times, and even by moonlight.
  • It was one of those afternoons which seem indefinitely long before one, in which many events may happen, a large portion of our natural life, though it was already half spent when I started.
  • They stood and looked in my eye or pecked at my shoe significantly.
  • I should be glad if all the meadows on the earth were left in a wild state, if that were the consequence of men's beginning to redeem themselves.
  • If he and his family would live simply, they might all go a-huckleberrying in the summer for their amusement.
  • I am not squeamish in such cases when manners are concerned.
  • Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth.
  • But he, poor man, disturbed only a couple of fins while I was catching a fair string, and he said it was his luck; but when we changed seats in the boat luck changed seats too.
  • Poor John Field!--I trust he does not read this, unless he will improve by it--thinking to live by some derivative old-country mode in this primitive new country--to catch perch with shiners.
  • The wildness and adventure that are in fishing still recommended it to me.
  • They early introduce us to and detain us in scenery with which otherwise, at that age, we should have little acquaintance.
  • There is a period in the history of the individual, as of the race, when the hunters are the "best men," as the Algonquins called them.
  • The hare in its extremity cries like a child.
  • The mass of men are still and always young in this respect.
  • I have found repeatedly, of late years, that I cannot fish without falling a little in self-respect.
  • But I see that if I were to live in a wilderness I should again be tempted to become a fisher and hunter in earnest.
  • It appeared more beautiful to live low and fare hard in many respects; and though I never did so, I went far enough to please my imagination.
  • But to tell the truth, I find myself at present somewhat less particular in these respects.
  • Perhaps these questions are entertained only in youth, as most believe of poetry.
  • Who has not sometimes derived an inexpressible satisfaction from his food in which appetite had no share?
  • In the music of the harp which trembles round the world it is the insisting on this which thrills us.
  • We are conscious of an animal in us, which awakens in proportion as our higher nature slumbers.
  • "That in which men differ from brute beasts," says Mencius, "is a thing very inconsiderable; the common herd lose it very soon; superior men preserve it carefully."
  • A command over our passions, and over the external senses of the body, and good acts, are declared by the Ved to be indispensable in the mind's approximation to God.
  • He is blessed who is assured that the animal is dying out in him day by day, and the divine being established.
  • In the student sensuality is a sluggish habit of mind.
  • But the notes of the flute came home to his ears out of a different sphere from that he worked in, and suggested work for certain faculties which slumbered in him.
  • They gently did away with the street, and the village, and the state in which he lived.
  • Sometimes I had a companion in my fishing, who came through the village to my house from the other side of the town, and the catching of the dinner was as much a social exercise as the eating of it.
  • The hands are coming in to boiled salt beef and cider and Indian bread.
  • Is it some ill-fed village hound yielding to the instinct of the chase? or the lost pig which is said to be in these woods, whose tracks I saw after the rain?
  • There's nothing like it in old paintings, nothing like it in foreign lands--unless when we were off the coast of Spain.
  • Angleworms are rarely to be met with in these parts, where the soil was never fattened with manure; the race is nearly extinct.
  • I would advise you to set in the spade down yonder among the ground-nuts, where you see the johnswort waving.
  • I think that I may warrant you one worm to every three sods you turn up, if you look well in among the roots of the grass, as if you were weeding.
  • Methinks I was nearly in this frame of mind; the world lay about at this angle.
  • I was as near being resolved into the essence of things as ever I was in my life.
  • It could readily ascend the sides of the room by short impulses, like a squirrel, which it resembled in its motions.
  • At length, as I leaned with my elbow on the bench one day, it ran up my clothes, and along my sleeve, and round and round the paper which held my dinner, while I kept the latter close, and dodged and played at bopeep with it; and when at last I held still a piece of cheese between my thumb and finger, it came and nibbled it, sitting in my hand, and afterward cleaned its face and paws, like a fly, and walked away.
  • A phÅ“be soon built in my shed, and a robin for protection in a pine which grew against the house.
  • The parent will sometimes roll and spin round before you in such a dishabille, that you cannot, for a few moments, detect what kind of creature it is.
  • So perfect is this instinct, that once, when I had laid them on the leaves again, and one accidentally fell on its side, it was found with the rest in exactly the same position ten minutes afterward.
  • All intelligence seems reflected in them.
  • It is remarkable how many creatures live wild and free though secret in the woods, and still sustain themselves in the neighborhood of towns, suspected by hunters only.
  • I formerly saw the raccoon in the woods behind where my house is built, and probably still heard their whinnering at night.
  • I had dug out the spring and made a well of clear gray water, where I could dip up a pailful without roiling it, and thither I went for this purpose almost every day in midsummer, when the pond was warmest.
  • You only need sit still long enough in some attractive spot in the woods that all its inhabitants may exhibit themselves to you by turns.
  • The legions of these Myrmidons covered all the hills and vales in my wood-yard, and the ground was already strewn with the dead and dying, both red and black.
  • I watched a couple that were fast locked in each other's embraces, in a little sunny valley amid the chips, now at noonday prepared to fight till the sun went down, or life went out.
  • I took up the chip on which the three I have particularly described were struggling, carried it into my house, and placed it under a tumbler on my window-sill, in order to see the issue.
  • I raised the glass, and he went off over the window-sill in that crippled state.
  • Whether he finally survived that combat, and spent the remainder of his days in some Hotel des Invalides, I do not know; but I thought that his industry would not be worth much thereafter.
  • A similar engagement between great and small ants is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in which the small ones, being victorious, are said to have buried the bodies of their own soldiers, but left those of their giant enemies a prey to the birds.
  • The battle which I witnessed took place in the Presidency of Polk, five years before the passage of Webster's Fugitive-Slave Bill.
  • Once, when berrying, I met with a cat with young kittens in the woods, quite wild, and they all, like their mother, had their backs up and were fiercely spitting at me.
  • In the fall the loon (Colymbus glacialis) came, as usual, to moult and bathe in the pond, making the woods ring with his wild laughter before I had risen.
  • In the fall the loon (Colymbus glacialis) came, as usual, to moult and bathe in the pond, making the woods ring with his wild laughter before I had risen.
  • At rumor of his arrival all the Mill-dam sportsmen are on the alert, in gigs and on foot, two by two and three by three, with patent rifles and conical balls and spy-glasses.
  • When I went to get a pail of water early in the morning I frequently saw this stately bird sailing out of my cove within a few rods.
  • If I endeavored to overtake him in a boat, in order to see how he would manoeuvre, he would dive and be completely lost, so that I did not discover him again, sometimes, till the latter part of the day.
  • He commonly went off in a rain.
  • While he was thinking one thing in his brain, I was endeavoring to divine his thought in mine.
  • I concluded that he laughed in derision of my efforts, confident of his own resources.
  • When compelled to rise they would sometimes circle round and round and over the pond at a considerable height, from which they could easily see to other ponds and the river, like black motes in the sky; and, when I thought they had gone off thither long since, they would settle down by a slanting flight of a quarter of a mile on to a distant part which was left free; but what beside safety they got by sailing in the middle of Walden I do not know, unless they love its water for the same reason that I do.
  • In October I went a-graping to the river meadows, and loaded myself with clusters more precious for their beauty and fragrance than for food.
  • It was very exciting at that season to roam the then boundless chestnut woods of Lincoln--they now sleep their long sleep under the railroad--with a bag on my shoulder, and a stick to open burs with in my hand, for I did not always wait for the frost, amid the rustling of leaves and the loud reproofs of the red squirrels and the jays, whose half-consumed nuts I sometimes stole, for the burs which they had selected were sure to contain sound ones.
  • They grew also behind my house, and one large tree, which almost overshadowed it, was, when in flower, a bouquet which scented the whole neighborhood, but the squirrels and the jays got most of its fruit; the last coming in flocks early in the morning and picking the nuts out of the burs before they fell, I relinquished these trees to them and visited the more distant woods composed wholly of chestnut.
  • And gradually from week to week the character of each tree came out, and it admired itself reflected in the smooth mirror of the lake.
  • The wasps came by thousands to my lodge in October, as to winter quarters, and settled on my windows within and on the walls overhead, sometimes deterring visitors from entering.
  • Like the wasps, before I finally went into winter quarters in November, I used to resort to the northeast side of Walden, which the sun, reflected from the pitch pine woods and the stony shore, made the fireside of the pond; it is so much pleasanter and wholesomer to be warmed by the sun while you can be, than by an artificial fire.
  • Should not every apartment in which man dwells be lofty enough to create some obscurity overhead, where flickering shadows may play at evening about the rafters?
  • My dwelling was small, and I could hardly entertain an echo in it; but it seemed larger for being a single apartment and remote from neighbors.
  • All the attractions of a house were concentrated in one room; it was kitchen, chamber, parlor, and keeping-room; and whatever satisfaction parent or child, master or servant, derive from living in a house, I enjoyed it all.
  • Cato says, the master of a family (patremfamilias) must have in his rustic villa "cellam oleariam, vinariam, dolia multa, uti lubeat caritatem expectare, et rei, et virtuti, et gloriae erit," that is, "an oil and wine cellar, many casks, so that it may be pleasant to expect hard times; it will be for his advantage, and virtue, and glory."
  • I had in my cellar a firkin of potatoes, about two quarts of peas with the weevil in them, and on my shelf a little rice, a jug of molasses, and of rye and Indian meal a peck each.
  • Nowadays the host does not admit you to his hearth, but has got the mason to build one for yourself somewhere in his alley, and hospitality is the art of keeping you at the greatest distance.
  • I brought over some whiter and cleaner sand for this purpose from the opposite shore of the pond in a boat, a sort of conveyance which would have tempted me to go much farther if necessary.
  • In lathing I was pleased to be able to send home each nail with a single blow of the hammer, and it was my ambition to transfer the plaster from the board to the wall neatly and rapidly.
  • I remembered the story of a conceited fellow, who, in fine clothes, was wont to lounge about the village once, giving advice to workmen.
  • I was surprised to see how thirsty the bricks were which drank up all the moisture in my plaster before I had smoothed it, and how many pailfuls of water it takes to christen a new hearth.
  • The pond had in the meanwhile skimmed over in the shadiest and shallowest coves, some days or even weeks before the general freezing.
  • There are many furrows in the sand where some creature has travelled about and doubled on its tracks; and, for wrecks, it is strewn with the cases of caddis-worms made of minute grains of white quartz.
  • These bubbles are from an eightieth to an eighth of an inch in diameter, very clear and beautiful, and you see your face reflected in them through the ice.
  • One day when I came to the same place forty-eight hours afterward, I found that those large bubbles were still perfect, though an inch more of ice had formed, as I could see distinctly by the seam in the edge of a cake.
  • My employment out of doors now was to collect the dead wood in the forest, bringing it in my hands or on my shoulders, or sometimes trailing a dead pine tree under each arm to my shed.
  • In the course of the summer I had discovered a raft of pitch pine logs with the bark on, pinned together by the Irish when the railroad was built.
  • Though completely waterlogged and almost as heavy as lead, they not only burned long, but made a very hot fire; nay, I thought that they burned better for the soaking, as if the pitch, being confined by the water, burned longer, as in a lamp.
  • Michaux, more than thirty years ago, says that the price of wood for fuel in New York and Philadelphia "nearly equals, and sometimes exceeds, that of the best wood in Paris, though this immense capital annually requires more than three hundred thousand cords, and is surrounded to the distance of three hundred miles by cultivated plains."
  • In this town the price of wood rises almost steadily, and the only question is, how much higher it is to be this year than it was the last.
  • Mechanics and tradesmen who come in person to the forest on no other errand, are sure to attend the wood auction, and even pay a high price for the privilege of gleaning after the woodchopper.
  • It is now many years that men have resorted to the forest for fuel and the materials of the arts: the New Englander and the New Hollander, the Parisian and the Celt, the farmer and Robin Hood, Goody Blake and Harry Gill; in most parts of the world the prince and the peasant, the scholar and the savage, equally require still a few sticks from the forest to warm them and cook their food.
  • I had an old axe which nobody claimed, with which by spells in winter days, on the sunny side of the house, I played about the stumps which I had got out of my bean-field.
  • It is interesting to remember how much of this food for fire is still concealed in the bowels of the earth.
  • In previous years I had often gone prospecting over some bare hillside, where a pitch pine wood had formerly stood, and got out the fat pine roots.
  • But commonly I kindled my fire with the dry leaves of the forest, which I had stored up in my shed before the snow came.
  • Green hickory finely split makes the woodchopper's kindlings, when he has a camp in the woods.
  • I sometimes left a good fire when I went to take a walk in a winter afternoon; and when I returned, three or four hours afterward, it would be still alive and glowing.
  • But my house occupied so sunny and sheltered a position, and its roof was so low, that I could afford to let the fire go out in the middle of almost any winter day.
  • But the most luxuriously housed has little to boast of in this respect, nor need we trouble ourselves to speculate how the human race may be at last destroyed.
  • It will soon be forgotten, in these days of stoves, that we used to roast potatoes in the ashes, after the Indian fashion.
  • You can always see a face in the fire.
  • For many weeks I met no one in my walks but those who came occasionally to cut wood and sled it to the village.
  • In some places, within my own remembrance, the pines would scrape both sides of a chaise at once, and women and children who were compelled to go this way to Lincoln alone and on foot did it with fear, and often ran a good part of the distance.
  • Though mainly but a humble route to neighboring villages, or for the woodman's team, it once amused the traveller more than now by its variety, and lingered longer in his memory.
  • East of my bean-field, across the road, lived Cato Ingraham, slave of Duncan Ingraham, Esquire, gentleman, of Concord village, who built his slave a house, and gave him permission to live in Walden Woods;--Cato, not Uticensis, but Concordiensis.
  • At length, in the war of 1812, her dwelling was set on fire by English soldiers, prisoners on parole, when she was away, and her cat and dog and hens were all burned up together.
  • Not long since I read his epitaph in the old Lincoln burying-ground, a little on one side, near the unmarked graves of some British grenadiers who fell in the retreat from Concord--where he is styled "Sippio Brister"--Scipio Africanus he had some title to be called--"a man of color," as if he were discolored.
  • Farther down the hill, on the left, on the old road in the woods, are marks of some homestead of the Stratton family; whose orchard once covered all the slope of Brister's Hill, but was long since killed out by pitch pines, excepting a few stumps, whose old roots furnish still the wild stocks of many a thrifty village tree.
  • I had just sunk my head on this when the bells rung fire, and in hot haste the engines rolled that way, led by a straggling troop of men and boys, and I among the foremost, for I had leaped the brook.
  • And then fresh sparks went up above the wood, as if the roof fell in, and we all shouted "Concord to the rescue!"
  • It chanced that I walked that way across the fields the following night, about the same hour, and hearing a low moaning at this spot, I drew near in the dark, and discovered the only survivor of the family that I know, the heir of both its virtues and its vices, who alone was interested in this burning, lying on his stomach and looking over the cellar wall at the still smouldering cinders beneath, muttering to himself, as is his wont.
  • I felt it, and still remark it almost daily in my walks, for by it hangs the history of a family.
  • Once more, on the left, where are seen the well and lilac bushes by the wall, in the now open field, lived Nutting and Le Grosse.
  • Farther in the woods than any of these, where the road approaches nearest to the pond, Wyman the potter squatted, and furnished his townsmen with earthenware, and left descendants to succeed him.
  • One day in midsummer, when I was hoeing, a man who was carrying a load of pottery to market stopped his horse against my field and inquired concerning Wyman the younger.
  • I had read of the potter's clay and wheel in Scripture, but it had never occurred to me that the pots we use were not such as had come down unbroken from those days, or grown on trees like gourds somewhere, and I was pleased to hear that so fictile an art was ever practiced in my neighborhood.
  • He wore a greatcoat in midsummer, being affected with the trembling delirium, and his face was the color of carmine.
  • He died in the road at the foot of Brister's Hill shortly after I came to the woods, so that I have not remembered him as a neighbor.
  • One black chicken which the administrator could not catch, black as night and as silent, not even croaking, awaiting Reynard, still went to roost in the next apartment.
  • The vivacious lilac still grows, unfolding its sweet-scented flowers each spring.
  • Little did the dusky children think that the puny slip with its two eyes only, which they stuck in the ground in the shadow of the house and daily watered, would root itself so, and outlive them, and house itself in the rear that shaded it, and grown man's garden and orchard, and tell their story faintly to the lone wanderer a half-century after they had grown up and died--blossoming as fair, and smelling as sweet, as in that first spring.
  • Again, perhaps, Nature will try, with me for a first settler, and my house raised last spring to be the oldest in the hamlet.
  • When the farmers could not get to the woods and swamps with their teams, and were obliged to cut down the shade trees before their houses, and, when the crust was harder, cut off the trees in the swamps, ten feet from the ground, as it appeared the next spring.
  • One afternoon I amused myself by watching a barred owl (Strix nebulosa) sitting on one of the lower dead limbs of a white pine, close to the trunk, in broad daylight, I standing within a rod of him.
  • We talked of rude and simple times, when men sat about large fires in cold, bracing weather, with clear heads; and when other dessert failed, we tried our teeth on many a nut which wise squirrels have long since abandoned, for those which have the thickest shells are commonly empty.
  • Broadway was still and deserted in comparison.
  • He has no venture in the present.
  • There we worked, revising mythology, rounding a fable here and there, and building castles in the air for which earth offered no worthy foundation.
  • There was one other with whom I had "solid seasons," long to be remembered, at his house in the village, and who looked in upon me from time to time; but I had no more for society there.
  • The Vishnu Purana says, "The house-holder is to remain at eventide in his courtyard as long as it takes to milk a cow, or longer if he pleases, to await the arrival of a guest."
  • I took this course when I went to lecture in Lincoln in the evening, travelling in no road and passing no house between my own hut and the lecture room.
  • One night in the beginning of winter, before the pond froze over, about nine o'clock, I was startled by the loud honking of a goose, and, stepping to the door, heard the sound of their wings like a tempest in the woods as they flew low over my house.
  • I also heard the whooping of the ice in the pond, my great bed-fellow in that part of Concord, as if it were restless in its bed and would fain turn over, were troubled with flatulency and had dreams; or I was waked by the cracking of the ground by the frost, as if some one had driven a team against my door, and in the morning would find a crack in the earth a quarter of a mile long and a third of an inch wide.
  • Usually the red squirrel (Sciurus Hudsonius) waked me in the dawn, coursing over the roof and up and down the sides of the house, as if sent out of the woods for this purpose.
  • In the twilight and the night the rabbits came regularly and made a hearty meal.
  • A little flock of these titmice came daily to pick a dinner out of my woodpile, or the crumbs at my door, with faint flitting lisping notes, like the tinkling of icicles in the grass, or else with sprightly day day day, or more rarely, in spring-like days, a wiry summery phe-be from the woodside.
  • They were so familiar that at length one alighted on an armful of wood which I was carrying in, and pecked at the sticks without fear.
  • Whichever side you walk in the woods the partridge bursts away on whirring wings, jarring the snow from the dry leaves and twigs on high, which comes sifting down in the sunbeams like golden dust, for this brave bird is not to be scared by winter.
  • I used to start them in the open land also, where they had come out of the woods at sunset to "bud" the wild apple trees.
  • They will come regularly every evening to particular trees, where the cunning sportsman lies in wait for them, and the distant orchards next the woods suffer thus not a little.
  • In dark winter mornings, or in short winter afternoons, I sometimes heard a pack of hounds threading all the woods with hounding cry and yelp, unable to resist the instinct of the chase, and the note of the hunting-horn at intervals, proving that man was in the rear.
  • In dark winter mornings, or in short winter afternoons, I sometimes heard a pack of hounds threading all the woods with hounding cry and yelp, unable to resist the instinct of the chase, and the note of the hunting-horn at intervals, proving that man was in the rear.
  • They tell me that if the fox would remain in the bosom of the frozen earth he would be safe, or if he would run in a straight line away no foxhound could overtake him; but, having left his pursuers far behind, he stops to rest and listen till they come up, and when he runs he circles round to his old haunts, where the hunters await him.
  • Late in the afternoon, as he was resting in the thick woods south of Walden, he heard the voice of the hounds far over toward Fair Haven still pursuing the fox; and on they came, their hounding cry which made all the woods ring sounding nearer and nearer, now from Well Meadow, now from the Baker Farm.
  • At length the old hound burst into view with muzzle to the ground, and snapping the air as if possessed, and ran directly to the rock; but, spying the dead fox, she suddenly ceased her hounding as if struck dumb with amazement, and walked round and round him in silence; and one by one her pups arrived, and, like their mother, were sobered into silence by the mystery.
  • Then the hunter came forward and stood in their midst, and the mystery was solved.
  • They waited in silence while he skinned the fox, then followed the brush a while, and at length turned off into the woods again.
  • The hunter who told me this could remember one Sam Nutting, who used to hunt bears on Fair Haven Ledges, and exchange their skins for rum in Concord village; who told him, even, that he had seen a moose there.
  • One man still preserves the horns of the last deer that was killed in this vicinity, and another has told me the particulars of the hunt in which his uncle was engaged.
  • At midnight, when there was a moon, I sometimes met with hounds in my path prowling about the woods, which would skulk out of my way, as if afraid, and stand silent amid the bushes till I had passed.
  • One had her form under my house all winter, separated from me only by the flooring, and she startled me each morning by her hasty departure when I began to stir--thump, thump, thump, striking her head against the floor timbers in her hurry.
  • Sometimes in the twilight I alternately lost and recovered sight of one sitting motionless under my window.
  • When I opened my door in the evening, off they would go with a squeak and a bounce.
  • First I take an axe and pail and go in search of water, if that be not a dream.
  • Early in the morning, while all things are crisp with frost, men come with fishing-reels and slender lunch, and let down their fine lines through the snowy field to take pickerel and perch; wild men, who instinctively follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen, and by their goings and comings stitch towns together in parts where else they would be ripped.
  • How, pray, did he get these in midwinter?
  • The latter raises the moss and bark gently with his knife in search of insects; the former lays open logs to their core with his axe, and moss and bark fly far and wide.
  • Such a man has some right to fish, and I love to see nature carried out in him.
  • The perch swallows the grub-worm, the pickerel swallows the perch, and the fisher-man swallows the pickerel; and so all the chinks in the scale of being are filled.
  • He would perhaps have placed alder branches over the narrow holes in the ice, which were four or five rods apart and an equal distance from the shore, and having fastened the end of the line to a stick to prevent its being pulled through, have passed the slack line over a twig of the alder, a foot or more above the ice, and tied a dry oak leaf to it, which, being pulled down, would show when he had a bite.
  • They, of course, are Walden all over and all through; are themselves small Waldens in the animal kingdom, Waldenses.
  • It is surprising that they are caught here--that in this deep and capacious spring, far beneath the rattling teams and chaises and tinkling sleighs that travel the Walden road, this great gold and emerald fish swims.
  • I never chanced to see its kind in any market; it would be the cynosure of all eyes there.
  • As I was desirous to recover the long lost bottom of Walden Pond, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, early in '46, with compass and chain and sounding line.
  • It is remarkable how long men will believe in the bottomlessness of a pond without taking the trouble to sound it.
  • I have visited two such Bottomless Ponds in one walk in this neighborhood.
  • While men believe in the infinite some ponds will be thought to be bottomless.
  • But the deepest ponds are not so deep in proportion to their area as most suppose, and, if drained, would not leave very remarkable valleys.
  • They are not like cups between the hills; for this one, which is so unusually deep for its area, appears in a vertical section through its centre not deeper than a shallow plate.
  • William Gilpin, who is so admirable in all that relates to landscapes, and usually so correct, standing at the head of Loch Fyne, in Scotland, which he describes as "a bay of salt water, sixty or seventy fathoms deep, four miles in breadth," and about fifty miles long, surrounded by mountains, observes, "If we could have seen it immediately after the diluvian crash, or whatever convulsion of nature occasioned it, before the waters gushed in, what a horrid chasm must it have appeared!
  • But if, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, we apply these proportions to Walden, which, as we have seen, appears already in a vertical section only like a shallow plate, it will appear four times as shallow.
  • As I sounded through the ice I could determine the shape of the bottom with greater accuracy than is possible in surveying harbors which do not freeze over, and I was surprised at its general regularity.
  • In the deepest part there are several acres more level than almost any field which is exposed to the sun, wind, and plow.
  • In proportion as the mouth of the cove was wider compared with its length, the water over the bar was deeper compared with that in the basin.
  • In proportion as the mouth of the cove was wider compared with its length, the water over the bar was deeper compared with that in the basin.
  • In order to see how nearly I could guess, with this experience, at the deepest point in a pond, by observing the outlines of a surface and the character of its shores alone, I made a plan of White Pond, which contains about forty-one acres, and, like this, has no island in it, nor any visible inlet or outlet; and as the line of greatest breadth fell very near the line of least breadth, where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance from the latter line, but still on the line of greatest length, as the deepest.
  • In order to see how nearly I could guess, with this experience, at the deepest point in a pond, by observing the outlines of a surface and the character of its shores alone, I made a plan of White Pond, which contains about forty-one acres, and, like this, has no island in it, nor any visible inlet or outlet; and as the line of greatest breadth fell very near the line of least breadth, where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance from the latter line, but still on the line of greatest length, as the deepest.
  • The deepest part was found to be within one hundred feet of this, still farther in the direction to which I had inclined, and was only one foot deeper, namely, sixty feet.
  • Of course, a stream running through, or an island in the pond, would make the problem much more complicated.
  • Now we know only a few laws, and our result is vitiated, not, of course, by any confusion or irregularity in Nature, but by our ignorance of essential elements in the calculation.
  • Even when cleft or bored through it is not comprehended in its entireness.
  • What I have observed of the pond is no less true in ethics.
  • Such a rule of the two diameters not only guides us toward the sun in the system and the heart in man, but draws lines through the length and breadth of the aggregate of a man's particular daily behaviors and waves of life into his coves and inlets, and where they intersect will be the height or depth of his character.
  • In our bodies, a bold projecting brow falls off to and indicates a corresponding depth of thought.
  • Also there is a bar across the entrance of our every cove, or particular inclination; each is our harbor for a season, in which we are detained and partially land-locked.
  • They also showed me in another place what they thought was a "leach-hole," through which the pond leaked out under a hill into a neighboring meadow, pushing me out on a cake of ice to see it.
  • One has suggested, that if such a "leach-hole" should be found, its connection with the meadow, if any existed, might be proved by conveying some colored powder or sawdust to the mouth of the hole, and then putting a strainer over the spring in the meadow, which would catch some of the particles carried through by the current.
  • It was probably greater in the middle.
  • Who knows but if our instruments were delicate enough we might detect an undulation in the crust of the earth?
  • This was somewhat like cutting a hole in the bottom of a ship to let the water out.
  • It may be that he lays up no treasures in this world which will cool his summer drink in the next.
  • They said that a gentleman farmer, who was behind the scenes, wanted to double his money, which, as I understood, amounted to half a million already; but in order to cover each one of his dollars with another, he took off the only coat, ay, the skin itself, of Walden Pond in the midst of a hard winter.
  • They told me that in a good day they could get out a thousand tons, which was the yield of about one acre.
  • Deep ruts and "cradle-holes" were worn in the ice, as on terra firma, by the passage of the sleds over the same track, and the horses invariably ate their oats out of cakes of ice hollowed out like buckets.
  • This heap, made in the winter of '46-7 and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally covered with hay and boards; and though it was unroofed the following July, and a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, it stood over that summer and the next winter, and was not quite melted till September, 1848.
  • I have noticed that a portion of Walden which in the state of water was green will often, when frozen, appear from the same point of view blue.
  • So the hollows about this pond will, sometimes, in the winter, be filled with a greenish water somewhat like its own, but the next day will have frozen blue.
  • They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond five years old which was as good as ever.
  • Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored.
  • In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
  • In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
  • I meet his servant come to draw water for his master, and our buckets as it were grate together in the same well.
  • The opening of large tracts by the ice-cutters commonly causes a pond to break up earlier; for the water, agitated by the wind, even in cold weather, wears away the surrounding ice.
  • This pond has no stream passing through it to melt or wear away the ice.
  • I never knew it to open in the course of a winter, not excepting that of '52-3, which gave the ponds so severe a trial.
  • It commonly opens about the first of April, a week or ten days later than Flint's Pond and Fair Haven, beginning to melt on the north side and in the shallower parts where it began to freeze.
  • A severe cold of a few days' duration in March may very much retard the opening of the former ponds, while the temperature of Walden increases almost uninterruptedly.
  • A thermometer thrust into the middle of Walden on the 6th of March, 1847, stood at 32º, or freezing point; near the shore at 33º; in the middle of Flint's Pond, the same day, at 32º; at a dozen rods from the shore, in shallow water, under ice a foot thick, at 36º.
  • This difference of three and a half degrees between the temperature of the deep water and the shallow in the latter pond, and the fact that a great proportion of it is comparatively shallow, show why it should break up so much sooner than Walden.
  • The ice in the shallowest part was at this time several inches thinner than in the middle.
  • So, also, every one who has waded about the shores of the pond in summer must have perceived how much warmer the water is close to the shore, where only three or four inches deep, than a little distance out, and on the surface where it is deep, than near the bottom.
  • The phenomena of the year take place every day in a pond on a small scale.
  • In the right stage of the weather a pond fires its evening gun with great regularity.
  • The largest pond is as sensitive to atmospheric changes as the globule of mercury in its tube.
  • The ice in the pond at length begins to be honeycombed, and I can set my heel in it as I walk.
  • In 1845 Walden was first completely open on the 1st of April; in '46, the 25th of March; in '47, the 8th of April; in '51, the 28th of March; in '52, the 18th of April; in '53, the 23d of March; in '54, about the 7th of April.
  • In 1845 Walden was first completely open on the 1st of April; in '46, the 25th of March; in '47, the 8th of April; in '51, the 28th of March; in '52, the 18th of April; in '53, the 23d of March; in '54, about the 7th of April.
  • Not seeing any ducks, he hid his boat on the north or back side of an island in the pond, and then concealed himself in the bushes on the south side, to await them.
  • When the frost comes out in the spring, and even in a thawing day in the winter, the sand begins to flow down the slopes like lava, sometimes bursting out through the snow and overflowing it where no sand was to be seen before.
  • As it flows it takes the forms of sappy leaves or vines, making heaps of pulpy sprays a foot or more in depth, and resembling, as you look down on them, the laciniated, lobed, and imbricated thalluses of some lichens; or you are reminded of coral, of leopard's paws or birds' feet, of brains or lungs or bowels, and excrements of all kinds.
  • You find thus in the very sands an anticipation of the vegetable leaf.
  • No wonder that the earth expresses itself outwardly in leaves, it so labors with the idea inwardly.
  • Thus, also, you pass from the lumpish grub in the earth to the airy and fluttering butterfly.
  • The very globe continually transcends and translates itself, and becomes winged in its orbit.
  • The whole tree itself is but one leaf, and rivers are still vaster leaves whose pulp is intervening earth, and towns and cities are the ova of insects in their axils.
  • In the silicious matter which the water deposits is perhaps the bony system, and in the still finer soil and organic matter the fleshy fibre or cellular tissue.
  • In the silicious matter which the water deposits is perhaps the bony system, and in the still finer soil and organic matter the fleshy fibre or cellular tissue.
  • It convinces me that Earth is still in her swaddling-clothes, and stretches forth baby fingers on every side.
  • These foliaceous heaps lie along the bank like the slag of a furnace, showing that Nature is "in full blast" within.
  • And not only it, but the institutions upon it are plastic like clay in the hands of the potter.
  • The one melts, the other but breaks in pieces.
  • The sinking sound of melting snow is heard in all dells, and the ice dissolves apace in the ponds.
  • It is almost identical with that, for in the growing days of June, when the rills are dry, the grass-blades are their channels, and from year to year the herds drink at this perennial green stream, and the mower draws from it betimes their winter supply.
  • How handsome the great sweeping curves in the edge of the ice, answering somewhat to those of the shore, but more regular!
  • But the wind slides eastward over its opaque surface in vain, till it reaches the living surface beyond.
  • It is glorious to behold this ribbon of water sparkling in the sun, the bare face of the pond full of glee and youth, as if it spoke the joy of the fishes within it, and of the sands on its shore--a silvery sheen as from the scales of a leuciscus, as it were all one active fish.
  • I heard a robin in the distance, the first I had heard for many a thousand years, methought, whose note I shall not forget for many a thousand more--the same sweet and powerful song as of yore.
  • As it grew darker, I was startled by the honking of geese flying low over the woods, like weary travellers getting in late from Southern lakes, and indulging at last in unrestrained complaint and mutual consolation.
  • So I came in, and shut the door, and passed my first spring night in the woods.
  • But when I stood on the shore they at once rose up with a great flapping of wings at the signal of their commander, and when they had got into rank circled about over my head, twenty-nine of them, and then steered straight to Canada, with a regular honk from the leader at intervals, trusting to break their fast in muddier pools.
  • A "plump" of ducks rose at the same time and took the route to the north in the wake of their noisier cousins.
  • For a week I heard the circling, groping clangor of some solitary goose in the foggy mornings, seeking its companion, and still peopling the woods with the sound of a larger life than they could sustain.
  • In almost all climes the tortoise and the frog are among the precursors and heralds of this season, and birds fly with song and glancing plumage, and plants spring and bloom, and winds blow, to correct this slight oscillation of the poles and preserve the equilibrium of nature.
  • As every season seems best to us in its turn, so the coming in of spring is like the creation of Cosmos out of Chaos and the realization of the Golden Age.
  • We loiter in winter while it is already spring.
  • In a pleasant spring morning all men's sins are forgiven.
  • In like manner the evil which one does in the interval of a day prevents the germs of virtues which began to spring up again from developing themselves and destroys them.
  • In like manner the evil which one does in the interval of a day prevents the germs of virtues which began to spring up again from developing themselves and destroys them.
  • It appeared to have no companion in the universe--sporting there alone--and to need none but the morning and the ether with which it played.
  • Where was the parent which hatched it, its kindred, and its father in the heavens?
  • The tenant of the air, it seemed related to the earth but by an egg hatched some time in the crevice of a crag;--or was its native nest made in the angle of a cloud, woven of the rainbow's trimmings and the sunset sky, and lined with some soft midsummer haze caught up from earth?
  • All things must live in such a light.
  • I love to see that Nature is so rife with life that myriads can be afforded to be sacrificed and suffered to prey on one another; that tender organizations can be so serenely squashed out of existence like pulp--tadpoles which herons gobble up, and tortoises and toads run over in the road; and that sometimes it has rained flesh and blood!
  • Early in May, the oaks, hickories, maples, and other trees, just putting out amidst the pine woods around the pond, imparted a brightness like sunshine to the landscape, especially in cloudy days, as if the sun were breaking through mists and shining faintly on the hillsides here and there.
  • On the third or fourth of May I saw a loon in the pond, and during the first week of the month I heard the whip-poor-will, the brown thrasher, the veery, the wood pewee, the chewink, and other birds.
  • The phÅ“be had already come once more and looked in at my door and window, to see if my house was cavern-like enough for her, sustaining herself on humming wings with clinched talons, as if she held by the air, while she surveyed the premises.
  • Even in Calidas' drama of Sacontala, we read of "rills dyed yellow with the golden dust of the lotus."
  • Thus was my first year's life in the woods completed; and the second year was similar to it.
  • The buckeye does not grow in New England, and the mockingbird is rarely heard here.
  • The wild goose is more of a cosmopolite than we; he breaks his fast in Canada, takes a luncheon in the Ohio, and plumes himself for the night in a southern bayou.
  • Patriotism is a maggot in their heads.
  • It is not worth the while to go round the world to count the cats in Zanzibar.
  • He declared that "a soldier who fights in the ranks does not require half so much courage as a footpad"--"that honor and religion have never stood in the way of a well-considered and a firm resolve."
  • I learned this, at least, by my experiment: that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours.
  • If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be.
  • As if there were safety in stupidity alone.
  • "They pretend," as I hear, "that the verses of Kabir have four different senses; illusion, spirit, intellect, and the exoteric doctrine of the Vedas"; but in this part of the world it is considered a ground for complaint if a man's writings admit of more than one interpretation.
  • Some are dinning in our ears that we Americans, and moderns generally, are intellectual dwarfs compared with the ancients, or even the Elizabethan men.
  • Why should we be in such desperate haste to succeed and in such desperate enterprises?
  • There was an artist in the city of Kouroo who was disposed to strive after perfection.
  • He proceeded instantly to the forest for wood, being resolved that it should not be made of unsuitable material; and as he searched for and rejected stick after stick, his friends gradually deserted him, for they grew old in their works and died, but he grew not older by a moment.
  • Before he had found a stock in all respects suitable the city of Kouroo was a hoary ruin, and he sat on one of its mounds to peel the stick.
  • He had made a new system in making a staff, a world with full and fair proportions; in which, though the old cities and dynasties had passed away, fairer and more glorious ones had taken their places.
  • For the most part, we are not where we are, but in a false position.
  • In sane moments we regard only the facts, the case that is.
  • "Tell the tailors," said he, "to remember to make a knot in their thread before they take the first stitch."
  • The fault-finder will find faults even in paradise.
  • You may perhaps have some pleasant, thrilling, glorious hours, even in a poorhouse.
  • I do not see but a quiet mind may live as contentedly there, and have as cheering thoughts, as in a palace.
  • I live in the angle of a leaden wall, into whose composition was poured a little alloy of bell-metal.
  • Often, in the repose of my mid-day, there reaches my ears a confused tintinnabulum from without.
  • But presently the traveller's horse sank in up to the girths, and he observed to the boy, "I thought you said that this bog had a hard bottom."
  • Drive a nail home and clinch it so faithfully that you can wake up in the night and think of your work with satisfaction--a work at which you would not be ashamed to invoke the Muse.
  • Every nail driven should be as another rivet in the machine of the universe, you carrying on the work.
  • I sat at a table where were rich food and wine in abundance, and obsequious attendance, but sincerity and truth were not; and I went away hungry from the inhospitable board.
  • I called on the king, but he made me wait in his hall, and conducted like a man incapacitated for hospitality.
  • There was a man in my neighborhood who lived in a hollow tree.
  • How long shall we sit in our porticoes practising idle and musty virtues, which any work would make impertinent?
  • This generation inclines a little to congratulate itself on being the last of an illustrious line; and in Boston and London and Paris and Rome, thinking of its long descent, it speaks of its progress in art and science and literature with satisfaction.
  • These may be but the spring months in the life of the race.
  • I need only suggest what kind of sermons are still listened to in the most enlightened countries.
  • There are such words as joy and sorrow, but they are only the burden of a psalm, sung with a nasal twang, while we believe in the ordinary and mean.
  • The government of the world I live in was not framed, like that of Britain, in after-dinner conversations over the wine.
  • The life in us is like the water in the river.
  • Every one has heard the story which has gone the rounds of New England, of a strong and beautiful bug which came out of the dry leaf of an old table of apple-tree wood, which had stood in a farmer's kitchen for sixty years, first in Connecticut, and afterward in Massachusetts--from an egg deposited in the living tree many years earlier still, as appeared by counting the annual layers beyond it; which was heard gnawing out for several weeks, hatched perchance by the heat of an urn.
  • Who does not feel his faith in a resurrection and immortality strengthened by hearing of this?
  • Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for, in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure.
  • After all, the practical reason why, when the power is once in the hands of the people, a majority are permitted, and for a long period continue, to rule, is not because they are most likely to be in the right, nor because this seems fairest to the minority, but because they are physically the strongest.
  • But a government in which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justice, even as far as men understand it.
  • They have no doubt that it is a damnable business in which they are concerned; they are all peaceably inclined.
  • A very few, as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense, and men, serve the state with their consciences also, and so necessarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treated as enemies by it.
  • Paley, a common authority with many on moral questions, in his chapter on the "Duty of Submission to Civil Government," resolves all civil obligation into expediency; and he proceeds to say that "so long as the interest of the whole society requires it, that is, so long as the established government cannot be resisted or changed without public inconveniency, it is the will of God... that the established government be obeyed, and no longer....
  • But he that would save his life, in such a case, shall lose it.
  • They hesitate, and they regret, and sometimes they petition; but they do nothing in earnest and with effect.
  • There is but little virtue in the action of masses of men.
  • Are there not many individuals in the country who do not attend conventions?
  • Oh for a man who is a man, and, as my neighbor says, has a bone in his back which you cannot pass your hand through!
  • How many men are there to a square thousand miles in this country?
  • The soldier is applauded who refuses to serve in an unjust war by those who do not refuse to sustain the unjust government which makes the war; is applauded by those whose own act and authority he disregards and sets at naught; as if the state were penitent to that degree that it hired one to scourge it while it sinned, but not to that degree that it left off sinning for a moment.
  • Do not they stand in the same relation to the State, that the State does to the Union?
  • It not only divides states and churches, it divides families; ay, it divides the individual, separating the diabolical in him from the divine.
  • I came into this world, not chiefly to make this a good place to live in, but to live in it, be it good or bad.
  • I do not hesitate to say, that those who call themselves Abolitionists should at once effectually withdraw their support, both in person and property, from the government of Massachusetts, and not wait till they constitute a majority of one, before they suffer the right to prevail through them.
  • The opportunities of living are diminished in proportion as what are called the "means" are increased.
  • This makes it impossible for a man to live honestly, and at the same time comfortably in outward respects.
  • A man may grow rich in Turkey even, if he will be in all respects a good subject of the Turkish government.
  • It costs me less in every sense to incur the penalty of disobedience to the State than it would to obey.
  • I should feel as if I were worth less in that case.
  • Some years ago, the State met me in behalf of the Church, and commanded me to pay a certain sum toward the support of a clergyman whose preaching my father attended, but never I myself.
  • "Pay," it said, "or be locked up in the jail."
  • If I had known how to name them, I should then have signed off in detail from all the societies which I never signed on to; but I did not know where to find a complete list.
  • When I meet a government which says to me, "Your money or your life," why should I be in haste to give it my money?
  • It may be in a great strait, and not know what to do: I cannot help that.
  • The night in prison was novel and interesting enough.
  • The prisoners in their shirt-sleeves were enjoying a chat and the evening air in the doorway, when I entered.
  • The rooms were whitewashed once a month; and this one, at least, was the whitest, most simply furnished, and probably the neatest apartment in the town.
  • As near as I could discover, he had probably gone to bed in a barn when drunk, and smoked his pipe there; and so a barn was burnt.
  • Probably this is the only house in the town where verses are composed, which are afterward printed in a circular form, but not published.
  • It was to see my native village in the light of the Middle Ages, and our Concord was turned into a Rhine stream, and visions of knights and castles passed before me.
  • I was an involuntary spectator and auditor of whatever was done and said in the kitchen of the adjacent village-inn--a wholly new and rare experience to me.
  • Soon after he was let out to work at haying in a neighboring field, whither he went every day, and would not be back till noon; so he bade me good-day, saying that he doubted if he should see me again.
  • It was formerly the custom in our village, when a poor debtor came out of jail, for his acquaintances to salute him, looking through their fingers, which were crossed to represent the grating of a jail window, "How do ye do?"
  • It is for no particular item in the tax-bill that I refuse to pay it.
  • In fact, I quietly declare war with the State, after my fashion, though I will still make what use and get what advantage of her I can, as is usual in such cases.
  • In fact, I quietly declare war with the State, after my fashion, though I will still make what use and get what advantage of her I can, as is usual in such cases.
  • If they pay the tax from a mistaken interest in the individual taxed, to save his property, or prevent his going to jail, it is because they have not considered wisely how far they let their private feelings interfere with the public good.
  • It is not many moments that I live under a government, even in this world.
  • His words are wisdom to those legislators who contemplate no essential reform in the existing government; but for thinkers, and those who legislate for all time, he never once glances at the subject.
  • Truth is always in harmony with herself, and is not concerned chiefly to reveal the justice that may consist with wrong-doing.
  • They are rare in the history of the world.
  • If we were left solely to the wordy wit of legislators in Congress for our guidance, uncorrected by the seasonable experience and the effectual complaints of the people, America would not long retain her rank among the nations.
  • Is a democracy, such as we know it, the last improvement possible in government?
  • It was in July, 1805, and the speaker was the well-known Anna Pavlovna Scherer, maid of honor and favorite of the Empress Marya Fedorovna.
  • All her invitations without exception, written in French, and delivered by a scarlet-liveried footman that morning, ran as follows:
  • "Heavens! what a virulent attack!" replied the prince, not in the least disconcerted by this reception.
  • I have faith only in God and the lofty destiny of our adored monarch.
  • The highest Petersburg society was assembled there: people differing widely in age and character but alike in the social circle to which they belonged.
  • The aunt spoke to each of them in the same words, about their health and her own, and the health of Her Majesty, "who, thank God, was better today."
  • The young Princess Bolkonskaya had brought some work in a gold- embroidered velvet bag.
  • "I have brought my work," said she in French, displaying her bag and addressing all present.
  • "You know," said the princess in the same tone of voice and still in French, turning to a general, "my husband is deserting me?
  • This stout young man was an illegitimate son of Count Bezukhov, a well-known grandee of Catherine's time who now lay dying in Moscow.
  • Anna Pavlovna greeted him with the nod she accorded to the lowest hierarchy in her drawing room.
  • Pierre murmured something unintelligible, and continued to look round as if in search of something.
  • Anna Pavlovna in dismay detained him with the words: Do you know the Abbe Morio?
  • "You think so?" rejoined Anna Pavlovna in order to say something and get away to attend to her duties as hostess.
  • He knew that all the intellectual lights of Petersburg were gathered there and, like a child in a toyshop, did not know which way to look, afraid of missing any clever conversation that was to be heard.
  • Anna Pavlovna's reception was in full swing.
  • The vicomte was a nice-looking young man with soft features and polished manners, who evidently considered himself a celebrity but out of politeness modestly placed himself at the disposal of the circle in which he found himself.
  • The vicomte bowed and smiled courteously in token of his willingness to comply.
  • "How evidently he belongs to the best society," said she to a third; and the vicomte was served up to the company in the choicest and most advantageous style, like a well-garnished joint of roast beef on a hot dish.
  • He was dressed in a dark-green dress coat, knee breeches of the color of cuisse de nymphe effrayee, as he called it, shoes, and silk stockings.
  • "The means are... the balance of power in Europe and the rights of the people," the abbe was saying.
  • It was evident that he not only knew everyone in the drawing room, but had found them to be so tiresome that it wearied him to look at or listen to them.
  • May I? he added in a low voice so as not to disturb the vicomte who was continuing his story.
  • In passing Prince Vasili seized Pierre's hand and said to Anna Pavlovna: Educate this bear for me!
  • Anna Pavlovna smiled and promised to take Pierre in hand.
  • I can't remain any longer in Petersburg.
  • She had now come to Petersburg to procure an appointment in the Guards for her only son.
  • It was, in fact, solely to meet Prince Vasili that she had obtained an invitation to Anna Pavlovna's reception and had sat listening to the vicomte's story.
  • Be the kindhearted man you always were, she said, trying to smile though tears were in her eyes.
  • Influence in society, however, is a capital which has to be economized if it is to last.
  • You don't know how Kutuzov is pestered since his appointment as Commander in Chief.
  • "Papa," said his beautiful daughter in the same tone as before, "we shall be late."
  • Prince Andrew looked Anna Pavlovna straight in the face with a sarcastic smile.
  • 'I opened my antechambers and they crowded in.'
  • I do not know how far he was justified in saying so.
  • "Not in the least," replied the vicomte.
  • Mon Dieu! muttered Anna Pavlovna in a terrified whisper.
  • "Capital!" said Prince Hippolyte in English, and began slapping his knee with the palm of his hand.
  • In the first moment of Pierre's outburst Anna Pavlovna, despite her social experience, was horror-struck.
  • But when she saw that Pierre's sacrilegious words had not exasperated the vicomte, and had convinced herself that it was impossible to stop him, she rallied her forces and joined the vicomte in a vigorous attack on the orator.
  • Besides, in the actions of a statesman one has to distinguish between his acts as a private person, as a general, and as an emperor.
  • Pierre chimed in, pleased at the arrival of this reinforcement.
  • And Prince Hippolyte began to tell his story in such Russian as a Frenchman would speak after spending about a year in Russia.
  • There is in Moscow a lady, une dame, and she is very stingy.
  • Though it was unintelligible why he had told it, or why it had to be told in Russian, still Anna Pavlovna and the others appreciated Prince Hippolyte's social tact in so agreeably ending Pierre's unpleasant and unamiable outburst.
  • All his absent-mindedness and inability to enter a room and converse in it was, however, redeemed by his kindly, simple, and modest expression.
  • "Go in, Annette, or you will catch cold," said the little princess, taking leave of Anna Pavlovna.
  • "It is settled," she added in a low voice.
  • Anna Pavlovna had already managed to speak to Lise about the match she contemplated between Anatole and the little princess' sister-in-law.
  • "I rely on you, my dear," said Anna Pavlovna, also in a low tone.
  • All the pretty women in society will be there.
  • The princess, picking up her dress, was taking her seat in the dark carriage, her husband was adjusting his saber; Prince Hippolyte, under pretense of helping, was in everyone's way.
  • Prince Hippolyte laughed spasmodically as he stood in the porch waiting for the vicomte whom he had promised to take home.
  • Pierre reaching the house first went into Prince Andrew's study like one quite at home, and from habit immediately lay down on the sofa, took from the shelf the first book that came to his hand (it was Caesar's Commentaries), and resting on his elbow, began reading it in the middle.
  • In my opinion perpetual peace is possible but--I do not know how to express it... not by a balance of political power....
  • It was evident that Prince Andrew was not interested in such abstract conversation.
  • Write to me all about it, and I will help you in everything.
  • If it were a war for freedom I could understand it and should be the first to enter the army; but to help England and Austria against the greatest man in the world is not right.
  • The rustle of a woman's dress was heard in the next room.
  • Prince Andrew shook himself as if waking up, and his face assumed the look it had had in Anna Pavlovna's drawing room.
  • "How is it," she began, as usual in French, settling down briskly and fussily in the easy chair, "how is it Annette never got married?
  • I can't understand why he wants to go to the war, replied Pierre, addressing the princess with none of the embarrassment so commonly shown by young men in their intercourse with young women.
  • I don't understand it; I don't in the least understand why men can't live without wars.
  • Just for a whim of his own, goodness only knows why, he leaves me and locks me up alone in the country.
  • She paused as if she felt it indecorous to speak of her pregnancy before Pierre, though the gist of the matter lay in that.
  • Everything from the table napkins to the silver, china, and glass bore that imprint of newness found in the households of the newly married.
  • Marry when you are old and good for nothing--or all that is good and noble in you will be lost.
  • Pierre took off his spectacles, which made his face seem different and the good-natured expression still more apparent, and gazed at his friend in amazement.
  • Every muscle of his thin face was now quivering with nervous excitement; his eyes, in which the fire of life had seemed extinguished, now flashed with brilliant light.
  • It was evident that the more lifeless he seemed at ordinary times, the more impassioned he became in these moments of almost morbid irritation.
  • If you only knew what those society women are, and women in general!
  • When you meet them in society it seems as if there were something in them, but there's nothing, nothing, nothing!
  • He did not finish his sentence, but his tone showed how highly he thought of his friend and how much he expected of him in the future.
  • Even in the best, most friendly and simplest relations of life, praise and commendation are essential, just as grease is necessary to wheels that they may run smoothly.
  • It was light enough to see a long way in the deserted street and it seemed more like morning or evening than night.
  • Pierre often indulged in reflections of this sort, nullifying all his decisions and intentions.
  • Reaching the large house near the Horse Guards' barracks, in which Anatole lived, Pierre entered the lighted porch, ascended the stairs, and went in at the open door.
  • Pierre threw off his cloak and entered the first room, in which were the remains of supper.
  • A footman, thinking no one saw him, was drinking on the sly what was left in the glasses.
  • "Jacob, bring a bottle!" shouted the host, a tall, handsome fellow who stood in the midst of the group, without a coat, and with his fine linen shirt unfastened in front.
  • Dolokhov, the bottle of rum still in his hand, jumped onto the window sill.
  • "Listen!" cried he, standing there and addressing those in the room.
  • Anatole turned to the Englishman and taking him by one of the buttons of his coat and looking down at him--the Englishman was short--began repeating the terms of the wager to him in English.
  • Dolokhov's back in his white shirt, and his curly head, were lit up from both sides.
  • Everyone crowded to the window, the Englishman in front.
  • One of the footmen who had stooped to pick up some broken glass remained in that position without taking his eyes from the window and from Dolokhov's back.
  • And he caught the bear, took it in his arms, lifted it from the ground, and began dancing round the room with it.
  • The Guards had already left Petersburg on the tenth of August, and her son, who had remained in Moscow for his equipment, was to join them on the march to Radzivilov.
  • The countess herself and her handsome eldest daughter were in the drawing-room with the visitors who came to congratulate, and who constantly succeeded one another in relays.
  • The young people were in one of the inner rooms, not considering it necessary to take part in receiving the visitors.
  • "Marya Lvovna Karagina and her daughter!" announced the countess' gigantic footman in his bass voice, entering the drawing room.
  • Ask her in," she said to the footman in a sad voice, as if saying: "Very well, finish me off."
  • He is in such bad health, and now this vexation about his son is enough to kill him!
  • Those three got hold of a bear somewhere, put it in a carriage, and set off with it to visit some actresses!
  • And to think it is Cyril Vladimirovich Bezukhov's son who amuses himself in this sensible manner!
  • I hope that here in Moscow no one will receive him, in spite of his money.
  • "The fact of the matter is," said she significantly, and also in a half whisper, "everyone knows Count Cyril's reputation....
  • Prince Vasili arrived in Moscow yesterday.
  • And as he waved his arms to impersonate the policeman, his portly form again shook with a deep ringing laugh, the laugh of one who always eats well and, in particular, drinks well.
  • Escaping from her father she ran to hide her flushed face in the lace of her mother's mantilla--not paying the least attention to her severe remark--and began to laugh.
  • Boris quietly left the room and went in search of Natasha.
  • The only young people remaining in the drawing room, not counting the young lady visitor and the countess' eldest daughter (who was four years older than her sister and behaved already like a grown-up person), were Nicholas and Sonya, the niece.
  • Sonya was a slender little brunette with a tender look in her eyes which were veiled by long lashes, thick black plaits coiling twice round her head, and a tawny tint in her complexion and especially in the color of her slender but graceful and muscular arms and neck.
  • And there was a place and everything waiting for him in the Archives Department!
  • Isn't that friendship? remarked the count in an inquiring tone.
  • In the midst of his talk he glanced round at her.
  • He waited for the first pause in the conversation, and then with a distressed face left the room to find Sonya.
  • "Yes, they are splendid, splendid youngsters," chimed in the count, who always solved questions that seemed to him perplexing by deciding that everything was splendid.
  • And she's in love with Boris already.
  • There she paused and stood listening to the conversation in the drawing room, waiting for Boris to come out.
  • Boris paused in the middle of the room, looked round, brushed a little dust from the sleeve of his uniform, and going up to a mirror examined his handsome face.
  • Hardly had Boris gone than Sonya, flushed, in tears, and muttering angrily, came in at the other door.
  • Natasha checked her first impulse to run out to her, and remained in her hiding place, watching--as under an invisible cap--to see what went on in the world.
  • What is anyone in the world to me?
  • Well, then, come here, said she, and went further in among the plants and threw down the doll.
  • You are in love with me?
  • In another four years... then I will ask for your hand.
  • It was pleasant and touching to see these little girls in love; but apparently the sight of them roused no pleasant feeling in Vera.
  • "In a minute, in a minute," he said, dipping his pen.
  • "In a minute, in a minute," he said, dipping his pen.
  • She lingered in the room with the inkstand in her hand.
  • "Now, Vera, what does it matter to you?" said Natasha in defense, speaking very gently.
  • "I should think not," said Vera, "because there can never be anything wrong in my behavior.
  • (She used the word "diplomat," which was just then much in vogue among the children, in the special sense they attached to it.)
  • In the drawing room the conversation was still going on.
  • Even in the country do we get any rest?
  • You see yours is already an officer in the Guards, while my Nicholas is going as a cadet.
  • He paid me attentions in those days, said the countess, with a smile.
  • And my affairs are in such a bad way that my position is now a terrible one, continued Anna Mikhaylovna, sadly, dropping her voice.
  • My only hope now is in Count Cyril Vladimirovich Bezukhov.
  • The countess' eyes filled with tears and she pondered in silence.
  • "We may as well go back," said the son in French.
  • "My friend," said Anna Mikhaylovna in gentle tones, addressing the hall porter, "I know Count Cyril Vladimirovich is very ill... that's why I have come...
  • "Princess Drubetskaya to see Prince Vasili Sergeevich," he called to a footman dressed in knee breeches, shoes, and a swallow-tail coat, who ran downstairs and looked over from the halfway landing.
  • The mother smoothed the folds of her dyed silk dress before a large Venetian mirror in the wall, and in her trodden-down shoes briskly ascended the carpeted stairs.
  • In what sad circumstances we meet again!
  • Are you here on leave? he went on in his usual tone of indifference.
  • "I know, I know," answered Prince Vasili in his monotonous voice.
  • She bent her head and continued in a whisper: Has he performed his final duty, Prince?
  • The princess gave no reply and did not even smile, but left the room as Anna Mikhaylovna took off her gloves and, occupying the position she had conquered, settled down in an armchair, inviting Prince Vasili to take a seat beside her.
  • Pierre had taken part in tying a policeman to a bear.
  • He had now been for some days in Moscow and was staying as usual at his father's house.
  • The two younger ones were embroidering: both were rosy and pretty and they differed only in that one had a little mole on her lip which made her much prettier.
  • The eldest princess paused in her reading and silently stared at him with frightened eyes; the second assumed precisely the same expression; while the youngest, the one with the mole, who was of a cheerful and lively disposition, bent over her frame to hide a smile probably evoked by the amusing scene she foresaw.
  • Next day Prince Vasili had arrived and settled in the count's house.
  • He sent for Pierre and said to him: My dear fellow, if you are going to behave here as you did in Petersburg, you will end very badly; that is all I have to say to you.
  • But before Pierre--who at that moment imagined himself to be Napoleon in person and to have just effected the dangerous crossing of the Straits of Dover and captured London--could pronounce Pitt's sentence, he saw a well-built and handsome young officer entering his room.
  • He had left Moscow when Boris was a boy of fourteen, and had quite forgotten him, but in his usual impulsive and hearty way he took Boris by the hand with a friendly smile.
  • Boris felt that Pierre did not recognize him but did not consider it necessary to introduce himself, and without experiencing the least embarrassment looked Pierre straight in the face.
  • One has so many relatives in Moscow!
  • "We here in Moscow are more occupied with dinner parties and scandal than with politics," said he in his quiet ironical tone.
  • Pierre smiled in his good-natured way as if afraid for his companion's sake that the latter might say something he would afterwards regret.
  • For a long time Pierre could not understand, but when he did, he jumped up from the sofa, seized Boris under the elbow in his quick, clumsy way, and, blushing far more than Boris, began to speak with a feeling of mingled shame and vexation.
  • And Boris, having apparently relieved himself of an onerous duty and extricated himself from an awkward situation and placed another in it, became quite pleasant again.
  • A footman came in to summon Boris--the princess was going.
  • Pierre, in order to make Boris' better acquaintance, promised to come to dinner, and warmly pressing his hand looked affectionately over his spectacles into Boris' eyes.
  • As often happens in early youth, especially to one who leads a lonely life, he felt an unaccountable tenderness for this young man and made up his mind that they would be friends.
  • "Oh, he is in a dreadful state," said the mother to her son when they were in the carriage.
  • The count came waddling in to see his wife with a rather guilty look as usual.
  • Hey, who's there? he called out in a tone only used by persons who are certain that those they call will rush to obey the summons.
  • How much sorrow it causes in the world, said the countess.
  • But I am in great need of this sum.
  • When Anna Mikhaylovna returned from Count Bezukhov's the money, all in clean notes, was lying ready under a handkerchief on the countess' little table, and Anna Mikhaylovna noticed that something was agitating her.
  • This was an old bachelor, Shinshin, a cousin of the countess', a man with "a sharp tongue" as they said in Moscow society.
  • The latter, a fresh, rosy officer of the Guards, irreproachably washed, brushed, and buttoned, held his pipe in the middle of his mouth and with red lips gently inhaled the smoke, letting it escape from his handsome mouth in rings.
  • This was Lieutenant Berg, an officer in the Semenov regiment with whom Boris was to travel to join the army, and about whom Natasha had teased her elder sister Vera, speaking of Berg as her "intended."
  • His favorite occupation when not playing boston, a card game he was very fond of, was that of listener, especially when he succeeded in setting two loquacious talkers at one another.
  • No, Peter Nikolaevich; I only want to show that in the cavalry the advantages are far less than in the infantry.
  • It was just the moment before a big dinner when the assembled guests, expecting the summons to zakuska, * avoid engaging in any long conversation but think it necessary to move about and talk, in order to show that they are not at all impatient for their food.
  • Pierre had come just at dinnertime and was sitting awkwardly in the middle of the drawing room on the first chair he had come across, blocking the way for everyone.
  • He was in the way and was the only one who did not notice the fact.
  • You have been in Paris recently, I believe?
  • The latter understood that she was being asked to entertain this young man, and sitting down beside him she began to speak about his father; but he answered her, as he had the countess, only in monosyllables.
  • "Herself," came the answer in a rough voice, and Marya Dmitrievna entered the room.
  • Marya Dmitrievna always spoke in Russian.
  • "Health and happiness to her whose name day we are keeping and to her children," she said, in her loud, full-toned voice which drowned all others.
  • "Well, you old sinner," she went on, turning to the count who was kissing her hand, "you're feeling dull in Moscow, I daresay?
  • Pierre approached, looking at her in a childlike way through his spectacles.
  • The smiling Julie Karagina went in with Nicholas.
  • The footmen began moving about, chairs scraped, the band struck up in the gallery, and the guests settled down in their places.
  • The countess in turn, without omitting her duties as hostess, threw significant glances from behind the pineapples at her husband whose face and bald head seemed by their redness to contrast more than usual with his gray hair.
  • These latter the butler thrust mysteriously forward, wrapped in a napkin, from behind the next man's shoulders and whispered: "Dry Madeira"...
  • Natasha, who sat opposite, was looking at Boris as girls of thirteen look at the boy they are in love with and have just kissed for the first time.
  • The German tutor was trying to remember all the dishes, wines, and kinds of dessert, in order to send a full description of the dinner to his people in Germany; and he felt greatly offended when the butler with a bottle wrapped in a napkin passed him by.
  • I have four sons in the army but still I don't fret.
  • It is all in God's hands.
  • You may die in your bed or God may spare you in a battle, replied Marya Dmitrievna's deep voice, which easily carried the whole length of the table.
  • Again the footmen rushed about, chairs scraped, and in the same order in which they had entered but with redder faces, the guests returned to the drawing room and to the count's study.
  • The card tables were drawn out, sets made up for boston, and the count's visitors settled themselves, some in the two drawing rooms, some in the sitting room, some in the library.
  • After she had played a little air with variations on the harp, she joined the other young ladies in begging Natasha and Nicholas, who were noted for their musical talent, to sing something.
  • She looked round and seeing that her friend was not in the room ran to look for her.
  • The chest in the passage was the place of mourning for the younger female generation in the Rostov household.
  • Sonya tried to lift her head to answer but could not, and hid her face still deeper in the bed.
  • "Nicholas is going away in a week's time, his... papers... have come... he told me himself... but still I should not cry," and she showed a paper she held in her hand--with the verses Nicholas had written, "still, I should not cry, but you can't... no one can understand... what a soul he has!"
  • Sonya could not continue, and again hid her face in her hands and in the feather bed.
  • Do you remember how we and Nicholas, all three of us, talked in the sitting room after supper?
  • "Really, truly!" answered Natasha, pushing in a crisp lock that had strayed from under her friend's plaits.
  • At nighttime in the moon's fair glow How sweet, as fancies wander free, To feel that in this world there's one Who still is thinking but of thee!
  • He had not finished the last verse before the young people began to get ready to dance in the large hall, and the sound of the feet and the coughing of the musicians were heard from the gallery.
  • When the music began Natasha came in and walking straight up to Pierre said, laughing and blushing:
  • She was sitting in a conspicuous place and talking to him like a grown-up lady.
  • She had a fan in her hand that one of the ladies had given her to hold.
  • This was the count's favorite dance, which he had danced in his youth.
  • And indeed everybody in the room looked with a smile of pleasure at the jovial old gentleman, who standing beside his tall and stout partner, Marya Dmitrievna, curved his arms, beat time, straightened his shoulders, turned out his toes, tapped gently with his foot, and, by a smile that broadened his round face more and more, prepared the onlookers for what was to follow.
  • A regular eagle he is! loudly remarked the nurse, as she stood in one of the doorways.
  • Her enormous figure stood erect, her powerful arms hanging down (she had handed her reticule to the countess), and only her stern but handsome face really joined in the dance.
  • What was expressed by the whole of the count's plump figure, in Marya Dmitrievna found expression only in her more and more beaming face and quivering nose.
  • In the intervals of the dance the count, breathing deeply, waved and shouted to the musicians to play faster.
  • "That's how we used to dance in our time, ma chere," said the count.
  • While in the Rostovs' ballroom the sixth anglaise was being danced, to a tune in which the weary musicians blundered, and while tired footmen and cooks were getting the supper, Count Bezukhov had a sixth stroke.
  • Outside the house, beyond the gates, a group of undertakers, who hid whenever a carriage drove up, waited in expectation of an important order for an expensive funeral.
  • Prince Vasili, who had grown thinner and paler during the last few days, escorted him to the door, repeating something to him several times in low tones.
  • When the Military Governor had gone, Prince Vasili sat down all alone on a chair in the ballroom, crossing one leg high over the other, leaning his elbow on his knee and covering his face with his hand.
  • The second princess had just come from the sickroom with her eyes red from weeping and sat down beside Dr. Lorrain, who was sitting in a graceful pose under a portrait of Catherine, leaning his elbow on a table.
  • "Beautiful," said the doctor in answer to a remark about the weather.
  • The weather is beautiful, Princess; and besides, in Moscow one feels as if one were in the country.
  • "And who will inherit his wealth?" he added in a whisper.
  • Everyone again looked toward the door, which creaked as the second princess went in with the drink she had prepared according to Lorrain's instructions.
  • "Do you think he can last till morning?" asked the German, addressing Lorrain in French which he pronounced badly.
  • "Tonight, not later," said he in a low voice, and he moved away with a decorous smile of self-satisfaction at being able clearly to understand and state the patient's condition.
  • In this room it was almost dark; only two tiny lamps were burning before the icons and there was a pleasant scent of flowers and burnt pastilles.
  • Prince Vasili said no more and his cheeks began to twitch nervously, now on one side, now on the other, giving his face an unpleasant expression which was never to be seen on it in a drawing room.
  • His eyes too seemed strange; at one moment they looked impudently sly and at the next glanced round in alarm.
  • But... in short, the fact is... you know yourself that last winter the count made a will by which he left all his property, not to us his direct heirs, but to Pierre.
  • Do you understand that in consideration of the count's services, his request would be granted?...
  • I still believed in people, loved them, and sacrificed myself.
  • She had the air of one who has suddenly lost faith in the whole human race.
  • You must remember, Catiche, that it was all done casually in a moment of anger, of illness, and was afterwards forgotten.
  • "Who sacrificed everything for him," chimed in the princess, who would again have risen had not the prince still held her fast, "though he never could appreciate it.
  • In this world one has to be cunning and cruel.
  • Last winter she wheedled herself in here and told the count such vile, disgraceful things about us, especially about Sophie--I can't repeat them--that it made the count quite ill and he would not see us for a whole fortnight.
  • And what does she come worming herself in here for?
  • As the wheels rolled softly over the straw beneath the windows, Anna Mikhaylovna, having turned with words of comfort to her companion, realized that he was asleep in his corner and woke him up.
  • While he was getting down from the carriage steps two men, who looked like tradespeople, ran hurriedly from the entrance and hid in the shadow of the wall.
  • Pausing for a moment, Pierre noticed several other men of the same kind hiding in the shadow of the house on both sides.
  • "Yes," replied a footman in a bold loud voice, as if anything were now permissible; "the door to the left, ma'am."
  • Think that he is your father... perhaps in the agony of death.
  • An old man, a servant of the princesses, sat in a corner knitting a stocking.
  • I will look after your interests, said she in reply to his look, and went still faster along the passage.
  • The same people were still sitting here in almost the same positions as before, whispering to one another.
  • To him, in a particularly respectful and tenderly sad voice, she said:
  • As soon as Anna Mikhaylovna had disappeared he noticed that the eyes of all in the room turned to him with something more than curiosity and sympathy.
  • Pierre's mind was in such a confused state that the word "stroke" suggested to him a blow from something.
  • He looked at Prince Vasili in perplexity, and only later grasped that a stroke was an attack of illness.
  • Prince Vasili said something to Lorrain in passing and went through the door on tiptoe.
  • The eldest princess followed him, and the priests and deacons and some servants also went in at the door.
  • Prince Vasili in front of the door, near the invalid chair, a wax taper in his left hand, was leaning his left arm on the carved back of a velvet chair he had turned round for the purpose, and was crossing himself with his right hand, turning his eyes upward each time he touched his forehead.
  • All were silently crossing themselves, and the reading of the church service, the subdued chanting of deep bass voices, and in the intervals sighs and the shuffling of feet were the only sounds that could be heard.
  • She smiled, hid her face in her handkerchief, and remained with it hidden for awhile; then looking up and seeing Pierre she again began to laugh.
  • In the midst of the service the voices of the priests suddenly ceased, they whispered to one another, and the old servant who was holding the count's hand got up and said something to the ladies.
  • The French doctor held no taper; he was leaning against one of the columns in a respectful attitude implying that he, a foreigner, in spite of all differences of faith, understood the full importance of the rite now being performed and even approved of it.
  • Pierre paid no more attention to this occurrence than to the rest of what went on, having made up his mind once for all that what he saw happening around him that evening was in some way essential.
  • "Catch hold of my arm or you'll drop him!" he heard one of the servants say in a frightened whisper.
  • Anna Mikhaylovna looked attentively at the sick man's eyes, trying to guess what he wanted; she pointed first to Pierre, then to some drink, then named Prince Vasili in an inquiring whisper, then pointed to the quilt.
  • At sight of this smile Pierre felt an unexpected quivering in his breast and a tickling in his nose, and tears dimmed his eyes.
  • There was now no one in the reception room except Prince Vasili and the eldest princess, who were sitting under the portrait of Catherine the Great and talking eagerly.
  • "Catiche has had tea served in the small drawing room," said Prince Vasili to Anna Mikhaylovna.
  • Anna Mikhaylovna was standing beside the princess, and they were both speaking in excited whispers.
  • "Permit me, Princess, to know what is necessary and what is not necessary," said the younger of the two speakers, evidently in the same state of excitement as when she had slammed the door of her room.
  • His cheeks, which were so flabby that they looked heavier below, were twitching violently; but he wore the air of a man little concerned in what the two ladies were saying.
  • "I don't even know what is in this paper," said the younger of the two ladies, addressing Prince Vasili and pointing to an inlaid portfolio she held in her hand.
  • All I know is that his real will is in his writing table, and this is a paper he has forgotten....
  • Their efforts in the struggle for the portfolio were the only sounds audible, but it was evident that if the princess did speak, her words would not be flattering to Anna Mikhaylovna.
  • I think he will not be out of place in a family consultation; is it not so, Prince?
  • "Why don't you speak, cousin?" suddenly shrieked the princess so loud that those in the drawing room heard her and were startled.
  • And bursting into tears she hid her face in her handkerchief and rushed from the room.
  • Pierre noticed that he was pale and that his jaw quivered and shook as if in an ague.
  • "Ah, my friend!" said he, taking Pierre by the elbow; and there was in his voice a sincerity and weakness Pierre had never observed in it before.
  • All will end in death, all!
  • In the morning Anna Mikhaylovna said to Pierre:
  • Pierre understood nothing of all this and coloring shyly looked in silence at Princess Anna Mikhaylovna.
  • On waking in the morning she told the Rostovs and all her acquaintances the details of Count Bezukhov's death.
  • Of the behavior of the eldest princess and Prince Vasili she spoke disapprovingly, but in whispers and as a great secret.
  • At Bald Hills, Prince Nicholas Andreevich Bolkonski's estate, the arrival of young Prince Andrew and his wife was daily expected, but this expectation did not upset the regular routine of life in the old prince's household.
  • Though in the new reign he was free to return to the capitals, he still continued to live in the country, remarking that anyone who wanted to see him could come the hundred miles from Moscow to Bald Hills, while he himself needed no one and nothing.
  • He was himself always occupied: writing his memoirs, solving problems in higher mathematics, turning snuffboxes on a lathe, working in the garden, or superintending the building that was always going on at his estate.
  • As regularity is a prime condition facilitating activity, regularity in his household was carried to the highest point of exactitude.
  • Every morning she came in like that, and every morning prayed that the daily interview might pass off well.
  • An old powdered manservant who was sitting in the antechamber rose quietly and said in a whisper: "Please walk in."
  • The enormous study was full of things evidently in constant use.
  • The large table covered with books and plans, the tall glass-fronted bookcases with keys in the locks, the high desk for writing while standing up, on which lay an open exercise book, and the lathe with tools laid ready to hand and shavings scattered around--all indicated continuous, varied, and orderly activity.
  • He took the exercise book containing lessons in geometry written by himself and drew up a chair with his foot.
  • "Wait a bit, here's a letter for you," said the old man suddenly, taking a letter addressed in a woman's hand from a bag hanging above the table, onto which he threw it.
  • Julie wrote in French:
  • Why are we not together as we were last summer, in your big study, on the blue sofa, the confidential sofa?
  • Her eyes, always sad, now looked with particular hopelessness at her reflection in the glass.
  • As with everyone, her face assumed a forced unnatural expression as soon as she looked in a glass.
  • God grant that the Corsican monster who is destroying the peace of Europe may be overthrown by the angel whom it has pleased the Almighty, in His goodness, to give us as sovereign!
  • I will confess to you, dear Mary, that in spite of his extreme youth his departure for the army was a great grief to me.
  • Though there are things in it difficult for the feeble human mind to grasp, it is an admirable book which calms and elevates the soul.
  • This is the reply she wrote, also in French:
  • I understand such feelings in others, and if never having felt them I cannot approve of them, neither do I condemn them.
  • He always seemed to me to have an excellent heart, and that is the quality I value most in people.
  • Let us not seek to penetrate what mysteries they contain; for how can we, miserable sinners that we are, know the terrible and holy secrets of Providence while we remain in this flesh which forms an impenetrable veil between us and the Eternal?
  • In regard to this project of marriage for me, I will tell you, dear sweet friend, that I look on marriage as a divine institution to which we must conform.
  • Adieu, dear and kind friend; may our divine Saviour and His most Holy Mother keep you in their holy and all-powerful care!
  • I have written to my poor mother, said the smiling Mademoiselle Bourienne rapidly, in her pleasant mellow tones and with guttural r's.
  • He is in a very bad humor, very morose.
  • The princess glanced at her watch and, seeing that she was five minutes late in starting her practice on the clavichord, went into the sitting room with a look of alarm.
  • The gray-haired valet was sitting drowsily listening to the snoring of the prince, who was in his large study.
  • He will get up in twenty minutes.
  • "You've grown older, Tikhon," he said in passing to the old man, who kissed his hand.
  • When Prince Andrew went in the two princesses, who had only met once before for a short time at his wedding, were in each other's arms warmly pressing their lips to whatever place they happened to touch.
  • "I knew the princess at once," put in Mademoiselle Bourienne.
  • Prince Andrew and his sister, hand in hand, kissed one another, and he told her she was still the same crybaby as ever.
  • It was plain that she was following a train of thought independent of her sister-in-law's words.
  • In the midst of a description of the last Petersburg fete she addressed her brother:
  • Princess Mary did not listen to the end, but continuing her train of thought turned to her sister-in-law with a tender glance at her figure.
  • She brought her face close to her sister-in-law's and unexpectedly again began to cry.
  • And the walks in the avenues?
  • "The hours are the same, and the lathe, and also the mathematics and my geometry lessons," said Princess Mary gleefully, as if her lessons in geometry were among the greatest delights of her life.
  • The old man made a departure from his usual routine in honor of his son's arrival: he gave orders to admit him to his apartments while he dressed for dinner.
  • The old prince always dressed in old-fashioned style, wearing an antique coat and powdered hair; and when Prince Andrew entered his father's dressing room (not with the contemptuous look and manner he wore in drawing rooms, but with the animated face with which he talked to Pierre), the old man was sitting on a large leather-covered chair, wrapped in a powdering mantle, entrusting his head to Tikhon.
  • The old man was in a good temper after his nap before dinner.
  • He explained how an army, ninety thousand strong, was to threaten Prussia so as to bring her out of her neutrality and draw her into the war; how part of that army was to join some Swedish forces at Stralsund; how two hundred and twenty thousand Austrians, with a hundred thousand Russians, were to operate in Italy and on the Rhine; how fifty thousand Russians and as many English were to land at Naples, and how a total force of five hundred thousand men was to attack the French from different sides.
  • The old man began to sing, in the cracked voice of old age: Malbrook s'en va-t-en guerre.
  • At the appointed hour the prince, powdered and shaven, entered the dining room.
  • In the dining room, which like all the rooms in the house was exceedingly lofty, the members of the household and the footmen--one behind each chair--stood waiting for the prince to enter.
  • In the dining room, which like all the rooms in the house was exceedingly lofty, the members of the household and the footmen--one behind each chair--stood waiting for the prince to enter.
  • Princess Mary looked at her brother in surprise.
  • Fancy, with his powerful mind, indulging in such nonsense!
  • The prince walked in quickly and jauntily as was his wont, as if intentionally contrasting the briskness of his manners with the strict formality of his house.
  • At that moment the great clock struck two and another with a shrill tone joined in from the drawing room.
  • She felt, as courtiers do when the Tsar enters, the sensation of fear and respect which the old man inspired in all around him.
  • He indicated a place beside him to his daughter-in-law.
  • You've been in a hurry.
  • He laughed in his usual dry, cold, unpleasant way, with his lips only and not with his eyes.
  • No, my dear boy," he continued, "you and your generals won't get on against Buonaparte; you'll have to call in the French, so that birds of a feather may fight together.
  • Buonaparte was born with a silver spoon in his mouth.
  • And the prince began explaining all the blunders which, according to him, Bonaparte had made in his campaigns and even in politics.
  • He listened, refraining from a reply, and involuntarily wondered how this old man, living alone in the country for so many years, could know and discuss so minutely and acutely all the recent European military and political events.
  • Mademoiselle Bourienne, here's another admirer of that powder-monkey emperor of yours, he exclaimed in excellent French.
  • The little princess during the whole discussion and the rest of the dinner sat silent, glancing with a frightened look now at her father-in- law and now at Princess Mary.
  • When they left the table she took her sister-in-law's arm and drew her into another room.
  • The little princess was in her sister-in-law's room.
  • Only those things he always kept with him remained in his room; a small box, a large canteen fitted with silver plate, two Turkish pistols and a saber--a present from his father who had brought it from the siege of Ochakov.
  • All these traveling effects of Prince Andrew's were in very good order: new, clean, and in cloth covers carefully tied with tapes.
  • When starting on a journey or changing their mode of life, men capable of reflection are generally in a serious frame of mind.
  • She was so tired that she has fallen asleep on the sofa in my room.
  • Don't forget that she has grown up and been educated in society, and so her position now is not a rosy one.
  • "You live in the country and don't think the life terrible," he replied.
  • But think, Andrew: for a young society woman to be buried in the country during the best years of her life, all alone--for Papa is always busy, and I... well, you know what poor resources I have for entertaining a woman used to the best society.
  • To tell the truth, I don't need her, and she's even in my way.
  • She reads to him in the evenings and reads splendidly.
  • "He always was rather harsh; and now I should think he's getting very trying," said Prince Andrew, apparently speaking lightly of their father in order to puzzle or test his sister.
  • "You are good in every way, Andrew, but you have a kind of intellectual pride," said the princess, following the train of her own thoughts rather than the trend of the conversation--"and that's a great sin.
  • But even in this I can see lately a shade of improvement.
  • Father's father, our grandfather, wore it in all his wars.
  • (She still did not take out what she was holding in her reticule.)
  • Know this, Masha: I can't reproach, have not reproached, and never shall reproach my wife with anything, and I cannot reproach myself with anything in regard to her; and that always will be so in whatever circumstances I may be placed.
  • Or--go and wake and I'll come in a moment.
  • On the way to his sister's room, in the passage which connected one wing with the other, Prince Andrew met Mademoiselle Bourienne smiling sweetly.
  • It was the third time that day that, with an ecstatic and artless smile, she had met him in secluded passages.
  • I thought you were in your room, she said, for some reason blushing and dropping her eyes.
  • She was speaking as usual in French, and as if after long self-restraint she wished to make up for lost time.
  • This very sentence about Countess Zubova and this same laugh Prince Andrew had already heard from his wife in the presence of others some five times.
  • The little princess, plump and rosy, was sitting in an easy chair with her work in her hands, talking incessantly, repeating Petersburg reminiscences and even phrases.
  • Servants with lanterns were bustling about in the porch.
  • The members of the household were all gathered in the reception hall: Michael Ivanovich, Mademoiselle Bourienne, Princess Mary, and the little princess.
  • When Prince Andrew entered the study the old man in his old-age spectacles and white dressing gown, in which he received no one but his son, sat at the table writing.
  • Give this letter to Michael Ilarionovich. * I have written that he should make use of you in proper places and not keep you long as an adjutant: a bad position!
  • Nicholas Bolkonski's son need not serve under anyone if he is in disfavor.
  • "Remember this, Prince Andrew, if they kill you it will hurt me, your old father..." he paused unexpectedly, and then in a querulous voice suddenly shrieked: "but if I hear that you have not behaved like a son of Nicholas Bolkonski, I shall be ashamed!"
  • Something twitched in the lower part of the old prince's face.
  • Go! he suddenly shouted in a loud, angry voice, opening his door.
  • What? asked both princesses when they saw for a moment at the door Prince Andrew and the figure of the old man in a white dressing gown, spectacled and wigless, shouting in an angry voice.
  • He cautiously released the shoulder she leaned on, looked into her face, and carefully placed her in an easy chair.
  • The little princess lay in the armchair, Mademoiselle Bourienne chafing her temples.
  • Princess Mary, supporting her sister-in-law, still looked with her beautiful eyes full of tears at the door through which Prince Andrew had gone and made the sign of the cross in his direction.
  • Hardly had Prince Andrew gone when the study door opened quickly and the stern figure of the old man in the white dressing gown looked out.
  • Braunau was the headquarters of the commander-in-chief, Kutuzov.
  • On October 11, 1805, one of the infantry regiments that had just reached Braunau had halted half a mile from the town, waiting to be inspected by the commander-in-chief.
  • Though the words of the order were not clear to the regimental commander, and the question arose whether the troops were to be in marching order or not, it was decided at a consultation between the battalion commanders to present the regiment in parade order, on the principle that it is always better to "bow too low than not bow low enough."
  • More than half the men's boots were in holes.
  • He walked about in front of the line and at every step pulled himself up, slightly arching his back.
  • A member of the Hofkriegsrath from Vienna had come to Kutuzov the day before with proposals and demands for him to join up with the army of the Archduke Ferdinand and Mack, and Kutuzov, not considering this junction advisable, meant, among other arguments in support of his view, to show the Austrian general the wretched state in which the troops arrived from Russia.
  • With this object he intended to meet the regiment; so the worse the condition it was in, the better pleased the commander- in-chief would be.
  • "Company commanders!" he shouted in a voice accustomed to command.
  • In an hour's time, I should say.
  • In half an hour all was again in order, only the squares had become gray instead of black.
  • In half an hour all was again in order, only the squares had become gray instead of black.
  • When the eager but misrepeated words had reached their destination in a cry of: "The general to the third company," the missing officer appeared from behind his company and, though he was a middle-aged man and not in the habit of running, trotted awkwardly stumbling on his toes toward the general.
  • You will soon be dressing your men in petticoats!
  • What is this? shouted the regimental commander, thrusting forward his jaw and pointing at a soldier in the ranks of the third company in a greatcoat of bluish cloth, which contrasted with the others.
  • The commander in chief is expected and you leave your place?
  • I'll teach you to dress the men in fancy coats for a parade....
  • If a soldier, he should be dressed in regulation uniform like the others.
  • Your leg? shouted the commander with a tone of suffering in his voice, while there were still five men between him and Dolokhov with his bluish-gray uniform.
  • Dolokhov slowly straightened his bent knee, looking straight with his clear, insolent eyes in the general's face.
  • No talking in the ranks!...
  • "Att-ention!" shouted the regimental commander in a soul-shaking voice which expressed joy for himself, severity for the regiment, and welcome for the approaching chief.
  • Beside Kutuzov sat an Austrian general, in a white uniform that looked strange among the Russian black ones.
  • The caleche stopped in front of the regiment.
  • Kutuzov and the Austrian general were talking in low voices and Kutuzov smiled slightly as treading heavily he stepped down from the carriage just as if those two thousand men breathlessly gazing at him and the regimental commander did not exist.
  • Then amidst a dead silence the feeble voice of the commander-in-chief was heard.
  • At first Kutuzov stood still while the regiment moved; then he and the general in white, accompanied by the suite, walked between the ranks.
  • Thanks to the strictness and assiduity of its commander the regiment, in comparison with others that had reached Braunau at the same time, was in splendid condition.
  • Everything was in good order except the boots.
  • Kutuzov walked through the ranks, sometimes stopping to say a few friendly words to officers he had known in the Turkish war, sometimes also to the soldiers.
  • The regimental commander ran forward on each such occasion, fearing to miss a single word of the commander-in-chief's regarding the regiment.
  • Nearest of all to the commander-in-chief walked a handsome adjutant.
  • This hussar, with a grave face and without a smile or a change in the expression of his fixed eyes, watched the regimental commander's back and mimicked his every movement.
  • Each time the commander started and bent forward, the hussar started and bent forward in exactly the same manner.
  • The hussar at that moment noticed the face of the red-nosed captain and his drawn-in stomach, and mimicked his expression and pose with such exactitude that Nesvitski could not help laughing.
  • Prince Andrew stepped forward from among the suite and said in French:
  • You told me to remind you of the officer Dolokhov, reduced to the ranks in this regiment.
  • The shapely figure of the fair-haired soldier, with his clear blue eyes, stepped forward from the ranks, went up to the commander in chief, and presented arms.
  • "One thing I ask of your excellency," Dolokhov said in his firm, ringing, deliberate voice.
  • "You won't bear me a grudge, Prokhor Ignatych?" said the regimental commander, overtaking the third company on its way to its quarters and riding up to Captain Timokhin who was walking in front.
  • It's in the Emperor's service... it can't be helped... one is sometimes a bit hasty on parade...
  • In Poland, if you please, he nearly killed a Jew.
  • Still, one must have pity on a young man in misfortune.
  • The regimental commander sought out Dolokhov in the ranks and, reining in his horse, said to him:
  • "In a word, a hearty one..." said the subaltern, laughing (the regimental commander was nicknamed King of Hearts).
  • The Prussians are up in arms now.
  • And he says Buonaparte is in Braunau!
  • "Oh, my bower new...!" chimed in twenty voices, and the castanet player, in spite of the burden of his equipment, rushed out to the front and, walking backwards before the company, jerked his shoulders and flourished his castanets as if threatening someone.
  • The commander-in-chief made a sign that the men should continue to march at ease, and he and all his suite showed pleasure at the sound of the singing and the sight of the dancing soldier and the gay and smartly marching men.
  • In the second file from the right flank, beside which the carriage passed the company, a blue- eyed soldier involuntarily attracted notice.
  • It was Dolokhov marching with particular grace and boldness in time to the song and looking at those driving past as if he pitied all who were not at that moment marching with the company.
  • Hussar cornet Zherkov had at one time, in Petersburg, belonged to the wild set led by Dolokhov.
  • On returning from the review, Kutuzov took the Austrian general into his private room and, calling his adjutant, asked for some papers relating to the condition of the troops on their arrival, and the letters that had come from the Archduke Ferdinand, who was in command of the advanced army.
  • And Kutuzov smiled in a way that seemed to say, You are quite at liberty not to believe me and I don't even care whether you do or not, but you have no grounds for telling me so.
  • The Austrian general looked dissatisfied, but had no option but to reply in the same tone.
  • And, in fact, the last letter he had received from Mack's army informed him of a victory and stated strategically the position of the army was very favorable.
  • "Please have a look at it"--and Kutuzov with an ironical smile about the corners of his mouth read to the Austrian general the following passage, in German, from the Archduke Ferdinand's letter:
  • Here are two letters from Count Nostitz and here is one from His Highness the Archduke Ferdinand and here are these," he said, handing him several papers, "make a neat memorandum in French out of all this, showing all the news we have had of the movements of the Austrian army, and then give it to his excellency."
  • In the expression of his face, in his movements, in his walk, scarcely a trace was left of his former affected languor and indolence.
  • In the expression of his face, in his movements, in his walk, scarcely a trace was left of his former affected languor and indolence.
  • On Kutuzov's staff, among his fellow officers and in the army generally, Prince Andrew had, as he had had in Petersburg society, two quite opposite reputations.
  • Coming out of Kutuzov's room into the waiting room with the papers in his hand Prince Andrew came up to his comrade, the aide-de-camp on duty, Kozlovski, who was sitting at the window with a book.
  • But at that instant a tall Austrian general in a greatcoat, with the order of Maria Theresa on his neck and a black bandage round his head, who had evidently just arrived, entered quickly, slamming the door.
  • "Commander in Chief Kutuzov?" said the newly arrived general speaking quickly with a harsh German accent, looking to both sides and advancing straight toward the inner door.
  • "The commander-in-chief is engaged," said Kozlovski, going hurriedly up to the unknown general and blocking his way to the door.
  • "The commander-in-chief is engaged," repeated Kozlovski calmly.
  • He took out a notebook, hurriedly scribbled something in pencil, tore out the leaf, gave it to Kozlovski, stepped quickly to the window, and threw himself into a chair, gazing at those in the room as if asking, "Why do they look at me?"
  • The door of the private room opened and Kutuzov appeared in the doorway.
  • "Vous voyez le malheureux Mack," he uttered in a broken voice.
  • Kutuzov's face as he stood in the open doorway remained perfectly immobile for a few moments.
  • Prince Andrew was one of those rare staff officers whose chief interest lay in the general progress of the war.
  • Involuntarily he felt a joyful agitation at the thought of the humiliation of arrogant Austria and that in a week's time he might, perhaps, see and take part in the first Russian encounter with the French since Suvorov met them.
  • In the corridor he met Nesvitski, with whom he shared a room, and the wag Zherkov; they were as usual laughing.
  • There was room enough in the wide corridor for the generals to pass the three officers quite easily, but Zherkov, pushing Nesvitski aside with his arm, said in a breathless voice,
  • "Your excellency," said he in German, stepping forward and addressing the Austrian general, "I have the honor to congratulate you."
  • The nervous irritation aroused by the appearance of Mack, the news of his defeat, and the thought of what lay before the Russian army found vent in anger at Zherkov's untimely jest.
  • "What's the matter?" exclaimed Prince Andrew standing still in his excitement.
  • Don't you understand that either we are officers serving our Tsar and our country, rejoicing in the successes and grieving at the misfortunes of our common cause, or we are merely lackeys who care nothing for their master's business.
  • *(2) Only a hobbledehoy could amuse himself in this way, he added in Russian--but pronouncing the word with a French accent--having noticed that Zherkov could still hear him.
  • The squadron in which Nicholas Rostov served as a cadet was quartered in the German village of Salzeneck.
  • The best quarters in the village were assigned to cavalry-captain Denisov, the squadron commander, known throughout the whole cavalry division as Vaska Denisov.
  • Cadet Rostov, ever since he had overtaken the regiment in Poland, had lived with the squadron commander.
  • His landlord, who in a waistcoat and a pointed cap, pitchfork in hand, was clearing manure from the cowhouse, looked out, and his face immediately brightened on seeing Rostov.
  • I know by now, if he wins he comes back early to brag about it, but if he stays out till morning it means he's lost and will come back in a rage.
  • He wore an unfastened cloak, wide breeches hanging down in creases, and a crumpled shako on the back of his head.
  • He took the lighted pipe that was offered to him, gripped it in his fist, and tapped it on the floor, making the sparks fly, while he continued to shout.
  • "Wetched!" he muttered, throwing down a purse with some gold in it.
  • Rostov took the money and, mechanically arranging the old and new coins in separate piles, began counting them.
  • The lieutenant never looked the man he was speaking to straight in the face; his eyes continually wandered from one object to another.
  • In the passage Denisov, with a pipe, was squatting on the threshold facing the quartermaster who was reporting to him.
  • Telyanin was sitting in the same indolent pose in which Rostov had left him, rubbing his small white hands.
  • He leaned his elbows on the table with his pen in his hand and, evidently glad of a chance to say quicker in words what he wanted to write, told Rostov the contents of his letter.
  • We are childwen of the dust... but one falls in love and one is a God, one is pua' as on the first day of cweation...
  • Send him to the devil, I'm busy! he shouted to Lavrushka, who went up to him not in the least abashed.
  • "How much is left in the puhse?" he asked, turning to Rostov.
  • I haven't been in the room.
  • Feel in your pockets.
  • Lavrushka turned all the bedding over, looked under the bed and under the table, searched everywhere, and stood still in the middle of the room.
  • "I know who has taken it," repeated Rostov in an unsteady voice, and went to the door.
  • "Do you understand what you're saying?" he said in a trembling voice.
  • There was no one else in the room except myself.
  • "The master is not in, he's gone to headquarters," said Telyanin's orderly.
  • There was an inn in the village which the officers frequented.
  • In the second room of the inn the lieutenant was sitting over a dish of sausages and a bottle of wine.
  • There were two Germans and a Russian officer in the room.
  • "Allow me to look at your purse," he said in a low, almost inaudible, voice.
  • Rostov took the purse in his hand, examined it and the money in it, and looked at Telyanin.
  • The lieutenant was looking about in his usual way and suddenly seemed to grow very merry.
  • "If we get to Vienna I'll get rid of it there but in these wretched little towns there's nowhere to spend it," said he.
  • That same evening there was an animated discussion among the squadron's officers in Denisov's quarters.
  • "You just wait a moment, my dear fellow, and listen," interrupted the staff captain in his deep bass, calmly stroking his long mustache.
  • You tell the colonel in the presence of other officers that an officer has stolen...
  • I'm not to blame that the conversation began in the presence of other officers.
  • Denisov sat gloomily biting his mustache and listening to the conversation, evidently with no wish to take part in it.
  • You landed yourself in it.
  • Ah well, I'll show that in action, and for me the honor of the flag...
  • "That's better, Count," said the staff captain, beginning to address Rostov by his title, as if in recognition of his confession.
  • No one shall hear a word from me," said Rostov in an imploring voice, "but I can't apologize, by God I can't, do what you will!
  • I'd kill him! shouted Denisov in a bloodthirsty tone.
  • Oh, my dear fellow, we're in such a stew here these last two days.
  • The regimental adjutant came in and confirmed the news brought by Zherkov.
  • The wide expanse that opened out before the heights on which the Russian batteries stood guarding the bridge was at times veiled by a diaphanous curtain of slanting rain, and then, suddenly spread out in the sunlight, far-distant objects could be clearly seen glittering as though freshly varnished.
  • Among the field guns on the brow of the hill the general in command of the rearguard stood with a staff officer, scanning the country through his fieldglass.
  • Look there in the meadow behind the village, three of them are dragging something.
  • "No, but what I should like," added he, munching a pie in his moist-lipped handsome mouth, "would be to slip in over there."
  • Meanwhile the staff officer standing in front pointed out something to the general, who looked through his field glass.
  • "I'll really call in on the nuns," he said to the officers who watched him smilingly, and he rode off by the winding path down the hill.
  • In a moment the men came running gaily from their campfires and began loading.
  • At the same instant the sun came fully out from behind the clouds, and the clear sound of the solitary shot and the brilliance of the bright sunshine merged in a single joyous and spirited impression.
  • But the soldiers, crowded together shoulder to shoulder, their bayonets interlocking, moved over the bridge in a dense mass.
  • Sometimes through the monotonous waves of men, like a fleck of white foam on the waves of the Enns, an officer, in a cloak and with a type of face different from that of the men, squeezed his way along; sometimes like a chip of wood whirling in the river, an hussar on foot, an orderly, or a townsman was carried through the waves of infantry; and sometimes like a log floating down the river, an officers' or company's baggage wagon, piled high, leather covered, and hemmed in on all sides, moved across the bridge.
  • "A million all but one!" replied a waggish soldier in a torn coat, with a wink, and passed on followed by another, an old man.
  • "And then, old fellow, he gives him one in the teeth with the butt end of his gun..." a soldier whose greatcoat was well tucked up said gaily, with a wide swing of his arm.
  • See, here's an officer jammed in too-- different voices were saying in the crowd, as the men looked at one another, and all pressed toward the exit from the bridge.
  • "Tell these devils, these fiends, to let me pass!" shouted Denisov evidently in a fit of rage, his coal-black eyes with their bloodshot whites glittering and rolling as he waved his sheathed saber in a small bare hand as red as his face.
  • Carelessly holding in his stallion that was neighing and pawing the ground, eager to rejoin its fellows, he watched his squadron draw nearer.
  • Then the clang of hoofs, as of several horses galloping, resounded on the planks of the bridge, and the squadron, officers in front and men four abreast, spread across the bridge and began to emerge on his side of it.
  • Suddenly on the road at the top of the high ground, artillery and troops in blue uniform were seen.
  • All were looking at the enemy in front and at the squadron commander, awaiting the word of command.
  • Look at me, cried Denisov who, unable to keep still on one spot, kept turning his horse in front of the squadron.
  • The black, hairy, snub-nosed face of Vaska Denisov, and his whole short sturdy figure with the sinewy hairy hand and stumpy fingers in which he held the hilt of his naked saber, looked just as it usually did, especially toward evening when he had emptied his second bottle; he was only redder than usual.
  • With his shaggy head thrown back like birds when they drink, pressing his spurs mercilessly into the sides of his good horse, Bedouin, and sitting as though falling backwards in the saddle, he galloped to the other flank of the squadron and shouted in a hoarse voice to the men to look to their pistols.
  • "Attack indeed!" said the colonel in a bored voice, puckering up his face as if driving off a troublesome fly.
  • It seemed to Rostov that Bogdanich was only pretending not to notice him, and that his whole aim now was to test the cadet's courage, so he drew himself up and looked around him merrily; then it seemed to him that Bogdanich rode so near in order to show him his courage.
  • After his dismissal from headquarters Zherkov had not remained in the regiment, saying he was not such a fool as to slave at the front when he could get more rewards by doing nothing on the staff, and had succeeded in attaching himself as an orderly officer to Prince Bagration.
  • "I don't myself know 'to who,'" replied the cornet in a serious tone, "but the prince told me to 'go and tell the colonel that the hussars must return quickly and fire the bridge.'"
  • "You were saying, Mr. Staff Officer..." continued the colonel in an offended tone.
  • "I will the bridge fire," he said in a solemn tone as if to announce that in spite of all the unpleasantness he had to endure he would still do the right thing.
  • "Oh, every bullet has its billet," answered Vaska Denisov, turning in his saddle.
  • These were the questions each man of the troops on the high ground above the bridge involuntarily asked himself with a sinking heart--watching the bridge and the hussars in the bright evening light and the blue tunics advancing from the other side with their bayonets and guns.
  • Oh! groaned Nesvitski as if in fierce pain, seizing the officer of the suite by the arm.
  • The infantry in their blue uniforms advanced toward the bridge at a run.
  • Two were misdirected and the shot went too high, but the last round fell in the midst of a group of hussars and knocked three of them over.
  • And fairer still were the faraway blue mountains beyond the river, the nunnery, the mysterious gorges, and the pine forests veiled in the mist of their summits...
  • Thou who art in that heaven, save, forgive, and protect me!
  • In this action for the first time trophies were taken: banners, cannon, and two enemy generals.
  • As a mark of the commander-in-chief's special favor he was sent with the news of this victory to the Austrian court, now no longer at Vienna (which was threatened by the French) but at Brunn.
  • The night was dark but starry, the road showed black in the snow that had fallen the previous day--the day of the battle.
  • Reviewing his impressions of the recent battle, picturing pleasantly to himself the impression his news of a victory would create, or recalling the send-off given him by the commander-in-chief and his fellow officers, Prince Andrew was galloping along in a post chaise enjoying the feelings of a man who has at length begun to attain a long-desired happiness.
  • The snow was thawing in the sunshine, the horses galloped quickly, and on both sides of the road were forests of different kinds, fields, and villages.
  • The Russian officer in charge of the transport lolled back in the front cart, shouting and scolding a soldier with coarse abuse.
  • In each of the long German carts six or more pale, dirty, bandaged men were being jolted over the stony road.
  • He again vividly recalled the details of the battle, no longer dim, but definite and in the concise form in which he imagined himself stating them to the Emperor Francis.
  • The adjutant on duty, meeting Prince Andrew, asked him to wait, and went in to the Minister of War.
  • He had an intellectual and distinctive head, but the instant he turned to Prince Andrew the firm, intelligent expression on his face changed in a way evidently deliberate and habitual to him.
  • Schmidt! he exclaimed in German.
  • Prince Andrew stayed at Brunn with Bilibin, a Russian acquaintance of his in the diplomatic service.
  • Besides it was pleasant, after his reception by the Austrians, to speak if not in Russian (for they were speaking French) at least with a Russian who would, he supposed, share the general Russian antipathy to the Austrians which was then particularly strong.
  • They had known each other previously in Petersburg, but had become more intimate when Prince Andrew was in Vienna with Kutuzov.
  • Both the foreign minister and our ambassador in Vienna knew him and valued him.
  • Bilibin's services were valued not only for what he wrote, but also for his skill in dealing and conversing with those in the highest spheres.
  • In society he always awaited an opportunity to say something striking and took part in a conversation only when that was possible.
  • In society he always awaited an opportunity to say something striking and took part in a conversation only when that was possible.
  • These sayings were prepared in the inner laboratory of his mind in a portable form as if intentionally, so that insignificant society people might carry them from drawing room to drawing room.
  • And, in fact, Bilibin's witticisms were hawked about in the Viennese drawing rooms and often had an influence on matters considered important.
  • "They received me and my news as one receives a dog in a game of skittles," said he in conclusion.
  • We had expected, as I told you, to get at their rear by seven in the morning but had not reached it by five in the afternoon.
  • And why didn't you do it at seven in the morning?
  • Even I, a poor secretary of the Russian Embassy, do not feel any need in token of my joy to give my Franz a thaler, or let him go with his Liebchen to the Prater...
  • After the fatigues and impressions of the journey, his reception, and especially after having dined, Bolkonski felt that he could not take in the full significance of the words he heard.
  • "Count Lichtenfels was here this morning," Bilibin continued, "and showed me a letter in which the parade of the French in Vienna was fully described: Prince Murat et tout le tremblement...
  • "Really I don't care about that, I don't care at all," said Prince Andrew, beginning to understand that his news of the battle before Krems was really of small importance in view of such events as the fall of Austria's capital.
  • When Prince Andrew reached the room prepared for him and lay down in a clean shirt on the feather bed with its warmed and fragrant pillows, he felt that the battle of which he had brought tidings was far, far away from him.
  • Having dressed for his attendance at court in full parade uniform, which he had not worn for a long time, he went into Bilibin's study fresh, animated, and handsome, with his hand bandaged.
  • In the study were four gentlemen of the diplomatic corps.
  • "The Berlin cabinet cannot express a feeling of alliance," began Hippolyte gazing round with importance at the others, "without expressing... as in its last note... you understand...
  • "Demosthenes, I know thee by the pebble thou secretest in thy golden mouth!" said Bilibin, and the mop of hair on his head moved with satisfaction.
  • "Well now, gentlemen," said Bilibin, "Bolkonski is my guest in this house and in Brunn itself.
  • If we were in Vienna it would be easy, but here, in this wretched Moravian hole, it is more difficult, and I beg you all to help me.
  • "In general we must turn this bloodthirsty soldier to more humane interests," said Bilibin.
  • We'll take you in hand.
  • The Emperor Francis received him standing in the middle of the room.
  • "I cannot inform Your Majesty at what o'clock the battle began at the front, but at Durrenstein, where I was, our attack began after five in the afternoon," replied Bolkonski growing more animated and expecting that he would have a chance to give a reliable account, which he had ready in his mind, of all he knew and had seen.
  • Is there sufficient forage in Krems?
  • Between four and five in the afternoon, having made all his calls, he was returning to Bilibin's house thinking out a letter to his father about the battle and his visit to Brunn.
  • Before returning to Bilibin's Prince Andrew had gone to a bookshop to provide himself with some books for the campaign, and had spent some time in the shop.
  • But where do you come from not to know what every coachman in the town knows?
  • Why, the French have crossed the bridge that Auersperg was defending, and the bridge was not blown up: so Murat is now rushing along the road to Brunn and will be here in a day or two.
  • But what is best of all," he went on, his excitement subsiding under the delightful interest of his own story, "is that the sergeant in charge of the cannon which was to give the signal to fire the mines and blow up the bridge, this sergeant, seeing that the French troops were running onto the bridge, was about to fire, but Lannes stayed his hand.
  • That puts the court in too bad a light, replied Bilibin.
  • And in proof of the conclusiveness of his opinion all the wrinkles vanished from his face.
  • I know you think it your duty to gallop back to the army now that it is in danger.
  • You and I will travel comfortably in my caleche.
  • In Brunn everybody attached to the court was packing up, and the heavy baggage was already being dispatched to Olmutz.
  • Near Hetzelsdorf Prince Andrew struck the high road along which the Russian army was moving with great haste and in the greatest disorder.
  • The road was so obstructed with carts that it was impossible to get by in a carriage.
  • Prince Andrew took a horse and a Cossack from a Cossack commander, and hungry and weary, making his way past the baggage wagons, rode in search of the commander-in-chief and of his own luggage.
  • Very sinister reports of the position of the army reached him as he went along, and the appearance of the troops in their disorderly flight confirmed these rumors.
  • Soldiers floundering knee-deep in mud pushed the guns and wagons themselves.
  • Wishing to find out where the commander-in-chief was, he rode up to a convoy.
  • A soldier was driving, and a woman enveloped in shawls sat behind the apron under the leather hood of the vehicle.
  • Prince Andrew rode up and was just putting his question to a soldier when his attention was diverted by the desperate shrieks of the woman in the vehicle.
  • Are you in command here?
  • Prince Andrew saw that the officer was in that state of senseless, tipsy rage when a man does not know what he is saying.
  • He saw that his championship of the doctor's wife in her queer trap might expose him to what he dreaded more than anything in the world--to ridicule; but his instinct urged him on.
  • "Where is the commander-in-chief?" asked Bolkonski.
  • "Here, in that house," answered the adjutant.
  • We are to spend the night in Znaim.
  • "What is the commander-in-chief doing here?" he asked.
  • Kutuzov himself, he was told, was in the house with Prince Bagration and Weyrother.
  • In the passage little Kozlovski was squatting on his heels in front of a clerk.
  • In the passage little Kozlovski was squatting on his heels in front of a clerk.
  • Just as he was going to open it the sounds ceased, the door opened, and Kutuzov with his eagle nose and puffy face appeared in the doorway.
  • Prince Andrew stood right in front of Kutuzov but the expression of the commander in chief's one sound eye showed him to be so preoccupied with thoughts and anxieties as to be oblivious of his presence.
  • Bagration, a gaunt middle-aged man of medium height with a firm, impassive face of Oriental type, came out after the commander-in-chief.
  • My blessing, and may Christ be with you in your great endeavor!
  • "Get in with me," said he to Bolkonski.
  • "Get in," said Kutuzov, and noticing that Bolkonski still delayed, he added: "I need good officers myself, need them myself!"
  • They got into the carriage and drove for a few minutes in silence.
  • On November 1 Kutuzov had received, through a spy, news that the army he commanded was in an almost hopeless position.
  • The spy reported that the French, after crossing the bridge at Vienna, were advancing in immense force upon Kutuzov's line of communication with the troops that were arriving from Russia.
  • If Kutuzov decided to remain at Krems, Napoleon's army of one hundred and fifty thousand men would cut him off completely and surround his exhausted army of forty thousand, and he would find himself in the position of Mack at Ulm.
  • If Kutuzov decided to retreat along the road from Krems to Olmutz, to unite with the troops arriving from Russia, he risked being forestalled on that road by the French who had crossed the Vienna bridge, and encumbered by his baggage and transport, having to accept battle on the march against an enemy three times as strong, who would hem him in from two sides.
  • Bagration was to make this march without resting, and to halt facing Vienna with Znaim to his rear, and if he succeeded in forestalling the French he was to delay them as long as possible.
  • The success of the trick that had placed the Vienna bridge in the hands of the French without a fight led Murat to try to deceive Kutuzov in a similar way.
  • To be able to crush it absolutely he awaited the arrival of the rest of the troops who were on their way from Vienna, and with this object offered a three days' truce on condition that both armies should remain in position without moving.
  • On receiving the news he immediately dispatched Adjutant General Wintzingerode, who was in attendance on him, to the enemy camp.
  • Kutuzov's expectations that the proposals of capitulation (which were in no way binding) might give time for part of the transport to pass, and also that Murat's mistake would very soon be discovered, proved correct.
  • At eight o'clock in the morning
  • You are in a position to seize its baggage and artillery.
  • Bonaparte himself, not trusting to his generals, moved with all the Guards to the field of battle, afraid of letting a ready victim escape, and Bagration's four thousand men merrily lighted campfires, dried and warmed themselves, cooked their porridge for the first time for three days, and not one of them knew or imagined what was in store for him.
  • Between three and four o'clock in the afternoon Prince Andrew, who had persisted in his request to Kutuzov, arrived at Grunth and reported himself to Bagration.
  • In Bagration's detachment no one knew anything of the general position of affairs.
  • They talked of peace but did not believe in its possibility; others talked of a battle but also disbelieved in the nearness of an engagement.
  • "If he is one of the ordinary little staff dandies sent to earn a medal he can get his reward just as well in the rearguard, but if he wishes to stay with me, let him... he'll be of use here if he's a brave officer," thought Bagration.
  • The officers don't keep them in hand.
  • And there," he pointed to a sutler's tent, "they crowd in and sit.
  • "Yes, let's go in and I will get myself a roll and some cheese," said Prince Andrew who had not yet had time to eat anything.
  • "Now what does this mean, gentlemen?" said the staff officer, in the reproachful tone of a man who has repeated the same thing more than once.
  • Now you, Captain, and he turned to a thin, dirty little artillery officer who without his boots (he had given them to the canteen keeper to dry), in only his stockings, rose when they entered, smiling not altogether comfortably.
  • The alarm will be sounded and you'll be in a pretty position without your boots!
  • "Kindly return to your posts, gentlemen, all of you, all!" he added in a tone of command.
  • "The soldiers say it feels easier without boots," said Captain Tushin smiling shyly in his uncomfortable position, evidently wishing to adopt a jocular tone.
  • Several battalions of soldiers, in their shirt sleeves despite the cold wind, swarmed in these earthworks like a host of white ants; spadefuls of red clay were continually being thrown up from behind the bank by unseen hands.
  • * "This is a pleasure one gets in camp, Prince."
  • It's in charge of the queer fellow we saw without his boots.
  • The soldiers in their greatcoats were ranged in lines, the sergeants major and company officers were counting the men, poking the last man in each section in the ribs and telling him to hold his hand up.
  • The soldiers lifted the canteen lids to their lips with reverential faces, emptied them, rolling the vodka in their mouths, and walked away from the sergeant major with brightened expressions, licking their lips and wiping them on the sleeves of their greatcoats.
  • All their faces were as serene as if all this were happening at home awaiting peaceful encampment, and not within sight of the enemy before an action in which at least half of them would be left on the field.
  • After passing a chasseur regiment and in the lines of the Kiev grenadiers--fine fellows busy with similar peaceful affairs--near the shelter of the regimental commander, higher than and different from the others, Prince Andrew came out in front of a platoon of grenadiers before whom lay a naked man.
  • It's a shame for a soldier to steal; a soldier must be honest, honorable, and brave, but if he robs his fellows there is no honor in him, he's a scoundrel.
  • Our front line and that of the enemy were far apart on the right and left flanks, but in the center where the men with a flag of truce had passed that morning, the lines were so near together that the men could see one another's faces and speak to one another.
  • And Dolokhov swore at him in coarse soldier's Russian and shouldering his musket walked away.
  • But the guns remained loaded, the loopholes in blockhouses and entrenchments looked out just as menacingly, and the unlimbered cannon confronted one another as before.
  • Just facing it, on the crest of the opposite hill, the village of Schon Grabern could be seen, and in three places to left and right the French troops amid the smoke of their campfires, the greater part of whom were evidently in the village itself and behind the hill.
  • On the left our troops were close to a copse, in which smoked the bonfires of our infantry who were felling wood.
  • His idea was, first, to concentrate all the artillery in the center, and secondly, to withdraw the cavalry to the other side of the dip.
  • Prince Andrew, being always near the commander in chief, closely following the mass movements and general orders, and constantly studying historical accounts of battles, involuntarily pictured to himself the course of events in the forthcoming action in broad outline.
  • In that case the dragoons could successfully make a flank counterattack.
  • "Why," thought Prince Andrew, "that's the captain who stood up in the sutler's hut without his boots."
  • Before he had reached the embankments that were being thrown up, he saw, in the light of the dull autumn evening, mounted men coming toward him.
  • Prince Andrew stopped, waiting for him to come up; Prince Bagration reined in his horse and recognizing Prince Andrew nodded to him.
  • However, he put his horse to a trot in the direction of Tushin's battery.
  • "He wants to see a battle," said Zherkov to Bolkonski, pointing to the accountant, "but he feels a pain in the pit of his stomach already."
  • He reined in his horse with the care of a skillful rider and, slightly bending over, disengaged his saber which had caught in his cloak.
  • It was an old-fashioned saber of a kind no longer in general use.
  • Prince Andrew remembered the story of Suvorov giving his saber to Bagration in Italy, and the recollection was particularly pleasant at that moment.
  • "Captain Tushin's, your excellency!" shouted the red-haired, freckled gunner in a merry voice, standing to attention.
  • As he approached, a ringing shot issued from it deafening him and his suite, and in the smoke that suddenly surrounded the gun they could see the gunners who had seized it straining to roll it quickly back to its former position.
  • A huge, broad-shouldered gunner, Number One, holding a mop, his legs far apart, sprang to the wheel; while Number Two with a trembling hand placed a charge in the cannon's mouth.
  • "Lift it two lines more and it will be just right," cried he in a feeble voice to which he tried to impart a dashing note, ill-suited to his weak figure.
  • "Very good!" said Bagration in reply to the officer's report, and began deliberately to examine the whole battlefield extended before him.
  • Prince Bagration turned to the officer and with his dull eyes looked at him in silence.
  • Prince Bagration bowed his head in sign of assent and approval.
  • Prince Andrew listened attentively to Bagration's colloquies with the commanding officers and the orders he gave them and, to his surprise, found that no orders were really given, but that Prince Bagration tried to make it appear that everything done by necessity, by accident, or by the will of subordinate commanders was done, if not by his direct command, at least in accord with his intentions.
  • Officers who approached him with disturbed countenances became calm; soldiers and officers greeted him gaily, grew more cheerful in his presence, and were evidently anxious to display their courage before him.
  • A bullet had evidently hit him in the throat or mouth.
  • In front of them rows of gray cloaks were already visible through the smoke, and an officer catching sight of Bagration rushed shouting after the crowd of retreating soldiers, ordering them back.
  • The staff officer joined in the colonel's appeals, but Bagration did not reply; he only gave an order to cease firing and re-form, so as to give room for the two approaching battalions.
  • "They march splendidly," remarked someone in Bagration's suite.
  • It was as if all the powers of his soul were concentrated on passing the commander in the best possible manner, and feeling that he was doing it well he was happy.
  • Prince Bagration gave no further orders and silently continued to walk on in front of the ranks.
  • In the center Tushin's forgotten battery, which had managed to set fire to the Schon Grabern village, delayed the French advance.
  • The retirement of the center to the other side of the dip in the ground at the rear was hurried and noisy, but the different companies did not get mixed.
  • The command of the left flank belonged by seniority to the commander of the regiment Kutuzov had reviewed at Braunau and in which Dolokhov was serving as a private.
  • The two commanders were much exasperated with one another and, long after the action had begun on the right flank and the French were already advancing, were engaged in discussion with the sole object of offending one another.
  • From privates to general they were not expecting a battle and were engaged in peaceful occupations, the cavalry feeding the horses and the infantry collecting wood.
  • "He higher iss dan I in rank," said the German colonel of the hussars, flushing and addressing an adjutant who had ridden up, "so let him do what he vill, but I cannot sacrifice my hussars...
  • Cannon and musketry, mingling together, thundered on the right and in the center, while the capotes of Lannes' sharpshooters were already seen crossing the milldam and forming up within twice the range of a musket shot.
  • The general in command of the infantry went toward his horse with jerky steps, and having mounted drew himself up very straight and tall and rode to the Pavlograd commander.
  • The commanders met with polite bows but with secret malevolence in their hearts.
  • "Once again, Colonel," said the general, "I can't leave half my men in the wood.
  • If you vere in the cavalry...
  • "Quite avare, your excellency," suddenly shouted the colonel, touching his horse and turning purple in the face.
  • They reached the front, several bullets sped over them, and they halted in silence.
  • The general and colonel looked sternly and significantly at one another like two fighting cocks preparing for battle, each vainly trying to detect signs of cowardice in the other.
  • The French had attacked the men collecting wood in the copse.
  • However inconvenient the position, it was now necessary to attack in order to cut a way through for themselves.
  • The squadron in which Rostov was serving had scarcely time to mount before it was halted facing the enemy.
  • The horses' croups began to sway in the front line.
  • He was alone in the middle of a field.
  • Rostov also tried to rise but fell back, his sabretache having become entangled in the saddle.
  • In front came a man wearing a strange shako and a blue cloak, swarthy, sunburned, and with a hooked nose.
  • One of them said something strange, not in Russian.
  • In among the hindmost of these men wearing similar shakos was a Russian hussar.
  • One soldier, in his fear, uttered the senseless cry, "Cut off!" that is so terrible in battle, and that word infected the whole crowd with a feeling of panic.
  • The moral hesitation which decided the fate of battles was evidently culminating in a panic.
  • The general had a fit of coughing as a result of shouting and of the powder smoke and stopped in despair.
  • But at that moment the French who were attacking, suddenly and without any apparent reason, ran back and disappeared from the outskirts, and Russian sharpshooters showed themselves in the copse.
  • It was Timokhin's company, which alone had maintained its order in the wood and, having lain in ambush in a ditch, now attacked the French unexpectedly.
  • Our fugitives returned, the battalions re-formed, and the French who had nearly cut our left flank in half were for the moment repulsed.
  • He had an officer's sword in his hand.
  • Though the commander was occupied in giving instructions to Major Ekonomov, he could not help taking notice of the soldier.
  • Dolokhov breathed heavily from weariness and spoke in abrupt sentences.
  • On the contrary, the energetic action of that battery led the French to suppose that here--in the center--the main Russian forces were concentrated.
  • Soon after Prince Bagration had left him, Tushin had succeeded in setting fire to Schon Grabern.
  • All the guns, without waiting for orders, were being fired in the direction of the conflagration.
  • The French columns that had advanced beyond the village went back; but as though in revenge for this failure, the enemy placed ten guns to the right of the village and began firing them at Tushin's battery.
  • Amid the smoke, deafened by the incessant reports which always made him jump, Tushin not taking his pipe from his mouth ran from gun to gun, now aiming, now counting the charges, now giving orders about replacing dead or wounded horses and harnessing fresh ones, and shouting in his feeble voice, so high pitched and irresolute.
  • The soldiers, for the most part handsome fellows and, as is always the case in an artillery company, a head and shoulders taller and twice as broad as their officer--all looked at their commander like children in an embarrassing situation, and the expression on his face was invariably reflected on theirs.
  • Though he thought of everything, considered everything, and did everything the best of officers could do in his position, he was in a state akin to feverish delirium or drunkenness.
  • The enemy's guns were in his fancy not guns but pipes from which occasional puffs were blown by an invisible smoker.
  • In that world, the handsome drunkard Number One of the second gun's crew was "uncle"; Tushin looked at him more often than at anyone else and took delight in his every movement.
  • In that world, the handsome drunkard Number One of the second gun's crew was "uncle"; Tushin looked at him more often than at anyone else and took delight in his every movement.
  • Tushin turned round in dismay.
  • He was shouting in a gasping voice:
  • "Why are they down on me?" thought Tushin, looking in alarm at his superior.
  • He decided to have the guns removed from their positions and withdrawn in his presence.
  • He asked in a hesitating, piteous voice.
  • Flashes of shot gleamed in the darkness.
  • This was the last French attack and was met by soldiers who had sheltered in the village houses.
  • And again and again in the complete darkness Tushin's guns moved forward, surrounded by the humming infantry as by a frame.
  • In the darkness, it seemed as though a gloomy unseen river was flowing always in one direction, humming with whispers and talk and the sound of hoofs and wheels.
  • In the darkness, it seemed as though a gloomy unseen river was flowing always in one direction, humming with whispers and talk and the sound of hoofs and wheels.
  • Amid the general rumble, the groans and voices of the wounded were more distinctly heard than any other sound in the darkness of the night.
  • After a while the moving mass became agitated, someone rode past on a white horse followed by his suite, and said something in passing: What did he say?
  • The whole moving mass began pressing closer together and a report spread that they were ordered to halt: evidently those in front had halted.
  • All remained where they were in the middle of the muddy road.
  • Drowsiness was irresistibly mastering him, but he kept awake by an excruciating pain in his arm, for which he could find no satisfactory position.
  • The sound of voices, the tramping feet, the horses' hoofs moving in mud, the crackling of wood fires near and afar, merged into one tremulous rumble.
  • Then a thin, pale soldier, his neck bandaged with a bloodstained leg band, came up and in angry tones asked the artillerymen for water.
  • Tushin asked Rostov in a whisper.
  • He is in the hut here, said a gunner, coming up to Tushin.
  • Our officers were flocking in to look at him.
  • When I saw, your excellency, that their first battalion was disorganized, I stopped in the road and thought: 'I'll let them come on and will meet them with the fire of the whole battalion'--and that's what I did.
  • How was it that two guns were abandoned in the center? he inquired, searching with his eyes for someone.
  • As he stepped past the generals in the crowded hut, feeling embarrassed as he always was by the sight of his superiors, he did not notice the staff of the banner and stumbled over it.
  • The pain in his arm became more and more intense.
  • For a moment he dozed, but in that short interval innumerable things appeared to him in a dream: his mother and her large white hand, Sonya's thin little shoulders, Natasha's eyes and laughter, Denisov with his voice and mustache, and Telyanin and all that affair with Telyanin and Bogdanich.
  • That affair was the same thing as this soldier with the harsh voice, and it was that affair and this soldier that were so agonizingly, incessantly pulling and pressing his arm and always dragging it in one direction.
  • Flakes of falling snow were fluttering in that light.
  • Schemes and devices for which he never rightly accounted to himself, but which formed the whole interest of his life, were constantly shaping themselves in his mind, arising from the circumstances and persons he met.
  • Of these plans he had not merely one or two in his head but dozens, some only beginning to form themselves, some approaching achievement, and some in course of disintegration.
  • He had Pierre at hand in Moscow and procured for him an appointment as Gentleman of the Bedchamber, which at that time conferred the status of Councilor of State, and insisted on the young man accompanying him to Petersburg and staying at his house.
  • Something always drew him toward those richer and more powerful than himself and he had rare skill in seizing the most opportune moment for making use of people.
  • Pierre, on unexpectedly becoming Count Bezukhov and a rich man, felt himself after his recent loneliness and freedom from cares so beset and preoccupied that only in bed was he able to be by himself.
  • These different people-- businessmen, relations, and acquaintances alike--were all disposed to treat the young heir in the most friendly and flattering manner: they were all evidently firmly convinced of Pierre's noble qualities.
  • He was always hearing such words as: "With your remarkable kindness," or, "With your excellent heart," "You are yourself so honorable Count," or, "Were he as clever as you," and so on, till he began sincerely to believe in his own exceptional kindness and extraordinary intelligence, the more so as in the depth of his heart it had always seemed to him that he really was very kind and intelligent.
  • Prince Vasili had come to the conclusion that it was necessary to throw this bone--a bill for thirty thousand rubles--to the poor princess that it might not occur to her to speak of his share in the affair of the inlaid portfolio.
  • It seemed so natural to Pierre that everyone should like him, and it would have seemed so unnatural had anyone disliked him, that he could not but believe in the sincerity of those around him.
  • He was always busy and always felt in a state of mild and cheerful intoxication.
  • We start tomorrow and I'm giving you a place in my carriage.
  • And my valet can go in your carriage.
  • In Petersburg, as in Moscow, Pierre found the same atmosphere of gentleness and affection.
  • In Petersburg, as in Moscow, Pierre found the same atmosphere of gentleness and affection.
  • Of his former bachelor acquaintances many were no longer in Petersburg.
  • His whole time was taken up with dinners and balls and was spent chiefly at Prince Vasili's house in the company of the stout princess, his wife, and his beautiful daughter Helene.
  • Like the others, Anna Pavlovna Scherer showed Pierre the change of attitude toward him that had taken place in society.
  • Formerly in Anna Pavlovna's presence, Pierre had always felt that what he was saying was out of place, tactless and unsuitable, that remarks which seemed to him clever while they formed in his mind became foolish as soon as he uttered them, while on the contrary Hippolyte's stupidest remarks came out clever and apt.
  • In the beginning of the winter of 1805-6 Pierre received one of Anna Pavlovna's usual pink notes with an invitation to which was added: "You will find the beautiful Helene here, whom it is always delightful to see."
  • Anna Pavlovna arranged the different groups in her drawing room with her habitual skill.
  • Wait a bit, I have something in view for you this evening.
  • With her the least worldly of men would occupy a most brilliant position in society.
  • Pierre, in reply, sincerely agreed with her as to Helene's perfection of manner.
  • If he ever thought of Helene, it was just of her beauty and her remarkable skill in appearing silently dignified in society.
  • The old aunt received the two young people in her corner, but seemed desirous of hiding her adoration for Helene and inclined rather to show her fear of Anna Pavlovna.
  • The aunt coughed, swallowed, and said in French that she was very pleased to see Helene, then she turned to Pierre with the same words of welcome and the same look.
  • In the middle of a dull and halting conversation, Helene turned to Pierre with the beautiful bright smile that she gave to everyone.
  • "Well, I will leave you in your little corner," came Anna Pavlovna's voice, "I see you are all right there."
  • "If you marry it will be a different thing," she continued, uniting them both in one glance.
  • There is something nasty, something wrong, in the feeling she excites in me.
  • Why did this thought never occur to me before? and again he told himself that it was impossible, that there would be something unnatural, and as it seemed to him dishonorable, in this marriage.
  • But at the very time he was expressing this conviction to himself, in another part of his mind her image rose in all its womanly beauty.
  • In November, 1805, Prince Vasili had to go on a tour of inspection in four different provinces.
  • In November, 1805, Prince Vasili had to go on a tour of inspection in four different provinces.
  • He had arranged this for himself so as to visit his neglected estates at the same time and pick up his son Anatole where his regiment was stationed, and take him to visit Prince Nicholas Bolkonski in order to arrange a match for him with the daughter of that rich old man.
  • "This is all very fine, but things must be settled," said Prince Vasili to himself, with a sorrowful sigh, one morning, feeling that Pierre who was under such obligations to him ("But never mind that") was not behaving very well in this matter.
  • And though Prince Vasili, when he stayed in (as he said) for Pierre's sake, hardly exchanged a couple of words with him, Pierre felt unable to disappoint him.
  • He had often begun to make reflections or think aloud in her company, and she had always answered him either by a brief but appropriate remark--showing that it did not interest her--or by a silent look and smile which more palpably than anything else showed Pierre her superiority.
  • She always addressed him with a radiantly confiding smile meant for him alone, in which there was something more significant than in the general smile that usually brightened her face.
  • He wished to take a decision, but felt with dismay that in this matter he lacked that strength of will which he had known in himself and really possessed.
  • Prince Vasili was not having any supper: he went round the table in a merry mood, sitting down now by one, now by another, of the guests.
  • The wax candles burned brightly, the silver and crystal gleamed, so did the ladies' toilets and the gold and silver of the men's epaulets; servants in scarlet liveries moved round the table, the clatter of plates, knives, and glasses mingled with the animated hum of several conversations.
  • At the head of the table, where the honored guests sat, everyone seemed to be in high spirits and under the influence of a variety of exciting sensations.
  • Anna Pavlovna threatened him on behalf of "our dear Vyazmitinov," and in her eyes, which, for an instant, glanced at Pierre, Prince Vasili read a congratulation on his future son-in-law and on his daughter's happiness.
  • He was like a man entirely absorbed in some occupation.
  • Was it from Olmutz? repeated Prince Vasili, who pretended to want to know this in order to settle a dispute.
  • He pictured the vanity of his diplomatic career in comparison with Pierre's happiness.
  • While the guests were taking their leave Pierre remained for a long time alone with Helene in the little drawing room where they were sitting.
  • This happiness is for those who have not in them what there is in you.
  • They were sitting in the large drawing room.
  • When Prince Vasili returned to the drawing room, the princess, his wife, was talking in low tones to the elderly lady about Pierre.
  • "Marriages are made in heaven," replied the elderly lady.
  • Prince Vasili passed by, seeming not to hear the ladies, and sat down on a sofa in a far corner of the room.
  • His face was so unusually triumphant that Pierre rose in alarm on seeing it.
  • The old princess came in and also wept.
  • Pierre held the hand of his betrothed in silence, looking at her beautiful bosom as it rose and fell.
  • "Something special is always said in such cases," he thought, but could not remember what it was that people say.
  • Old Prince Nicholas Bolkonski received a letter from Prince Vasili in November, 1805, announcing that he and his son would be paying him a visit.
  • A fortnight after the letter Prince Vasili's servants came one evening in advance of him, and he and his son arrived next day.
  • And now, from the hints contained in his letter and given by the little princess, he saw which way the wind was blowing, and his low opinion changed into a feeling of contemptuous ill will.
  • Whether he was in a bad temper because Prince Vasili was coming, or whether his being in a bad temper made him specially annoyed at Prince Vasili's visit, he was in a bad temper, and in the morning Tikhon had already advised the architect not to go to the prince with his report.
  • However, at nine o'clock the prince, in his velvet coat with a sable collar and cap, went out for his usual walk.
  • "Can a sleigh pass?" he asked his overseer, a venerable man, resembling his master in manners and looks, who was accompanying him back to the house.
  • Who gave orders? he said in his shrill, harsh voice.
  • She thought: "If I seem not to notice he will think that I do not sympathize with him; if I seem sad and out of spirits myself, he will say (as he has done before) that I'm in the dumps."
  • It is natural in her state.
  • The little princess was not unwell, but had such an overpowering fear of the prince that, hearing he was in a bad humor, she had decided not to appear.
  • When the little princess had grown accustomed to life at Bald Hills, she took a special fancy to Mademoiselle Bourienne, spent whole days with her, asked her to sleep in her room, and often talked with her about the old prince and criticized him.
  • I got him his appointment in the service, said the prince disdainfully.
  • After dinner, he went to see his daughter-in-law.
  • She grew pale on seeing her father-in-law.
  • "Yes, I feel a kind of oppression," she said in reply to the prince's question as to how she felt.
  • He was met in the avenue by coachmen and footmen, who, with loud shouts, dragged his sleighs up to one of the lodges over the road purposely laden with snow.
  • Princess Mary was sitting alone in her room, vainly trying to master her agitation.
  • It can never happen! she said, looking at herself in the glass.
  • "You know they've come, Marie?" said the little princess, waddling in, and sinking heavily into an armchair.
  • She was no longer in the loose gown she generally wore in the morning, but had on one of her best dresses.
  • Dressed as she used to be in Petersburg society, it was still more noticeable how much plainer she had become.
  • They'll be announcing that the gentlemen are in the drawing room and we shall have to go down, and you have not smartened yourself up at all!
  • It was not the dress, but the face and whole figure of Princess Mary that was not pretty, but neither Mademoiselle Bourienne nor the little princess felt this; they still thought that if a blue ribbon were placed in the hair, the hair combed up, and the blue scarf arranged lower on the best maroon dress, and so on, all would be well.
  • I prefer you in your little gray everyday dress.
  • The three voices, hers, Mademoiselle Bourienne's, and Katie's, who was laughing at something, mingled in a merry sound, like the chirping of birds.
  • Not in the least!
  • Mademoiselle Bourienne and the little princess had to own to themselves that Princess Mary in this guise looked very plain, worse than usual, but it was too late.
  • This expression in Princess Mary did not frighten them (she never inspired fear in anyone), but they knew that when it appeared on her face, she became mute and was not to be shaken in her determination.
  • She did not comply with Lise's request, she not only left her hair as it was, but did not even look in her glass.
  • She fancied a child, her own--such as she had seen the day before in the arms of her nurse's daughter--at her own breast, the husband standing by and gazing tenderly at her and the child.
  • The prince will be out in a moment, came the maid's voice at the door.
  • In her thoughts of marriage Princess Mary dreamed of happiness and of children, but her strongest, most deeply hidden longing was for earthly love.
  • And scarcely had she put that question than God gave her the answer in her own heart.
  • If it be God's will to prove thee in the duties of marriage, be ready to fulfill His will.
  • What could all that matter in comparison with the will of God, without Whose care not a hair of man's head can fall?
  • When Princess Mary came down, Prince Vasili and his son were already in the drawing room, talking to the little princess and Mademoiselle Bourienne.
  • Princess Mary saw them all and saw them in detail.
  • Anatole stood with his right thumb under a button of his uniform, his chest expanded and his back drawn in, slightly swinging one foot, and, with his head a little bent, looked with beaming face at the princess without speaking and evidently not thinking about her at all.
  • Anatole was not quick-witted, nor ready or eloquent in conversation, but he had the faculty, so invaluable in society, of composure and imperturbable self-possession.
  • It was evident that he could be silent in this way for a very long time.
  • Perhaps he did not really think this when he met women--even probably he did not, for in general he thought very little--but his looks and manner gave that impression.
  • Mademoiselle Bourienne also shared them and even Princess Mary felt herself pleasantly made to share in these merry reminiscences.
  • Oh!" and she shook her finger at him, "I have even heard of your doings in Paris!"
  • When Paris was mentioned, Mademoiselle Bourienne for her part seized the opportunity of joining in the general current of recollections.
  • The old prince dressed leisurely in his study, frowning and considering what he was to do.
  • What angered him was that the coming of these visitors revived in his mind an unsettled question he always tried to stifle, one about which he always deceived himself.
  • His birth and position in society were not bad.
  • He noticed the change in the little princess' dress, Mademoiselle Bourienne's ribbon, Princess Mary's unbecoming coiffure, Mademoiselle Bourienne's and Anatole's smiles, and the loneliness of his daughter amid the general conversation.
  • Prince Bolkonski sat down in his usual place in the corner of the sofa and, drawing up an armchair for Prince Vasili, pointed to it and began questioning him about political affairs and news.
  • You have done up your hair in this new way for the visitors, and before the visitors I tell you that in future you are never to dare to change your way of dress without my consent.
  • "You must do as you please," said Prince Bolkonski, bowing to his daughter-in-law, "but she need not make a fool of herself, she's plain enough as it is."
  • Now tell me, my dear boy, are you serving in the Horse Guards? asked the old man, scrutinizing Anatole closely and intently.
  • Only let me tell you, I want to know my son-in-law better.
  • I will ask her tomorrow in your presence; if she is willing, then he can stay on.
  • "Let her marry, it's all the same to me!" he screamed in the same piercing tone as when parting from his son.
  • Thousands of dreams of a future family life continually rose in her imagination.
  • I try to be reserved because in the depth of my soul I feel too near to him already, but then he cannot know what I think of him and may imagine that I do not like him.
  • Mademoiselle Bourienne, also roused to great excitement by Anatole's arrival, thought in another way.
  • Mademoiselle Bourienne knew a story, heard from her aunt but finished in her own way, which she liked to repeat to herself.
  • Mademoiselle Bourienne was often touched to tears as in imagination she told this story to him, her seducer.
  • So her future shaped itself in Mademoiselle Bourienne's head at the very time she was talking to Anatole about Paris.
  • Anatole, laughing and in high spirits, came and leaned on his elbows, facing her and beside Mademoiselle Bourienne.
  • In the evening, after supper, when all were about to retire, Anatole kissed Princess Mary's hand.
  • She feared to look round, it seemed to her that someone was there standing behind the screen in the dark corner.
  • She rang for her maid and asked her to sleep in her room.
  • She sat in an armchair in her dressing jacket and nightcap and Katie, sleepy and disheveled, beat and turned the heavy feather bed for the third time, muttering to herself.
  • When Princess Mary went to her father's room at the usual hour, Mademoiselle Bourienne and Anatole met in the conservatory.
  • She read this in Tikhon's face and in that of Prince Vasili's valet, who made her a low bow when she met him in the corridor carrying hot water.
  • The old prince was very affectionate and careful in his treatment of his daughter that morning.
  • Prince Vasili finds you to his taste as a daughter-in-law and makes a proposal to you on his pupil's behalf.
  • Go to your room, think it over, and come back in an hour and tell me in his presence: yes or no.
  • Yes or no, yes or no, yes or no! he still shouted when the princess, as if lost in a fog, had already staggered out of the study.
  • Princess Mary looked at them in silence.
  • When Tikhon came to her Princess Mary was sitting on the sofa in her room, holding the weeping Mademoiselle Bourienne in her arms and gently stroking her hair.
  • He drew back and a real tear appeared in his eye.
  • Prince, what I have said is all there is in my heart.
  • Not till midwinter was the count at last handed a letter addressed in his son's handwriting.