The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).
It is one of the strongest instances furnished by history of the fascination exercised by an idea that the Italians themselves should have grown to glory in this dependence of their nation upon Caesars who had nothing but a name in common with the Roman Imperator of the past.
The gigantic scorpions (Pandinus imperator) - more than 6 in.
Imperator is the official style.
Abandoning the ancient Muscovite capital, where many influential personages were fanatically hostile to his innovations and not a few of the superstitious inhabitants regarded him with horror as Antichrist, he built at the mouth of the Neva a new capital which was to serve as " a window through which his people might look into Europe "; and laying aside the national St title of tsar he proclaimed himself (1711) emperor Peters- (Imperator) of all Russia - much to the surprise and indignation of foreign diplomatic chancelleries, which resented the audacity of a semi-barbarous potentate in claiming to be equal in rank with the head of the Holy Roman Empire.
Though he took the title of imperator more than twenty times, and enjoyed at least one triumph, Domitian's military achievements were insignificant.
He hastened to propitiate the former by a donative of twice the usual amount, and excused his hasty acceptance of the throne to the senate by alleging the impatient zeal of the soldiers and the necessity of an imperator for the welfare of the state.
After a little hesitation Trajan accepted the position, which was marked by the titles of imperator, Caesar and Germanicus, and by the tribunician authority.
Assumed the title of king before; but he now became "totius Orientis imperator," not indeed joint-ruler, nor Augustus, but "independent lieutenant of the emperor for the East" (Mommsen, Provinces, ii.
That Caesar held the imperium which he enjoyed as dictator to be distinct in kind from that of the republican magistrates he indicated by placing the term imperator at the head of his titles.'
76, errs in stating that he used the title imperator as a praenomen.
The Welsh texts never call Arthur gwledig (prince), but amheradawr (Latin imperator) or emperor, a title which would be bestowed on the highest official in the island.
In 198 he received the title of Caesar, and in 209 those of Imperator and Augustus.
The title emperor of Austria, then, replaced that of " Imperator Romanorum semper Augustus " when the Holy Empire came to an end in 1806.
Is that, in Russian, by Nikolai Karlovich Schilder, Imperator Aleksander, &c. (4 vols., St Petersb., 1897, 1898).
During the times of the republic, a victorious general, who had been saluted by the title of imperator by his soldiers, had his fasces crowned with laurel (Cicero, Pro Ligario, 3).
Meanwhile in Spain Galba had been saluted imperator by his legions, had accepted the title, and was already on his march towards Italy.
Under the Republic, the term imperator applied in theory to any magistrate vested with imperium; but in practice it was only used of a magistrate who was acting abroad (militiae) and was thus in command of troops.
The term imperator was the natural and regular designation employed by his troops in addressing such a magistrate; but it was more particularly and specially employed by them to salute him after a victory; and when he had been thus saluted he could use the title of imperator in public till the day of his triumph at Rome, after which it would lapse along with his imperium.
Julius Caesar was the first who used the title continuously (from 58 B.C. to his death in 44 B.C.), as well domi as militiae; and his nephew Augustus took a further step when he made the term imperator a praenomen, a practice which after the time of Nero becomes regular.
This public title of imperator was normally conferred by the senate; and an emperor normally dates his reign from the day of his salutation by the senate.
But the troops were also regarded as still retaining the right of saluting an imperator; and there were emperors who regarded themselves as created by such salutation and dated their reigns accordingly.
But by the 2nd century the dyarchy is passing into a monarchy: the title of princeps recedes, and the title of imperator comes into prominence to designate not merely the possessor of a certain imperium, or the general of troops, but the simple monarch in the fulness of his power as head of the state.
When Greek became the sole language of the East Roman Empire, imperator was rendered sometimes by Octort,Xc13 and sometimes by airroKparwp, the former word being the usual designation of a sovereign, the latter specially denoting that despotic power which the imperator held, and being in fact the official translation of imperator.
On the revival of the Roman empire in the West by Charlemagne in Soo, the title (at first in the form imperator, or imperator Augustus, afterwards Romanorum imperator Augustus) was taken by him and by his Frankish, Italian and German successors, heads of the Holy Roman Empire, down to the abdication of the emperor Francis II.
A bull permitting him to style himself emperor elect (imperator electus, erwahlter Kaiser).
Peter the Great introduced the use of the style "Imperator," and the official designation is now "Emperor of all the Russias, Tsar of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland," though the term tsar is still popularly used in Russia.
2 For the titles of (ac nXEin, imperator Augustus, &c., applied in the 10th century to the Anglo-Saxon kings, see Empire (note).
See also the articles on "Imperator" and- "Princeps" in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890).
In the Visigothic and Lombard codes princeps is the equivalent of rex or imperator; and when, after the overthrow of the Lombard kingdom by the Franks, Arichis II.