After the nomination, the imperium of the dictator was confirmed by a lex curiata.
42: ut varia complurium regum in Parthia successione imperium accepit Orodes qui Crassum delevit).
This temple was cared for, and the cult attended, by women only, and the same was the case at a second celebration at the beginning of December in the house of a magistrate with imperium, which became famous owing to the profanation of these mysteries by P. Clodius in 62 B.C., and the political consequences of his act.
To emphasize the superiority of this imperium over that of the consuls, the dictator might be preceded by twenty-four lictors, not by the usual twelve; and, at least in the earlier period of the office, these lictors bore the axes, the symbols of life and death, within the city walls.
They were to be elected for five years by seventeen of the tribes chosen by lot from the thirty-five; the imperium was to be conferred upon them by the lex curiata, together with judicial powers and the rank of praetor.
And, while he makes the words senatus populusque Romanus full of significance for all times, no one realizes with more enthusiasm all that is implied in the words imperium Romanum, and the great military qualities of head and heart by which that empire was acquired and maintained.
During these years Commodus was associated with Marcus in the imperium, and.
Years, i.e.to the ist of March 49 B.C., and it was enacted that the question of his successor should not be discussed until the 1st of March 50 B.C., by which time the provincial commands for 49 B.C. would have been assigned, so that Caesar would retain imperium, and thus immunity from persecution, until the end of 49 B.C. He was to be elected consul for 48 B.e., and, as the law prescribed a personal canvass, he was by special enactment dispensed from its provisions.
That Caesar held the imperium which he enjoyed as dictator to be distinct in kind from that of the republican magistrates he indicated by placing the term imperator at the head of his titles.'
Its main function was that of passing the lex curiata which was necessary for the ratification both of the imperium of the higher magistracies of the people, and of the potestas of those of lower rank.
It elected the magistrates with imperium and the censors, and alone had the power of declaring war.
The work was often reprinted and is included in Dom Anselme Banduri's Imperium Orientale (Paris, 1711).
Another theory is that Bretwalda refers to a war-leadership, or imperium, over the English south of the Humber, and has nothing to do with Britons or Britannia.
At his death in 560 he was succeeded by Ceawlin, who is mentioned by Bede as the second of the English kings to hold an imperium in Britain.
Though they succeeded in establishing a kind of imperium in imperio, and were allowed to drill the natives to the use of arms, the Jesuits never controlled the government of Paraguay; indeed they had nearly as often to defend themselves from the hostility of the governor and bishop at Asuncion as from the invasions of the Paulistas or Portuguese settlers of Sao Paulo.
The motto was ` s Imperium et libertas "; the seal, three primroses; and the badge, a monogram containing the letters PL, surrounded by primroses.
But though about this time he had got ready all or most of the materials for his fundamental work on Body, not even now was he able to make way with its composition, 1 The book, of which the copies are rare (one in Dr Williams's library in London and one in the Bodleian), was printed in quarto size (Paris, 1642), with a pictorial title-page (not afterwards reproduced) of scenes and figures illustrating its three divisions, " Libertas," " Imperium," " Religio."
To wield all sanctions, supernatural as well as natural, against the pretensions of any clergy, Catholic, Anglican or Presbyterian, to the exercise of an imperium in imperio.
The period of ten years for which his imperium had been granted him was nearly ended, and though much remained to be done, very much had been accomplished.
In 18 B.C. Augustus's imperium was renewed for five years, and his tried friend Marcus Agrippa, now his son-in-law, was associated with him as a colleague.
His imperium was renewed, again for five years, and in 12 B.C., on the death of his former fellow-triumvir Lepidus, he was elected Pontifex Maximus.
But this third period of his imperium brought with it losses which Augustus must have keenly felt.
In 1 B.C. Gaius was given proconsular imperium, and sent to re-establish order in Armenia, and a few years afterwards (A.D.
13 he consented, reluctantly we are told, to yet one more renewal of his imperium for ten years, stipulating, however, that his step-son Tiberius, himself now over fifty, should be associated with himself on equal terms in the administration of the empire.
Thus the praetor possessed military power (imperium); even the city praetor, though attached by his office to Rome, could not only levy troops but also in certain circumstances take the command in person.
The proconsular imperium and the title of princeps juventutis were conferred upon him.'
To restore the original commerce between man and nature, and to recover the imperium hominis, is the grand object of all science.
Or the relation between the inferior deities and the most exalted may be conceived politically and explained by Tertullian's formula, " Imperium penes unum, officia penes multos."
C. Loyseau, in his Traite des seigneuries (3rd ed., 1610, p. 14), explains that there are two kinds of public seigneuries, that is, sovereign seigneurs, possessing summum imperium, and suzerains, " Les suzeraines sont celles qui ont puissance superieure mais non supreme."
He was assisted by a council of bishops and clergy, and was represented in each province by a bishop. This imperium in imperio secured to the Armenians a recognized position before the law, the free enjoyment of their religion, the possession of their churches and monasteries, and the right to educate their children and manage their municipal affairs.
The self or the will can no longer be looked upon as possessing a kind of imperium in imperio, " this way and that dividing the swift mind."
The Roman Catholic Church, even when recognized as the state religion, is nowhere "established" in the sense of being identified with the state, but is rather an imperium in imperio which negotiates on equal terms with the state, the results being embodied in concordats (q.v.) between the state and the pope as head of the Church.
But above all things the church was being criticized as an imperium in imperio, a privileged body not amenable to ordinary jurisdiction, and subservient to a foreign lordthe pope.
These exceptions, introduced with a good object, had grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century, virtually creating an imperium in isnperio, and depriving the bishop of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his diocese.
Under the Republic, the term imperator applied in theory to any magistrate vested with imperium; but in practice it was only used of a magistrate who was acting abroad (militiae) and was thus in command of troops.
But apart from this amalgamation of the term with his regular name, and the private right to its use which that bestowed, every emperor had an additional and double right to the title on public grounds, possessed as he was of an imperium infinitum majus, and commanding as he did all the troops of the Empire.
But by the 2nd century the dyarchy is passing into a monarchy: the title of princeps recedes, and the title of imperator comes into prominence to designate not merely the possessor of a certain imperium, or the general of troops, but the simple monarch in the fulness of his power as head of the state.
But the necessity of the connexion is also apparent, unless we are to suppose that, as regards the course of universal nature, man is altogether an imperium in imperio, or rather (to adopt the forcible phrase of Marcus Aurelius) an abscess or excrescence on the nature of things.