18 a bells was such that not more than two or three persons could be connected without seriously impairing the efficiency of the circuit for speech transmission.
Jeremiah Mason (1768-1848), a lawyer of the first rank, Jeremiah Smith and Webster appeared for the college, and argued that these acts were invalid because they were not within the general scope of the legislature's power, because they violated provisions of the state constitution and because they violated the clause of the Federal Constitution which prohibits a state from impairing the obligation of contracts but the court decided against them.
And xv.) make any treaty or alliance; coin money or make anything, save gold and silver coin, a legal tender; pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; have any but a republican form of government; grant any title of nobility; maintain slavery; abridge the privileges of any citizen of the United States, or deny to him the right of voting on account of race, colour or previous condition of servitude; deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; deny to any person the equal protection of the laws.
Peck (6 Cranch 87) that such a rescindment as that in the new state constitution was illegal, on the ground that a state cannot pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts; and at an expense of more than four millions of dollars the Federal government ultimately extinguished all claims to the lands.
After years of war, the peace-seeking statesman hoped to banish armed conflict from national policy.
These actions of the state assembly against the college and the bank probably were immediate causes for the insertion in the Federal Constitution (adopted by the convention in Philadelphia in 1787) of the clause (proposed by James Wilson of Pennsylvania, a friend of the college and of the bank) forbidding any state to pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts.
Modern smelters carefully extract this silver from the lead ore, thereby greatly impairing the durability and beauty of the metal.
Impairing the obligation of contracts."
This is proved by making sections in various directions, and by finding that in some instances as much as two-thirds of the wing may be lopped off without materially impairing the power of flight."
The statements here advanced are borne out by the fact that the wings of insects, bats and birds may be materially reduced without impairing their powers of flight.
In the first place the lay authorities often rendered elections uncanonical by interfering in behalf of some favourite, thereby impairing the freedom of the electors.
Public aspirations for the reduction and control of the excessive number of orders and religious orders, without impairing their Independence in spiritual matters, and in introducing a bill for the amendment of the law of 1887 Seor Canalejas declared that the government, inspired by the universal spirit of liberty of conscience, had given to article xi.
A reduction of $1,000,000 to $1,500,000, without impairing the service, has been a not unusual result of their deliberations.
Only the more customary restrictions are placed upon the legislature by the constitution; such, for example, as that it shall pass no laws impairing the obligation of contracts, no ex post facto laws, no law authorizing imprisonment for debt, no law restraining the freedom of the press or freedom of speech, and that it shall not lend the credit of the state or make the state " owner in whole or in part of any bank or a stockholder with others in any association, company, corporation or municipality."