The surface of the earth is rarely impermeable, and the structure of the rocks largely determines the direction of flow of so much of the rainfall as sinks into the ground and is not evaporated.
There are cases also where sedimentary rocks, formed below the sea or salt lagoons, are almost impermeable: thus the salt deposited in parts of the Upper Keuper of the New Red Sandstone, is protected by the red marls of the formation, and has never been washed out.
Thus in the western mountain districts of Great Britain, largely composed of nearly impermeable rocks more Lion.
The positions of springs are determined by permeable depressions in the surface of the ground below the general level of saturation, and frequently also by the holding up of that level locally by comparatively impermeable strata, sometimes combined with a fault or a synclinal fold of the strata, forming the more permeable portion into an underground basin or channel lying within comparatively impermeable boundaries.
Even the beds of sluggish rivers flowing over porous strata generally become so impermeable that excavations made in their neighbourhood, though freely collecting the subsoil water, receive no FIG.
In mountain valleys, rock or shale, commonly the most impermeable materials met with in such positions, are sometimes not reached till considerable depths are attained.
Wherever the base of a puddle wall cannot be worked into a continuous bed of clay or shale, or tied into a groove cut in sound rock free from water-hearing fissures, the safest course is to base it on an artificial material at once impermeable and incapable of erosion, interposed between the rock and the puddled clay.
The first filter which was more or less completely impermeable to bacteria was the Pasteur-Chamberland, which was devised in Pasteur's laboratory, and is made of dense biscuit porcelain.
These fissures take the place of the streams in an impermeable area, and those beneath the valleys must obviously be called upon to discharge more water from the surface, and thus be brought in contact with more carbonic acid, than similar fissures elsewhere.
Hence the best position for a well in the Chalk is generally that over which, if the strata were impermeable, the largest quantity of surface water would flow.
The Lower Chalk formation is for the most part impermeable, though it contains many ruptures and dislocations or smashes, in the interstices of which large bodies of water, received from the Upper and Middle Chalk, may be naturally stored, or which may merely form passages for water derived from the Upper Chalk.
Of surface soil, glacial drift and impermeable gault clay and thence passed for a further depth of 70 ft.
Dams Any well-made earthen embankment of moderate height, and of such thickness and uniformity of construction as to ensure freedom from excessive percolation at any point, will in the course of time become almost impermeable to surface water standing against it; and when permeable rocks are covered with many feet of soil, the leakage through such soil from standing water newly placed above it generally diminishes rapidly, and in process of time often ceases entirely.
It is impermeable to water, and is therefore used in northern countries for roofing, for domestic utensils, for boxes and jars to contain both solid and liquid substances, and for a kind of bark shoes, of which it is estimated 25 millions of pairs are annually worn by the Russian peasantry.
Of these methods one of the chief is the plan of tubbing, or lining the excavation with an impermeable casing of wood or iron, generally the latter, built up in segments forming rings, which are piled upon each other throughout the whole depth of the water-bearing strata.
The soil of yards and the floors and walls of houses rapidly become contaminated, and the ideal condition would be to have an impermeable flooring covering the whole area, and supplied with suitable layers of sand, sawdust, peat-moss or other absorbent substances which can be changed at frequent intervals.
The clays of the Rolling Downs formation overlie a series of sands and drifts, saturated with water under high pressure, which discharges at the surface as a flowing well, when a borehole pierces the impermeable cover.
But these protective layers are in the main impermeable by gases and by either liquid or vapour, and prevent the access of either to the protoplasts which need them.
Pfeffer, made known the phenomena of the osmotic pressure which is set up by the passage of solvent through a membrane impermeable to the dissolved substance or solute.
If the membrane is of some impermeable substance, like gold leaf, the hyphae cannot dissolve its way through, but the tip finds the most minute pore and traverses the barrier by means of it, as it does a stoma on a leaf, We may hence conclude that a parasitic hyphae pierces some plants or their stomata and refuses to enter others, because in the former case there are chemotropically attractive substances present which are absent from the latter, or are there replaced by repellent poisonous or protective substances such as enzymes or antitoxins.
We have hitherto dealt only with the collection and storage of that portion of the rainfall which flows over the surface of nearly impermeable areas.
- Any area, large or small, of the earth's surface from any part of which, if the ground were impermeable, water would flow by gravitation past any point in a natural watercourse is commonly known in Europe as the " hydrographic basin " above that point.
Among the sedimentary rocks we have, for example, in the clay slates of the Silurian formations, rocks no less cracked and fissured than others, but generally quite impermeable by reason of the joints being packed with the very fine clay resulting from the rubbing of slate upon slate in the earth movements to which the cracks are due.
Thus natural or artificial surfaces which are completely permeable to rainfall may become almost impermeable when protected by surface water from drought and frost, and from earth-worms, vegetation and artificial disturbance.
Rising ground is not met with at the intended boundary of a reservoir, a trench is cut along such portion, and carried down to rock or such other formation as, in the engineer's opinion, forms a sufficiently impermeable sheet beneath the whole surface to be covered with water.
High - almost wholly above the original ground level, which is said to be impermeable; but other dams of the same system, with core walls of less than ioo ft.
These are special organs which Lent~eIs interrupt the continuity of the impermeable layer of ordinary cork-cells.
The most trying time-distribution of which the author has had experience in the United Kingdom, or which he has been able to discover from a comparison of rainfalls upon nearly impermeable areas exceeding woo acres, is graphically represented by the thick irregular line in the left-hand half of fig.
6 is a typical section of a low dam of this class, impounding water upon gravel overlying impermeable clay.
If any rock be taken (even a piece of pure quartz) and crushed to a very fine powder, it will show some of the peculiarities of clays; for example, it will be plastic, retentive of moisture, impermeable to water, and will shrink to some extent if the moist mass be kneaded, and then allowed to dry.