It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
The only attack, however, to which Gibbon deigned to make any reply was that of Davies, who had impugned his accuracy or good faith.
The pope prohibited the little book in which they were contained, and Pico had to defend the impugned theses scibili) in an elaborate Apologia.
1 The comte de Riant impugned the authenticity of Alexius' letter to the count of Flanders.
Osiander, maintaining the infusion of Christ's righteousness into the believer, impugned the Lutheran doctrine of imputation; Chemnitz defended it with striking ability.
But his courage, though impugned, was sufficient to make him press for a court-martial, and a court at last assembled in 1760.
Among the pre-Socratic nature-philosophers of Greece, Heraclitus and the Eleatics are the chief representatives of this polemic. The diametrical opposition of the grounds on which the veracity of the senses is impugned by the two philosophies (see Heraclitus, Parmenides, Eleatic School) was in itself suggestive of sceptical reflection.
A reading may be impugned on a number of grounds: that it gives no sense or an inappropriate sense, that it involves a usage or an idiom not current at the assumed time of writing, or foreign to the reputed author, or to the style in which he then was writing, that it involves some metrical or rhythmical anomaly, or that the connexion of thought which it produces is incoherent or disorderly.
It is true that his election was immediately impugned by the cardinals on frivolous grounds; but the responsibility for this rests, partially at least, with the pope himself, whose reckless and inconsiderate zeal for reform was bound to excite a revolution among the worldly cardinals still yearning for the fleshpots of Avignon.
The synod grounded its procedure against the rival popes on a fact, ostensibly patent to all, but actually believed by none - that they were both supporters of the schism, and not merely this, but heretics in the truest and fullest sense of the word, since their attitude had impugned and subverted the article of faith concerning the one Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.
From the charge of nepotism he was entirely exempt; and, to the present day, the purity of his life has never been impugned even by the voice of faction.
Not long afterwards, his attention having been called to the spread of Origenistic opinions in Syria, he issued an edict condemning fourteen propositions drawn from the writings of the great Alexandrian, and caused a synod to be held under the presidency of Mennas (whom he had named patriarch of Constantinople), which renewed the condemnation of the impugned doctrines and anathematized Origen himself.
Calvin impugned the saint's existence altogether, and Edward Reynolds (1599-1676),bishop of Norwich, like Edward Gibbon a century later, made him one with George of Laodicea, called " the Cappadocian," the Arian bishop of Alexandria (see [[George Of Laodicea]]).
He subsequently defended a woman of Arretium, whose freedom was impugned on the ground that Sulla had confiscated the territory of that town.
Some critics have impugned his legal knowledge, but probably without justice.
According to the orthodox account, some details of which have, however, recently been impugned,' the irregular popular meeting was replaced by a great council of from 450 to 480 members elected annually by special appointed electors in equal proportion from each of the six wards.
In his closing years he had some controversy with John Locke, whom he considered to have impugned the doctrine of the Trinity.
Bacon, as attorney-general, delivered a speech, which has not been reported; but the king was informed that the arguments on the other side had not been limited to the special case, but had directly impugned the general prerogative right of granting livings.
They either ignored the Scriptures, endeavoured to prove them in the main by a helpful republication of the Evangelium aeternum, or directly impugned their divine character, their infallibility, and the validity of their evidences as a complete manifestation of the will of God.
Sir James Rose-Innes, a lawyer whose intellectual gifts and patriotism have never been impugned, was not a " party man," and this made him, on more than one occasion, a somewhat difficult political ally.
At first received with enthusiasm, their authenticity soon came to be impugned; and their true significance was largely lost sight of as it began to be realized that they were not what they claimed to be.