The plaintiffs in each case were imperialists; and Fredericks first action was to redress their supposed grievances.
Milan was invested in 1161, starved into capitulation after nine months resistance, and given up to total destruction by the Italian imperialists of Fredericks army, so stained and tarnished with the vindictive passions of municipal rivalry was even this, the one great glorious strife of Italian annals.
In spite of repeated efforts on the part of the Ghibellines, in spite of King Roberts supine incapacity, the imperialists gained no permanent advantage.
In 1670, fleeing from the dangers of Upper Hungary, where the Protestants and Imperialists were constantly in arms against each other, he took refuge with his kinsman Michael Teleki, the chief minister of Michael Apafy, prince of Transylvania.
In this position he earned a reputation as a politician of thorough straightforwardness and grit, and as one who would maintain British interests independently of party; and he shared with Mr Asquith the reputation of being the ablest of the Imperialists who followed Lord Rosebery.
During the Thirty Years' War it was formed into a fortress by the imperialists, but they vacated it in 1631 to the Swedes, in whose possession it remained after the peace of Westphalia.
(1605-1661), sided with the imperialists in the Thirty Years' War, during which Hesse-Darmstadt suffered very severely from the ravages of the Swedes.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
"When we who call ourselves Imperialists talk of the British Empire we think of a group of states bound, not in an alliance - for affiances can be made and unmade - but in a permanent organic union.
The attempt of the imperialists, under Joachim of Brandenburg, to retake Budapest (September 15 4 2), failed ignominiously; and in the following year Suleiman in person conducted a campaign which led to the conquest of Siklos, Gran, Szekesf ehervar and Visegrad (1544) Everywhere the churches were turned into mosques; and the greater part of Hungary, divided into twelve sanjaks, became definitively a Turkish province.
The emperor and his ministers hoped that, having conceded the demands of the Magyars, they would receive the help of the Hungarian government in crushing the revolution elsewhere, a hope that seemed to be justified by the readiness with which Batthyany consented to send a contingent to the assistance of the imperialists in Italy.
The surprise of the French garrison on the 2nd of February 1702, by the Imperialists under Prince Eugene, was a celebrated incident of the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Imperialists were!driven from Cremona after a sharp struggle, but captured Marshal Villeroi, the French commander.
It suffered much in1865-1866from the savage struggle between Imperialists and Republicans, and in subsequent partisan warfare.
The Imperialists were beaten; but just as the Milanese were about to march on Florence, Visconti died.
And prepare the way for his own sons; the Venetians against and Imperialists besieged Leghorn, and there was Florence.
Ferruccio, who had recaptured Volterra, marched to Gavinana above Pistoia to attack the Imperialists in the rear.
The campaign was carried on with varying success, but usually to the advantage of Louis, and the French victory at Marsiglia and the selfish conduct of the allies induced Victor to come to terms with France, and to turn against the imperialists (1696).
Of Spain towards him induced him, at the end of the two years for which he had bound himself to them, to go over to the imperialists (1704).
But the coalition had not yet developed its full strength, and Turenne's skill checked the advance of the Imperialists under Montecucculi and of the Brandenburgers under the Great Elector.
The troops of Cologne and Munster formed part of his army, other friends of Louis were preparing to take the field, and after a severe winter campaign, the elector, defeated in combat and manoeuvre, was forced back to the Weser, and being but weakly supported by the Imperialists, found himself compelled to make a separate peace (June 6th, 1673).
Turenne then turned his attention to the Imperialists who were assembling in Bohemia, and made ready to meet them at Wetzlar.
Soon the Imperialists advanced in earnest, greatly superior in numbers.
The Imperialists soon arrived at Frankfort, and the French position was turned.
After a slight attempt to invade Lorraine, which Turenne easily stopped, the Imperialists suddenly recrossed the Rhine and marched rapidly into the neighbourhood of the Strassburg bridge.
The scattered Imperialists were driven towards Strassburg, every corps which tried to resist being cut off.
At last Turenne prevailed and had the Imperialists at a disadvantage on the Sasbach, where, in opening the action, he was killed by a cannon-shot (July 27th).
Crequi, who had now returned from captivity (he had been taken after the battle of Conzer Briicke) opposed the Imperialists in Lorraine, but he was unable to prevent the fall of Philipsburg, which occurred on the 17th of September.
The French now laid waste the land between the Meuse and Moselle for the same reason which brought about the devastation of the Palatinate in 1674, and the year closed with a war of manoeuvre on the upper Rhine between the Imperialists under the duke of Lorraine and the French under Luxemburg.
On the Rhine, Crequi began by winning the battle of Rheinfelden (July 6th), after which he inflicted upon the Imperialists another defeat at Gengenbach (July 23rd) and took Kehl.
During the Thirty Years' War it was occupied alternately by the Imperialists and the Swedes, the latter of whom handed it over to Brandenburg.
He now became head of the Ghibellines or Imperialists of Italy, and his position was strengthened by the marriage of his daughter Costanza to Peter, son of King James of Aragon.
During the Thirty Years' War it was alternately occupied by the Swedes and the Imperialists, and in 1689 it was entirely destroyed by the French.
In the meanwhile the French feudatories on the left wing had thoroughly defeated the imperialists opposed to them, and William Longsword, earl of Salisbury, the leader of this corps, was unhorsed and taken prisoner by the warlike bishop of Beauvais.
He served with distinction in Flanders in 1683, and against the wish of the king went to Hungary, where he assisted the Imperialists to defeat the Turks at Gran in 1683.
On this account he was not received with favour by Louis XIV.; so in 1683 he assisted the Imperialists in Hungary, and while there he wrote some letters in which he referred to Louis as le roi du theatre, for which on his return to France he was temporarily banished to Chantilly.
In 1745 he was sent to check the Imperialists in Germany, and in 1746 was transferred to the Netherlands, where some jealousy between Marshal Saxe and himself led to his retirement in 1747.
The cardinals at length proclaimed him pope against his will on the 24th of May 1086, but he was driven from Rome by imperialists before his consecration was complete, and, laying aside the papal insignia at Terracina, he retired to his beloved monastery.
The two brothers were enthusiastic imperialists, and with persistent courage they upheld the cause of their sovereign during his two absences in Italy.
But while on the whole the fortunes of the European war, both in the east and in the west, were unfavourable to the imperialists, Charles V.
A mistake at the outset would probably have been fatal to him, but he saw the dangers of his position and moved so warily that in less than a year he had obtained the alliance of the elector of Saxony, a consequence of the terrible sack of Magdeburg by the imperialists in May 1631 and of the devastation of the electorate by Tilly.
The Swedes and their allies occupied Nuremberg, while the imperialists fortified a great camp and blockaded the city.