The deputies are elected by direct suffrage for the legislative session of three years, and have the same immunities from legal process as the senators.
Ecclesiastical immunities, such as reservation of the criminal cases of the clergy, exemption from military service and other privileges, are expressly maintained in a certain number of pacts.
The tsar Michael, in the earlier 17th century, confirmed these immunities in the case of the clergy of the patriarch's own diocese, but provided that in country places belonging to his diocese, monasteries, churches and lands should be judged in secular matters by the Court of the Great Palace, theoretically held before the tsar himself (ib.
Clerical immunities, of course, differed largely at different times and in different countries, the extent of them having been gradually curtailed from a period a little earlier than the close of the middle ages.
In other spheres the immunities and exemptions of the Church offered a far more serious problem, and especially in the sphere of finance.
The members of the army and navy are governed by special laws, enjoy immunities from civil process, and are subject to the jurisdiction of military courts.
Further immunities and privileges were granted by James III.; and by a precept of 1482, known as the Golden Charter, he bestowed on the provost and magistrates the hereditary office of sheriff, with power to hold courts, to levy fines, and to impose duties on all merchandise landed at the port of Leith.
The French ambassador, de la Haye, had delayed bringing him the customary gifts, with the idea that he would, like his predecessors, speedily give place to a new grand vizier; Kuprili was bitterly offended, and, on pretext of an abuse of the immunities of diplomatic correspondence, bastinadoed the ambassador's son and cast him and the ambassador himself into prison.
(1626) to watch over the immunities of the clergy in respect of person or property, whether local or general.
The nucleus of a cosmopolitan society thus formed has expanded into a powerful community enjoying privileges and immunities unknown to natives not receiving its protection.
His example was followed by others, so that the church property in the Campagna soon became considerable; and, owing to the immunities and privileges which it enjoyed, a certain revival of prosperity ensued.
They differed also from the Flemish cities in the nature of their privileges and immunities, as they did not possess the rights of communes, but only those of "free cities" of the Rhenish type.
Old laws, customs and immunities were ruthlessly swept away, the people were ground down with taxes, and the highest positions and finest estates conferred on French and Provençal nobles.
The new denominations vigorously attacked the methods and immunities of the established church, whose clergy had grown lukewarm in zeal and lax in morals.
Laid Venice under an interdict, on the ground that the republic had infringed the immunities of the clergy; the doge replied by threatening with death any one who took any notice of the papal thunders.
In the 17th century such immunities were all the more valuable since French statesmen found themselves in an awkward position.
It covered all the northern Netherlands between the Scheldt and the Ems. The bishops, in fact, as the result of grants of immunities by a succession of German kings, and notably by the Saxon and Franconian emperors, gradually became the temporal rulers of a dominion as great as the neighbouring counties and duchies.
When they became intolerable, from the Empire were sought the exemptions, privileges, immunities from that local authority, which, anomalous and anarchical as they were in theory, yet in fact were the foundations of all the liberties of the middle ages in the Swiss cantons, in the free towns of Germany and the Low Countries, in the Lombard cities of Italy.
Under the Carolingian empire, a vast system grew up in the North Italian cities of episcopal "immunities," by which a city with its surrounding district was removed, more or less completely, from the jurisdiction of the ordinary authority, military or civil, and placed under that of the bishop. These "immunities" led to the temporal sovereignty of the bishops; under it the spirit of liberty grew more readily than under the military chief.
Its head is still entitled to the immunities and dignity of a sovereign ruler.
This expensive practice was abolished; various checks were placed upon legislative extravagance, and upon financial, special and local legislation generally; and among reform provisions, common enough to-day, but uncommon in 1875, were those forbidding the General Assembly to make irrevocable grants of special privileges and immunities; requiring finance officials of the state to clear their accounts precedent to further eligibility to public office; preventing private gain to state officials through the deposit of public moneys in banks, or otherwise; and permitting the governor to veto specific items in general appropriation bills.
These lay abbacies were not merely a question of overlordship, but implied the concentration in lay hands of all the rights, immunities and jurisdiction of the foundations, i.e.
The "Burlingame Treaty" recognizes China's right of eminent domain over all her territory, gives China the right to appoint at ports in the United States consuls, "who shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those enjoyed by the consuls of Great Britain and Russia"; provides that "citizens of the United States in China of every religious persuasion and Chinese subjects in the United States shall enjoy entire liberty of conscience and shall be exempt from all disability or persecution on account of their religious faith or worship in either country"; and grants certain privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the privilege of naturalization, however, being specifically withheld.
§ 2 of the constitution, " the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states."
§ I of the amendments to the constitution (enacted July 28, 1868), no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States."
Iv.) was to confer on the citizens of each state, if one may so say, a general citizenship, and to communicate all the privileges and immunities which the citizens of the same state would have been entitled to under the like circumstances " (Story, Constitution of the United States, § 1806).
Iv., it was held that a state licence tax discriminating against commodities the production of other states was void as abridging the privileges and immunities of the citizens of such other states (Ward v.
It is a crime to conspire to prevent the free exercise and enjoyment of any privilege, or to conspire to deprive any person of equal privileges and immunities, or under colour of law to subject any inhabitant of a state or territory to the deprivation of any privileges or immunities (Revised Statutes of United States, §§ 55 0 7, 5510, 5519).
Thus by means of immunities, of the beneficium nnd of patronage, society gradually organized itself independently of the state, since it required further security.
After Theuderichs death (737) he left the throne vacant until 742, but he himself was king in all but name; he presided over the royal tribunals, appointed the royal officers, issued edicts, disposed of the funds of the treasury and the churches, conferred immunities upon adherents, who were no longer the kings nobles but his own, and even appointed the bishops, though there was nothing of the ecclesiastic about himself.
Why had the monarchy been forced to purchase the obedience of the upper classes and the provinces with immunities which enfeebled it without limiting it?
He could never make the rights over the drink traffic uniform and equal, nor restrict privileges in the matter of the taille; while he was soon much embarrassed, not only by the coalition of particular interests and local immunities, which made despotism acceptable by tempering it, but also by Louis XIV.s two masterpassions for conquest and for building.
Was too strong to be overthrown, and the destruction of the historic privileges and immunities with which this had been ever in conflict only served to strengthen this tendency.
Marshals Campos, Jovellar and Novaliches, and Generals Pavia, Primo de Rivera, Daban and others, wereangry with Sagasta and the Liberals not only because they deemed their policy too democratic, but because they ventured to curb the insubordinate attitude of general officers, who shielded themselves behind the immunities of their senatorial position to.
Violent scenes greeted the attempt of the government to procure the suspension of the parliamentary immunities of 140 deputies, accused or suspected of more or less treasonable practices, and when, on the 4th of October, the Cortes reopened after the summer recess, Seor Romero Robledo, the president of the lower house, opened an attack on the ministry for their attempted breach of its privileges.
He retrenched the court largesses and curtailed the immunities of the clergy, and although himself of an ascetic disposition forbade the foundation of new monasteries.
The university of Edinburgh, the youngest of the Scottish universities, was founded in 1583 by a royal charter granted by James IV., and its rights, immunities and privileges have been remodelled, ratified and extended at various periods.