But the mechanical view of nature is not identical with the materialistic. In the last of the above-mentioned works the question is discussed at great length how we have to consider mind, and the relation between mind and body; the answer is - we have to consider mind as an immaterial principle, its action, however, on the body and vice versa as purely mechanical, indicated by the fixed laws of a psycho-physical mechanism.
" If the relation thus established in the morning twilight of man's existence between the human soul and a world invisible and immaterial is a relation of which only the subjective term is real and the objective term is non-existent; then I say it is something utterly without precedent in the whole history of creation " (Through Nature to God, 18 99, p. 188, 189).
Naïve materialism is due to a cause which still, perhaps, has no small power, the natural difficulty which persons who have had no philosophic training experience in observing and appreciating the importance of the immaterial facts of consciousness.
The Rational Psychology formulates immortality on the ground that the immaterial soul has no parts to suffer decay - the argument which Kant's Critique of Pure Reason " refutes" with special reference to the statement of it by Moses Mendelssohn.
David Hume, following up Berkeley's leading suggestion, pointed out that the inference to God is as precarious as the inference to matter, and that the assertion of a continuous or immaterial mind in man also goes beyond the immediate facts.
Of the Analogy - where we observe the old assumption of an immaterial and so immortal principle - and in his appendix on Personal Identity.
Thus, in the above example, it is immaterial whether M displaces M" from its salt directly, or whether M first displaces M', which is then used to displace M".
To enable the reader to compare the several groups of Nitzsch with the families of L'Herminier, the numbers applied by the latter to his families are suffixed in square brackets to the names of the former; and, disregarding the order of sequence, which is here immaterial, the essential correspondence of the two systems is worthy of all attention, for it obviously means that these two investigators, starting from different points, must have been on the right track, when they so often coincided as to the limits of what they considered to be, and what we are now almost justified in calling, natural groups.'
It should, however, be remembered that primitive peoples do not distinguish clearly between material and immaterial beings.
" Life may be something not only ultra-terrestrial, but even immaterial, something outside our present categories of matter and energy; as real as they are, but different, and utilizing them for its own purpose " (Life and Matter, p. 198), The theory of psychophysical parallelism recognizes that while there is a correspondence between mental and material phenomena, changes in the mind and changes in the brain, the former cannot be explained by the latter, as the transition from the one to the other is unthinkable.
This quinta essentia had been speculated upon by the Greeks, some regarding it as immaterial or aethereal, andothers as material; and a school of philosophers termed alchemists arose who attempted the isolation of this essence.
All movement in matter is, therefore, caused by some immaterial force, namely, God.
But the movements of the body are not analogous to the movements of matter; they are caused by a special immaterial force, the soul.
The soul, as being immaterial, is immortal, and its consciousness does not depend upon its connexion with the body.
Thus in the Moffett method it is immaterial whether metal or fume is produced, as in either case it is saved and the price is about the same.
In God, who is pure form without matter, the archetypes of material things exist as eternal immaterial forms. In this way Gilbert was at once Aristotelian and Platonist.
Aquinas regards the souls of men, like the angels, as immaterial forms; and he includes in the soul-unit, so to speak, not merely the anima rationalis of Aristotle, but also the vegetative, sensitive, appetitive and motive functions.
The soul must be immaterial since it has the power of cognizing the universal; and its immortality is further based by St Thomas on the natural longing for unending existence which belongs to a being whose thoughts are not confined to the " here " and " now," but are able to abstract from every limitation.
The special doctrines most commonly mentioned as due to him are - (I) that of "immaterial products," and (2) what is called his "theorie des debouches."
He is thus led to recognize immaterial products, whose characteristic quality is that they are consumed immediately and are incapable of accumulation; under this head are to be ranged the services rendered either by a person, a capital or a portion of may= The bass in C. .
But in working out the consequences of this view Say is not free from obscurities and inconsistencies; and by his comprehension of these immaterial products within the domain of economics he is confirmed in the error of regarding that science as filling the whole sphere which really belongs to sociology.
The principle of the meter is to make the breaking and driving action so strong that the friction of the train becomes immaterial in comparison.
Besides these works he wrote A Letter to Mr Dodwell, arguing that it is conceivable that the soul may be material, and, secondly, that if the soul be immaterial it does not follow, as Clarke had contended, that it is immortal; Vindication of the Divine Attributes (1710); Priestcraft in Perfection (1709), in which he asserts that the clause "the Church.
As Paul Janet truly remarked, positivism contains an unconscious metaphysics in rejecting final causes and an immaterial soul.
Up to this point, then, Leibnitz opened one of the chief avenues to metaphysical idealism, the resolution of the material into the immaterial, the analysis of bodies into mental elements.
The analysis of bodies into immaterial elements by Leibnitz incited Lotze.
He accepted the Leibnitzian fallacy that unity is indivisibility, which led to the Leibnitzian analysis of material bodies into immaterial monads, indivisible and therefore unextended, and to the theory of monadic souls and entelechies.
Secondly, he accepted the Leibnitzian hypothesis of immaterial elements without accepting their self-action.
He believed in reciprocal action; and the very essence of his metaphysics consists in sublimating the interaction of bodies into the interaction of immaterial elements, which produce effects on one another and on the soul as one of them.
Having thus rejected all bodily mechanism, he had to suppose that reciprocal action somehow takes place between immaterial elements.
According to Leibnitz, while each immaterial element is a monadic substance and self-acting secondary cause, God is the primary cause of all.
According to Lotze, the connexion required by reciprocity requires also that the whole of every reciprocal action should take place within one substance; the immaterial elements act on one another merely, as the modifications of that substance interacting within itself; and that one substance is God, who thus becomes not merely the primary but the sole cause, in scholastic language a causa immanens, or agent of acts remaining within the agent's being.
But, in thus adapting to his own purposes the Leibnitzian analysis of material into immaterial, he drew his own conclusions according to his own metaphysics, which required that the supposed centres of force are not Leibnitzian " monads," nor Herbartian " reals," nor divine modifications such as Lotze afterwards supposed, but are elements of a system which in outer aspect is bodily and in inner aspect is spiritual, and obeying laws of spirit.
But the idealists are only too glad to get any excuse for denying bodily substances and causes; and, while Leibnitz supplied them with the fancied analysis of material into immaterial elements, and Hume with the reduction of bodies to assemblages of sensations, Mach adds the additional argument that bodily forces are not causes at all.
At the same time, like Cousin, his works show a tendency to underrate body, tending as they do to the Leibnitzian analysis of the material into the immaterial, and to the supposition that the unity of the body is only given by the soul.
Lastly, he thought that, while other operations have, intellect (vas) has not, a bodily organ; and hence he became responsible for the fancy that there is a break in bodily continuity between sense and will, while intellect is working out a purely immaterial operation of soul, resulting from the former and tending to the latter.
So far as the resultant velocity ratio is concerned, the order of the drivers N and of the followers n is immaterial: but to secure equable wear of the teeth, as explained in 44, the wheels ought to be so arranged that, for each elementary combination, the greatest common divisor of N and ii shall be either 1, or as small as possible.
Only here, instead of assuming something immaterial (and therefore unverifiable), we fall back upon a current of air or gas (irv€Uµa); the essential reason of the thing is itself material, standing to it in the relation of a gaseous to a solid body.
SYLPH, an imaginary spirit of the air; according to Paracelsus, the first modern writer who uses the word, an air-elemental, coming between material and immaterial beings.
By some it will be said that man, while similar in the organization of his body to the lower tribes, is distinguished from them by the possession of an immaterial soul, a principle capable of conscious feeling, of intellect and thought.
To many persons it will appear paradoxical to ascribe the endowment of a soul to the inferior tribes in the creation, yet it is difficult to discover a valid argument that limits the possession of an immaterial principle to man.
According to this view, not only life but thought are functions of the animal system, in which man excels all other animals as to height of organization: but beyond this, man embodies an immaterial and immortal spiritual principle which no lower creature possesses, and which makes the resemblance of the apes to him but a mocking simulance.
The link by which they are connected is of a higher and immaterial nature; and their connexion is to be sought in the view of the Creator himself, whose aim in forming the earth, in allowing it to undergo the successive changes which geology has pointed out, and in creating successively all the different types of animals which have passed away, was to introduce man upon the surface of our globe.
The immaterial in man is the expansive force inherent in him.
The load is received upon four knife-edges, so that on the average each knife-edge receives only one-fourth of the load, and, as will be seen, it is immaterial whether the load is received equally by the four knife-edges or not, which is essential to the useful application of these machines.
It is immaterial whether the second marriage has taken place within England and Ireland or elsewhere, and the offence may be dealt with in any county or place where the defendant shall be apprehended or be in custody.
In regard to the second marriage (which constitutes the offence) the English courts have held that it is immaterial whether, but for the bigamy, it would have been a valid marriage or not.
For while he maintains constantly his favourite maxim "that there is nothing in the intellect which has not been in the senses" (nihil in intellectu quod non pries fuerit in sensu), while he contends that the imaginative faculty (phantasia) is the counterpart of sense - that, as it has to do with material images, it is itself, like sense, material, and essentially the same both in men and brutes; he at the same time admits that the intellect, which he affirms to be immaterial and immortal - the most characteristic distinction of humanity - attains notions and truths of which no effort of sensation or imagination can give us the slightest apprehension (Op. ii..383).
He states the various proofs for the existence of an immaterial, infinite, supreme Being, asserts that this Being is the author of the visible universe, and strongly defends the doctrine of the foreknowledge and particular providence of God.
At the same time he holds, in opposition to Epicureanism, the doctrine of an immaterial rational soul, endowed with immortality and capable of free determination.