All impurities do not act in a similar way.
In the deposition of gold the colour of the deposit is influenced by the presence of impurities in the solution; when copper is present, some is deposited with the gold, imparting to it a reddish colour, whilst a little silver gives it a greenish shade.
This result he considered to be due, not to any removal of impurities, but to an actual splitting-up of the yttrium molecule into its constituents, and he ventured to draw the provisional conclusion that the so-called simple bodies are in reality compound molecules, at the same time suggesting that all the elements have been produced by a process of evolution from one primordial stuff or "protyle."
Ferric hydrate, iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated.
The rubber is usually dark in colour and is often contaminated with proteid impurities derived from the latex.
The slime so obtained consists of finely divided gold and silver (5-5 0%), zinc (30-60%), lead (io%), carbon (io%), together with tin, copper, antimony, arsenic and other impurities of the zinc and ores.
It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g.
Other undesirable impurities are the platinum metals, special treatment being necessary when these substances are present.
The purity of the carbide entirely depends on the purity of the material used in its manufacture, and before this fact had been fully grasped by manufacturers, and only the purest material obtainable employed, it contained notable quantities of compounds which during its decomposition by water yielded a somewhat high pro portion of impurities in the acetylene generated from it.
Phosphuretted hydrogen, one of the most important impurities, which has been blamed for the haze formed by the combustion of acetylene under certain conditions, is produced by the action of water upon traces of calcium phosphide found in carbide.
In some cases the operation of filtration is performed for the sake of removing impurities from the filtrate or liquid filtered, as in the purification of water for drinking purposes; in others the aim is to recover and collect the solid matter, as when the chemist filters off a precipitate from the liquid in which it is suspended.
All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
Impurities render the mineral grey, greenish or reddish, bituminous matter being often present in the massive varieties.
As quarried or mined free sulphur is always contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle underlying its extraction from these impurities is one of simple liquation, i.e.
The only permitted method of kindling it, (b) the tracing on the ground of the vedi, or magical circle, to destroy impurities, (c) the digging of the hole which constituted the real altar, (d) the preparation of the post which represented the sacrificer and to which the victim was tied, and other minor details.
The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
The emulsionizing power, the To a property of penetrating oily fabrics, and lubricating impurities so that they can be readily washed away.
The soap is from this again grained off or salted out, and the underlye so thrown down carries with it coloured impurities which may have been in the materials or which arise from contact with the boiler.
In this way curd, mottled or marbled soap is formed, and such mottled appearance was formerly highly valued as an indication of freedom from excess of water or other adulteration, because in fitted soaps the impurities are either washed out or fall to the bottom of the mass in cooling.
It is therefore necessary that the solution should be free from metals which may vitiate the results, or special precautions taken by which the impurities are rendered harmless.
It is to be noted that although the correlation of melting-point with constitution has not been developed to such an extent as the chemical significance of other physical properties, the melting-point is the most valuable test of the purity of a substance, a circumstance due in considerable measure to the fact that impurities always tend to lower the melting-point.
In 1806 Sir Humphry Davy proved that the formation of acid and alkali when water was electrolysed was due to saline impurities in the water.
This is largely due to the improved methods of preparing the rubber practised by the planters of Ceylon and Malaya, which lead to the exclusion of the impurities usually found in " wild " rubber.
This has been ascribed by some to the presence in " wild " rubber of certain impurities derived either from the latex or introduced during the preparation of the rubber which are thought to enhance the physical properties of the caoutchouc. It is more probable, however,.
As the removal of the impurities of the latex is one of the essential points to be aimed at, it was thought that the use of a centrifugal machine to separate the caoutchouc as a cream from the watery part of the latex would prove to be a satisfactory process.
The probabilities are that in the end the production of a rubber as nearly as possible free from water and impurities and of constant composition will be realized as best meeting the requirements of the modern manufacturer.
In the industrial working of indiarubber, the various impurities present in the crude " wild rubber (bark, dirt and the principal impurities derived from the latex, except resin) are removed by the following process: The lumps of crude caoutchouc are first softened by the prolonged action of hot water, and then cut into slices by means of a sharp knife - generally by hand, as thus any large stones or other foreign substances can be removed.
Solid impurities speedily become crushed, and are carried away by the water, while the rubber takes the form of an irregular sheet perforated by numerous holes.
Of the impurities, most of the copper, nickel and copper, considerable arsenic, some antimony and small amounts of silver are removed by liquation.
The lead is melted down slowly, when the impurities separate in the form of a scum (dross), which is easily removed.
Of these the Pattinson process has become subordinate to the Parkes process, as it is more expensive and leaves more silver and impurities in the market lead.
The critical temperature for the specimen of nickel examined (which contained nearly 5 of impurities) was 310° C. F.
Of the impurities of the ore the wolframite (tungstate of iron and manganese) is the most troublesome, because on account of its high specific gravity it cannot be washed away as gangue.
The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.
On its thoroughness depends the removal of small quantities of products other than the nitrates, for instance, some sulphates and products from impurities contained in the original cellulose.
Owing to impurities contained in the materials from which glasses are made, accidental coloration or discoloration is often produced.
The raw materials are selected with great care to assure chemical purity, but whereas in most glasses the only impurities to be dreaded are those that are either infusible or produce a colouring effect upon the glass, for optical purposes the admixture of other glass-forming bodies than those which are intended to be present must be avoided on account of their effect in modifying the optical constants of the glass.
The older methods used for the preparation of the amorphous form, namely the decomposition of silicon halides or silicofluorides by the alkali metals, or of silica by magnesium, do not give good results, since' the silicon obtained is always contaminated with various impurities, but a pure variety may be prepared according to E.
The light oil fraction of the coal-tar distillate, which comes over below 140° and consists principally of benzene, toluene and the xylenes, yields on fractionation (i) various volatile impurities such as carbon disulphide, (2) the benzene fraction boiling at about 80° C., (3) the toluene fraction boiling at too°, (4) the xylene fraction boiling at 140°.
The second operation is the coagulation of the albumen, and the separation of it with other impurities from the Maceration or Imbibition.
Deep (a suitable size for treating a juice supply of 4000 to 4500 gallons per hour), the upward current will have a velocity of about i inch per minute, and it is found that all the impurities have thus ample time to separate themselves.
Every twenty-four hours or so the flow of juice may be conveniently stopped, and, after all the impurities have subsided, the superincumbent clear liquor may be decanted by a cock placed at the side of the cone for the purpose, and the vessel may be washed out.
These separators are carefully protected by non-conducting cement and wood lagging, and are closed at the top to prevent loss of heat; and they will run for many hours without requiring to be changed, the duration of the run depending on the quality of the liquor treated and amount of impurities therein.
In diffusion plants the milk of lime is added, in proper proportion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or slices themselves act as a mechanical filter for the juice; while in the Sandwich Islands coral-sand filters have been employed for some years, in addition to the chips, to free the juice from impurities held in mechanical suspension.
Its chief uses are in glass-making to promote fluidity, in metallurgy to oxidize impurities, as a constituent of gunpowder and in pyrotechny; it is also used in the manufacture of nitric acid.
In practice, however, we never have to deal with pure zinc minerals, but with complex mixtures, which must first of all be subjected to mechanical operations, to remove at least part of the gangue, and if possible also of the heavy metallic impurities.
A bath, even of very impure zinc, is allowed to stand at about the temperature of the melting-point of the metal for forty-eight or more hours, whereupon the more easily oxidizable impurities can be largely removed in the dross at the top, the heavier metals such as lead and iron settling towards the bottom.
It is then separated in a centrifugal machine, the low melting-point impurities are removed by means of hot water, and the residue is finally hot-pressed.
The crystals are collected, washed, pressed and recrystallized, whereby the impurities are easily removed.
The first portion of the distillate brings over the gases dissolved in the water, ammonia and other volatile impurities, and is consequently rejected; scarcely two-fifths of the entire quantity of water can be safely used as pure distilled water.
On passing a current of electricity, of which the volume and pressure are adjusted to the conditions of the electrolyte and electrodes, the anode slowly dissolves, leaving the insoluble impurities in the form of a sponge, if the proportion be considerable, but otherwise as a mud or slime which becomes detached from the anode surface and must be prevented from coming into contact with the cathode.
Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
Thus prepared it has a fineness of 800-960, the chief impurities usually being iron and lead.
The only one of the impurities which offers any difficulty in removal is the phosphuretted hydrogen.
Crude sulphur, as obtained from kilns, contains about 3% of earthy impurities, and consequently needs refining.
Even if he be an inhabitant of the sacred city he must traverse it once in the year to free himself from the impurities and sins contracted within the holy precincts.
The presence of ordinary impurities usually tends to diminish the permeability, though, as will appear later, the addition of small quantities of certain other substances is sometimes advantageous.
Van Aubel I believes that in pure bismuth the thermo-electric force is increased by the field; impurities may neutralize this effect, and in sufficient quantities reverse it.
The specific effects of different impurities on the physical properties of zinc have only been imperfectly studied.
Soluble impurities which are more electro-negative than the metal under treatment must, if present, be removed by a preliminary process, and the voltage and other conditions must be so selected that none of the more electro-positive metals are co-deposited with the metal to be refined.