The plaintiffs in each case were imperialists; and Fredericks first action was to redress their supposed grievances.
Milan was invested in 1161, starved into capitulation after nine months resistance, and given up to total destruction by the Italian imperialists of Fredericks army, so stained and tarnished with the vindictive passions of municipal rivalry was even this, the one great glorious strife of Italian annals.
In spite of repeated efforts on the part of the Ghibellines, in spite of King Roberts supine incapacity, the imperialists gained no permanent advantage.
In 1670, fleeing from the dangers of Upper Hungary, where the Protestants and Imperialists were constantly in arms against each other, he took refuge with his kinsman Michael Teleki, the chief minister of Michael Apafy, prince of Transylvania.
In this position he earned a reputation as a politician of thorough straightforwardness and grit, and as one who would maintain British interests independently of party; and he shared with Mr Asquith the reputation of being the ablest of the Imperialists who followed Lord Rosebery.
During the Thirty Years' War it was formed into a fortress by the imperialists, but they vacated it in 1631 to the Swedes, in whose possession it remained after the peace of Westphalia.
(1605-1661), sided with the imperialists in the Thirty Years' War, during which Hesse-Darmstadt suffered very severely from the ravages of the Swedes.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
"When we who call ourselves Imperialists talk of the British Empire we think of a group of states bound, not in an alliance - for affiances can be made and unmade - but in a permanent organic union.
The attempt of the imperialists, under Joachim of Brandenburg, to retake Budapest (September 15 4 2), failed ignominiously; and in the following year Suleiman in person conducted a campaign which led to the conquest of Siklos, Gran, Szekesf ehervar and Visegrad (1544) Everywhere the churches were turned into mosques; and the greater part of Hungary, divided into twelve sanjaks, became definitively a Turkish province.
The emperor and his ministers hoped that, having conceded the demands of the Magyars, they would receive the help of the Hungarian government in crushing the revolution elsewhere, a hope that seemed to be justified by the readiness with which Batthyany consented to send a contingent to the assistance of the imperialists in Italy.
The surprise of the French garrison on the 2nd of February 1702, by the Imperialists under Prince Eugene, was a celebrated incident of the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Imperialists were!driven from Cremona after a sharp struggle, but captured Marshal Villeroi, the French commander.
It suffered much in1865-1866from the savage struggle between Imperialists and Republicans, and in subsequent partisan warfare.
The Imperialists were beaten; but just as the Milanese were about to march on Florence, Visconti died.
And prepare the way for his own sons; the Venetians against and Imperialists besieged Leghorn, and there was Florence.
Ferruccio, who had recaptured Volterra, marched to Gavinana above Pistoia to attack the Imperialists in the rear.
The campaign was carried on with varying success, but usually to the advantage of Louis, and the French victory at Marsiglia and the selfish conduct of the allies induced Victor to come to terms with France, and to turn against the imperialists (1696).
Of Spain towards him induced him, at the end of the two years for which he had bound himself to them, to go over to the imperialists (1704).
But the coalition had not yet developed its full strength, and Turenne's skill checked the advance of the Imperialists under Montecucculi and of the Brandenburgers under the Great Elector.
The troops of Cologne and Munster formed part of his army, other friends of Louis were preparing to take the field, and after a severe winter campaign, the elector, defeated in combat and manoeuvre, was forced back to the Weser, and being but weakly supported by the Imperialists, found himself compelled to make a separate peace (June 6th, 1673).
Turenne then turned his attention to the Imperialists who were assembling in Bohemia, and made ready to meet them at Wetzlar.
Soon the Imperialists advanced in earnest, greatly superior in numbers.
The Imperialists soon arrived at Frankfort, and the French position was turned.
After a slight attempt to invade Lorraine, which Turenne easily stopped, the Imperialists suddenly recrossed the Rhine and marched rapidly into the neighbourhood of the Strassburg bridge.
The scattered Imperialists were driven towards Strassburg, every corps which tried to resist being cut off.
At last Turenne prevailed and had the Imperialists at a disadvantage on the Sasbach, where, in opening the action, he was killed by a cannon-shot (July 27th).
Crequi, who had now returned from captivity (he had been taken after the battle of Conzer Briicke) opposed the Imperialists in Lorraine, but he was unable to prevent the fall of Philipsburg, which occurred on the 17th of September.
The French now laid waste the land between the Meuse and Moselle for the same reason which brought about the devastation of the Palatinate in 1674, and the year closed with a war of manoeuvre on the upper Rhine between the Imperialists under the duke of Lorraine and the French under Luxemburg.
On the Rhine, Crequi began by winning the battle of Rheinfelden (July 6th), after which he inflicted upon the Imperialists another defeat at Gengenbach (July 23rd) and took Kehl.
During the Thirty Years' War it was occupied alternately by the Imperialists and the Swedes, the latter of whom handed it over to Brandenburg.
Its fortifications were greatly strengthened; nevertheless it was twice taken by the Imperialists and twice recovered by the French during the Spanish Succession War.
LUTZEN, a town in Prussian Saxony, in the circle of Merseburg (pop. in 3981), chiefly famous as the scene of a great battle fought on the 6/16th of November 1632 between the Swedes, under King Gustavus Adolphus, and the Imperialists, under Wallenstein.
They were not charged by the Imperialists at this moment, for Pappenheim had not yet arrived, and the usual cavalry tactics of the day were founded on the pistol and not on the sword and the charging horse.
Again the Imperialists were driven in and their guns recaptured, this time all along the line.
But Pappenheim fell in the moment of victory and his death disheartened the Imperialists almost as much as the fall of Gustavus had disheartened the Swedes.
In the first, which was fought on the 5th and 6th of September 1634, the hitherto invincible Swedish army, commanded by Duke Bernhard of Saxe Weimar and Marshal Horn, was defeated with great loss by a somewhat superior army of Imperialists and Spaniards under General Gallas, Horn and 3000 men being made prisoners and 6000 killed or mortally wounded.
In the great vision of world domination which had gradually unfolded itself before German Imperialists, the high-road to be followed ran through Constantinople and Asia Minor - thence the East and the chief waterway to it, the Suez Canal, would come within reach.
On the death of his father on the 9th of January 1873 the Imperialists proclaimed him Napoleon IV., and he became the official Pretender.
For the seven years following he was the chief speaker among the small band of anti-Imperialists in the French chamber, and was regarded generally as the most formidable enemy of the empire.
In 1627-28 it was besieged for fifteen weeks by the imperialists under Tilly, without success.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, Augustus fought with the imperialists in the Netherlands, but after the defeat of Charles XII.
Was appointed papal vicar in Romagna to resist the imperialists; thenceforth he became the recognized leader of the Guelphs or papal faction in Italy and took part in all the wars against the Ghibellines.
And by his opponents; and after some hesitation George William, influenced by Ernest Augustus, fought among the Imperialists, while John Frederick was ranged on the side of France.
On the death of William V., whose territories had been conquered by the Imperialists, his widow Amalie Elizabeth, as regent for her son William VI.
In 1522 the imperialists entered Milan and proclaimed Francesco Sforza (son of Lodovico).
The Saxon troops were present at the battle of Breitenfeld, but were routed by the imperialists, the elector himself seeking safety in flight.
However, for the present the efforts of Gustavus Adolphus prevented the elector from deserting him, but the position was changed by the death of the king at Lutzen in 1632, and the refusal of Saxony to join the Protestant league under Swedish leadership. Still letting his troops fight in a desultory fashion against the imperialists, John George again negotiated for peace, and in May 1635 he concluded the important treaty of Prague with Ferdinand II.
The second battle was fought on the 1st of July 16go between 45, 000 French under Francois-Henri de Montgomery-Bouteville, duke of Luxemburg, and 37,000 allied Dutch, Spaniards and Imperialists under George Frederick, prince of Waldeck.
The two brothers were enthusiastic imperialists, and with persistent courage they upheld the cause of their sovereign during his two absences in Italy.
But while on the whole the fortunes of the European war, both in the east and in the west, were unfavourable to the imperialists, Charles V.
A mistake at the outset would probably have been fatal to him, but he saw the dangers of his position and moved so warily that in less than a year he had obtained the alliance of the elector of Saxony, a consequence of the terrible sack of Magdeburg by the imperialists in May 1631 and of the devastation of the electorate by Tilly.
The Swedes and their allies occupied Nuremberg, while the imperialists fortified a great camp and blockaded the city.
Here the imperialists were beaten, but the victory was even more disastrous to the Protestant cause than a defeat, for the Swedish king was among the slain.
Commanded now by the king of Hungary, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand III., the imperialists retook Regensburg and captured Donauworth; then, aided by some Spanish troops, they gained a victory at Nor-dJingen in September 1634, the results of which were as decisive and as satisfactory for them as the results of Breitenfeld bad been for their foes two years before.
The final stage of the war opened with considerable Swedish successes in the north of Germany, especially the signal victory gained by them over the imperialists and the Saxons at Wittstock in October 1636.
Under Count Torstenssen the Swedes defeated the imperialists at Breitenfeld in 1642; three years later they gained another victory at Jankau and advanced almost to Vienna, and then the last decisive move of the war was made by the great French general, Tures~ne.
The cardinals at length proclaimed him pope against his will on the 24th of May 1086, but he was driven from Rome by imperialists before his consecration was complete, and, laying aside the papal insignia at Terracina, he retired to his beloved monastery.
He served with distinction in Flanders in 1683, and against the wish of the king went to Hungary, where he assisted the Imperialists to defeat the Turks at Gran in 1683.
On this account he was not received with favour by Louis XIV.; so in 1683 he assisted the Imperialists in Hungary, and while there he wrote some letters in which he referred to Louis as le roi du theatre, for which on his return to France he was temporarily banished to Chantilly.
In 1745 he was sent to check the Imperialists in Germany, and in 1746 was transferred to the Netherlands, where some jealousy between Marshal Saxe and himself led to his retirement in 1747.
In the meanwhile the French feudatories on the left wing had thoroughly defeated the imperialists opposed to them, and William Longsword, earl of Salisbury, the leader of this corps, was unhorsed and taken prisoner by the warlike bishop of Beauvais.
During the Thirty Years' War it was alternately occupied by the Swedes and the Imperialists, and in 1689 it was entirely destroyed by the French.
He now became head of the Ghibellines or Imperialists of Italy, and his position was strengthened by the marriage of his daughter Costanza to Peter, son of King James of Aragon.
It was the only battle which I have ever witnessed, the only battle-field I ever trod while the battle was raging; internecine war; the red republicans on the one hand, and the black imperialists on the other.