The corn-growers and the revenue collectors were ruined by exorbitant imposts or by the iniquitous cancelling of contracts; temples and private houses were robbed of their works of art; and the rights of Roman citizens were disregarded.
By his rigorous imposts he alienated the favour of his subjects, and especially of the clergy, whom he otherwise sought to control firmly.
The state therefore draws its principal revenues from the imposts, the taxes and the monopolies.
According to the Italian tributary system, imposts, properly so called are those upon land, T~aUon buildings and personal estate.
Its place was taken by other imposts of
The Leibzoll (body-tax) was also abolished, in addition to the special law-taxes, the passport duty, the nightduty and all similiar imposts which had stamped the Jews as outcast, for they were now (Dec. 19) to have equal rights with the Christian inhabitants."
The remedy for the evils of the time was not so much the reduction as the equalization of the imposts, which would allow the poor to consume more, raise the production and add to the general wealth.
Instead of replacing the former imposts, however, Desmarets simply added his dixieme to them; the experiment was naturally disastrous, and the idea was abandoned.
The first category included the " imposts " properly so called, the fixed contributions (redevances fixes) to be paid by the " privileged provinces, " and the military exoneration tax.
Afterwards, as the banks became parcelled out among a host of petty princelings, each of whom arrogated the right of laying a tax on passing vessels, the imposts became so prejudicial as seriously to hamper the development of the shipping.
They and all the members of the Guelph league were freed from all imposts in Pisa and its port.
At his instance of the tyrannical system of arbitrary imposts and so Florence."
In the United Kingdom the excise duty is eleven shillings per proof gallon of alcohol, while the customs duty is eleven shillings and 5' g fivepence; the magnitude of these imposts may be more readily understood when one remembers that the proof gallon costs only about sevenpence to manufacture.
Having the good fortune to serve a king who was both economical and just, he was able to diminish the imposts, to introduce order among the soldiery, and above all, by the ordinances of 1499, to improve the organization of justice.
In the registers of these popes, which are now being actively investigated and published, dispensations (licences to violate the laws of the Church); indulgences; imposts levied with increasing regularity on universal Christendom and, in particular, on the clerks; the settlement of questions relating to church debts; the granting of lucrative benefices to Roman functionaries; the divers processes by which the Curia acquired the immediate disposal of monastic, capitulary and episcopal revenues - in short, all financial matters are of the first importance.
They are worked in crude desultory fashion and are sometimes abandoned owing to the exorbitant imposts levied on gold production by Chinese and Tibetan officials.
He says on Free the one hand, " not only as a man, but as a British subject I pray for the flourishing commerce of Germany, Spain, Italy and even France itself," and condemns " the numerous bars, obstructions and imposts which all nations of Europe, and none more than England, have put upon trade."
Not only did the king take the part of the princes in this important struggle, but he harassed the towns by subjecting them to severe imposts, a proceeding which led to several risings.
This led to the enrichment of the archivolts and imposts with that peculiar type of conventional foliage which characterizes Mahommedan work, and which in this case was carried out by Coptic craftsmen.
He took occasion to abolish a variety of vexatious imposts, and the new budget fell less heavily on the Christians than the old.
In Oriental systems of taxation high imposts on salt are seldom lacking and are often carried out in a very oppressive way, one result of this being that the article is apt to reach the consumer in a very impure state largely mixed with earth.
He levied numerous imposts, and his fiscal measures provoked a great sedition at Limoges in 579.
A very considerable trade now passes along this route to India, in spite of almost prohibitive imposts; but the trade does not follow the railway from New Chaman to the eastern foot of the Khojak.
As tax contributions have taken the places of the revenue from land and fees, so, it would seem, are the taxes on commodities likely to be replaced or at least exceeded by the imposts levied on income as such, in the shape either of income taxes proper or of charges on accumulated wealth.
Another limiting condition is found in the practical impossibility of levying by local agencies such imposts as the customs and the income-tax in their modern forms. The elaborate machinery that is requisite for covering the national area and securing the revenue against loss can only be provided by an authority that can deal with the whole territory.
Towards the end of the 18th century it seems to have revived under the comparatively beneficent rule of Dhahar el-Amir, the local sheikh: his successor, Jezzar Pasha, governor of Damascus, improved and fortified it, but by heavy imposts secured for himself all the benefits derived from his improvements.
The chief defect of the league lay in its lack of proper provision for securing efficient armies and regular payment of imposts, and for dealing with disaffected members.
Within this circle and concentric with it is another, formed of smaller "blue stones," originally forty in number, but only a few of which now remain in situ; within that was a horseshoe of five huge trilithons formed by ten monoliths with their imposts (all sarsens); and within the horseshoe was an inner horseshoe of "blue stones," originally nineteen in number.
Dumbarton was of old the capital of the earldom of Lennox, but was given up by Earl Maldwyn to Alexander II., by whom it was made a royal burgh in 1221 and declared to be free from all imposts and burgh taxes.
Equally praiseworthy is the generous pardon that the emperor, after much intercession, granted to the seditious people of Antioch, who, out of anger at the growing imposts, had beaten down the imperial statues of their city (387).
By his heavy imposts and the debasement of the coinage he forfeited his popularity with the rest of the community, and gave rise to riots.
He kept to the old system of revenues from the demesne and from imposts that were reactionary in their effect, such as the taille, aids, salt-tax (gabelle) and customs; only he managed them better.
Disease and famine; crushing imposts and extortions; official debasement of the currency; bankruptcy; state prisons; religious and political inquisition; suppression of all institutions for the safe-guarding of rights; tyranny by the intendants; royal, feudal and clerical oppression burdening every faculty and every necessary of life; monstrous and incurable luxury; the horrible drama of poison; the twofold adultery of Madame de Montespan; and the narrow bigotry of Madame de Maintenon-~--all concurred to make the end of the reign a sad contrast with the splendour of its beginning.
In the course of the flour-war (guerre des farines) (AprilMay 1775); he substituted a territorial subsidy for the royal corveso burdensome upon the peasantsand thus tended to abolish privilege in the matter of imposts; and he established the freedom of industry by the dissolution of privileged trade corporations (1776).
The American war had finally exhausted the exchequer, and, in order to replenish it, he would have needed to inspire confidence in the minds of capitalists; but the resumption in 2778 of the plan of provincial assemblies charged with remodelling the various imposts, and his corn pterendu in which he exhibited the monarchy paying its pensioners for their inactivity as it had never paid its agents for their zeal, aroused a fresh outburst of anger.
The elus and the superintendents, instead of being delegates of the states, became royal functionaries like the baillis and the provosts; imposts, hearth-money (fouage), salt-tax (gabelle), sale-dues (droits de vente), voted for the war, were levied during the whole of Charles V.s reign and added to his personal revenue.
With his passion for the uniform and the useful on a grand scale, he hoped by means of the Code Michaud to put an end to the sale of offices, to lighten imposts, to suppress brigandage, to reduce the monasteries, &c. To do this it would have been necessary to make peace, for it was soon evident that war was incompatible with these reforms. He chose war, as did his Spanish rival and contemporary OIivares~ War is expensive sport; but Richelieu maintained a lofty attitude towards finance, disdained figures, and abandoned all petty details to subordinate officials like DEffiat or Bullion.
All imposts were forestalled, and every expedient for obtaining either direct or indirect taxes had been exhausted by the methods of the financiers.
Its efficiency as an instrument of producing revenue was, however, so great as to lead to its revival in 1842, when Sir Robert Peel inaugurated his great free-trade reform and swept away duties on exports, duties on imported raw material, and other imposts hampering the trade of the country.