All impurities do not act in a similar way.
Ferric hydrate, iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated.
All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
As quarried or mined free sulphur is always contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle underlying its extraction from these impurities is one of simple liquation, i.e.
In this way curd, mottled or marbled soap is formed, and such mottled appearance was formerly highly valued as an indication of freedom from excess of water or other adulteration, because in fitted soaps the impurities are either washed out or fall to the bottom of the mass in cooling.
The rubber is usually dark in colour and is often contaminated with proteid impurities derived from the latex.
In the industrial working of indiarubber, the various impurities present in the crude " wild rubber (bark, dirt and the principal impurities derived from the latex, except resin) are removed by the following process: The lumps of crude caoutchouc are first softened by the prolonged action of hot water, and then cut into slices by means of a sharp knife - generally by hand, as thus any large stones or other foreign substances can be removed.
The probabilities are that in the end the production of a rubber as nearly as possible free from water and impurities and of constant composition will be realized as best meeting the requirements of the modern manufacturer.
Solid impurities speedily become crushed, and are carried away by the water, while the rubber takes the form of an irregular sheet perforated by numerous holes.
The lead is melted down slowly, when the impurities separate in the form of a scum (dross), which is easily removed.
Of these the Pattinson process has become subordinate to the Parkes process, as it is more expensive and leaves more silver and impurities in the market lead.
The older methods used for the preparation of the amorphous form, namely the decomposition of silicon halides or silicofluorides by the alkali metals, or of silica by magnesium, do not give good results, since' the silicon obtained is always contaminated with various impurities, but a pure variety may be prepared according to E.
The second operation is the coagulation of the albumen, and the separation of it with other impurities from the Maceration or Imbibition.
Deep (a suitable size for treating a juice supply of 4000 to 4500 gallons per hour), the upward current will have a velocity of about i inch per minute, and it is found that all the impurities have thus ample time to separate themselves.
Every twenty-four hours or so the flow of juice may be conveniently stopped, and, after all the impurities have subsided, the superincumbent clear liquor may be decanted by a cock placed at the side of the cone for the purpose, and the vessel may be washed out.
These separators are carefully protected by non-conducting cement and wood lagging, and are closed at the top to prevent loss of heat; and they will run for many hours without requiring to be changed, the duration of the run depending on the quality of the liquor treated and amount of impurities therein.
In diffusion plants the milk of lime is added, in proper proportion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or slices themselves act as a mechanical filter for the juice; while in the Sandwich Islands coral-sand filters have been employed for some years, in addition to the chips, to free the juice from impurities held in mechanical suspension.
Its chief uses are in glass-making to promote fluidity, in metallurgy to oxidize impurities, as a constituent of gunpowder and in pyrotechny; it is also used in the manufacture of nitric acid.
In practice, however, we never have to deal with pure zinc minerals, but with complex mixtures, which must first of all be subjected to mechanical operations, to remove at least part of the gangue, and if possible also of the heavy metallic impurities.
The specific effects of different impurities on the physical properties of zinc have only been imperfectly studied.
A bath, even of very impure zinc, is allowed to stand at about the temperature of the melting-point of the metal for forty-eight or more hours, whereupon the more easily oxidizable impurities can be largely removed in the dross at the top, the heavier metals such as lead and iron settling towards the bottom.
It is then separated in a centrifugal machine, the low melting-point impurities are removed by means of hot water, and the residue is finally hot-pressed.
The crystals are collected, washed, pressed and recrystallized, whereby the impurities are easily removed.
On passing a current of electricity, of which the volume and pressure are adjusted to the conditions of the electrolyte and electrodes, the anode slowly dissolves, leaving the insoluble impurities in the form of a sponge, if the proportion be considerable, but otherwise as a mud or slime which becomes detached from the anode surface and must be prevented from coming into contact with the cathode.
Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
Thus prepared it has a fineness of 800-960, the chief impurities usually being iron and lead.
The slime so obtained consists of finely divided gold and silver (5-5 0%), zinc (30-60%), lead (io%), carbon (io%), together with tin, copper, antimony, arsenic and other impurities of the zinc and ores.
It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g.
Other undesirable impurities are the platinum metals, special treatment being necessary when these substances are present.
The purity of the carbide entirely depends on the purity of the material used in its manufacture, and before this fact had been fully grasped by manufacturers, and only the purest material obtainable employed, it contained notable quantities of compounds which during its decomposition by water yielded a somewhat high pro portion of impurities in the acetylene generated from it.
Phosphuretted hydrogen, one of the most important impurities, which has been blamed for the haze formed by the combustion of acetylene under certain conditions, is produced by the action of water upon traces of calcium phosphide found in carbide.
In some cases the operation of filtration is performed for the sake of removing impurities from the filtrate or liquid filtered, as in the purification of water for drinking purposes; in others the aim is to recover and collect the solid matter, as when the chemist filters off a precipitate from the liquid in which it is suspended.
The first portion of the distillate brings over the gases dissolved in the water, ammonia and other volatile impurities, and is consequently rejected; scarcely two-fifths of the entire quantity of water can be safely used as pure distilled water.
The light oil fraction of the coal-tar distillate, which comes over below 140° and consists principally of benzene, toluene and the xylenes, yields on fractionation (i) various volatile impurities such as carbon disulphide, (2) the benzene fraction boiling at about 80° C., (3) the toluene fraction boiling at too°, (4) the xylene fraction boiling at 140°.
Owing to impurities contained in the materials from which glasses are made, accidental coloration or discoloration is often produced.
The raw materials are selected with great care to assure chemical purity, but whereas in most glasses the only impurities to be dreaded are those that are either infusible or produce a colouring effect upon the glass, for optical purposes the admixture of other glass-forming bodies than those which are intended to be present must be avoided on account of their effect in modifying the optical constants of the glass.
On its thoroughness depends the removal of small quantities of products other than the nitrates, for instance, some sulphates and products from impurities contained in the original cellulose.
Of the impurities of the ore the wolframite (tungstate of iron and manganese) is the most troublesome, because on account of its high specific gravity it cannot be washed away as gangue.
The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.
The critical temperature for the specimen of nickel examined (which contained nearly 5 of impurities) was 310° C. F.
The presence of ordinary impurities usually tends to diminish the permeability, though, as will appear later, the addition of small quantities of certain other substances is sometimes advantageous.
Of the impurities, most of the copper, nickel and copper, considerable arsenic, some antimony and small amounts of silver are removed by liquation.