Albanian is peculiarly interesting as the only surviving representative of the so-called Thraco-Illyrian group of languages which formed the primitive speech of the peninsula.
These and other points of similarity, possibly only accidental, have led to the conjecture that the primitive Illyrian language may have exerted some kind of influence on the other idioms of the peninsula.
We find it in possession of a treaty with Rome, similar to that of the Camertes Umbri; and in 167 B.C. it was used as a place of safe custody for the Illyrian King Gentius and his sons (Livy xlv.
On the other hand, they were overcome by the Autariatae, an Illyrian tribe; the date of HO 2 C C =N NC 6 H 4 NH 2 NH.
Next year Pollio conducted a successful campaign against the Parthini, an Illyrian people who adhered to Brutus, and celebrated a triumph on the 25th of October.
Some explain the name as the "beer god," from an Illyrian word sabaya, while others suggest a connexion with 2aFo (god of "health") or GrOas.
GAIUS MESSIUS QUINTUS TRAJANUS DECIUS (201-251), Roman emperor, the first of the long succession of distinguished men from the Illyrian provinces, was born at Budalia near Sirmium in lower Pannonia in A.D.
Illyrian, not an Etruscan, foundation - still less a foundation of Dionysius I.
Of Austria, who took the title of duke of Carniola; and since then the duchy has remained a part of the Austrian possessions, except during the short period from 1809 to 1813, when it was incorporated with the French Illyrian Provinces.
Still farther to the north-west a distinct Minoan influence is perceptible in the old Illyrian lands east of the Adriatic, and its traces reappear in the neighbourhood of Venice.
When, in 1809, Dalmatia was re-annexed to the Illyrian provinces, Dandolo returned to Venice, having received as his reward from the French emperor the title of count and several other distinctions.
The Austrian demands, first presented to him on the 16th of May, shortly after his victory of Liitzen, were (1) the dissolution of the grand duchy of Warsaw, (2) the withdrawal of France from the lands of north-west Germany annexed in 1810 and (3) the cession to Austria of the Illyrian provinces wrested from her in 1809.
Pauli, who has published all the known inscriptions of the Heneti, holds that the language is Illyrian, closely connected with Messapian.
Kretschmer goes further and divides the Illyrian language into two sharply defined dialects, the northern dialect being represented by the Heneti.
The result is that in the present condition of our knowledge we must conclude that the Heneti were a branch of the Illyrian people.
400, Palmyra was the station of the first Illyrian legion (Not.
The Balkan hill-peoples of Illyrian or Thracian stock, the hill-peoples of Asia Minor and Iran, the chivalry of Media and Bactria, the mounted bowmen of the Caspian steppes, the camel-riders of the Arabian desert, could all be turned to account.
The old Illyrian population was rapidly absorbed or expelled, its Latin institutions being replaced by the autonomous tribal divisions, or Zupanates, of the Sla y s.
Evans, Illyrian Letters (London, 1878); W.
The name "Illyrian" (see Illyria) was applied to all the tribes of this stock who dwelt west of the northern extensions of the Pindus range and in what was termed Upper Macedonia in later times, and who extended right up to the head of the Adriatic. In Homer the name Macedonia is not yet known, and the term Thracian is applied to all the tribes dwelling from Pieria to the Euxine.
Thus there was an Illyrian tribe Brygi, a Thracian one Bryges; some of the latter had passed into Asia and settled in the land called from them Phrygia, whence some of them later passed into Armenia; some of the Mysians (regarded by Strabo as Thracians) had also crossed into what was later known as Mysia: closely connected with the Mysians were the Dardanii, of Trojan fame, who had a city Dardania or Dardanus.
In Strabo's time a tribe called Dardanii, then reckoned Illyrian, living next the Thracian Bessi (in whose land was the oldest oracle of Dionysus), were probably as much Thracian as Illyrian.
All the Thracian and Illyrian tribes tattooed, thus being distinguished from the Celtic tribes who had conquered many of them.
The first active impulse toward political unity was given by Napoleon, when after Wagram he erected the Slovene districts and most of Croatia and Dalmatia into a separate Illyrian State, incorporated in the French Empire, but having its administrative capital at Laibach.
This short-lived experiment, which inspired the muse of Vodnik, the first Slovene poet of real mark, had its aftermath in the Illyrian movement of the forties, which centred in Zagreb, the Croatian capital.
His two newspapers, the Illyrian National Gazette and the Danica Ilirska (Illyrian Daystar) provided a literary focus for the rising generation; while his reform of Croat orthography, planned on parallel lines with Vuk Karadzic's epochmaking philological work in Serbia, assured to modern SerboCroat literature a definitely unitary development.
It was a fertile soil for Gaj's agitation, and in 1848 the Croatian nation found in Baron Jelacic a military leader who voiced the Illyrian idea and hoped to realize it in union with the Habsburg Dynasty and the other subject nationalities of Hungary.
Its original inhabitants (Pannonii, sometimes called Paeonii by the Greeks) were probably of Illyrian race.
7 the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, revolted, and were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign which lasted for two years.
At the time of the foundation of Aquileia by the Romans, the district which now includes Trieste was occupied by Celtic and Illyrian tribes; and the Roman colony of Tergeste (q.v.) does not seem to have been established till the reign of Vespasian.
It was occupied as a naval station in the Illyrian war of 178 B.C. (Liv.
Gallienus was killed at Mediolanum by his own soldiers while besieging Aureolus, who was proclaimed emperor by the Illyrian legions.
The district called Dardania (in Upper Moesia), inhabited by the Illyrian Dardani, was formed into a special province by Diocletian with capital Naissus (Nissa or Nish), the birthplace of Constantine the Great.
It subsequently fell into the hands of Illyrian corsairs, until in 229 it was delivered by the Romans, who retained it as a naval station and gave it the rank of a free state.
The modern Istria occupies the same position as the ancient Istria or Histria, known to the Romans as the abode of a fierce tribe of Illyrian pirates.
At the same time a new enemy arose in the Illyrian pirate fleets, which outdid them in unscrupulousness and violence.
He served with distinction as a soldier under Aurelian and Probus, and in 293 was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria, and at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces.
Among the southern Sla y s the " Illyrian " movement, voiced from 1836 onward in the Illyrian National Gazette of Ljudevit Gaj, was directed in the first instance to a somewhat shadowy Pan-Slav union, which, on the interference of the Austrian government in 1844, was exchanged for the more definite object of a revival of " the Triune Kingdom " (Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia) independent of the Hungarian crown (see Croatia, &c.).
He had apparently identified himself with the " Illyrian " party, had broken off all communications with the Hungarian government, and, in spite of an imperial edict issued in response to the urgency of Batthyani, had summoned a diet to Agram, which on the 9th of June decreed the separation of the " Triune Kingdom " from Hungary.
Thus was proclaimed the identity of the Slav and the conservative points of view; the radical "Illyrian " assembly had done its work, and on the 9th of July Jellachich, while declaring it " permanent," prorogued it indefinitely " with a paternal greeting," on the ground that the safety of the Fatherland depended now " more upon physical than upon moral force."
Their political ideal was an " Illyrian " kingdom, including Croatia and all the southern Sla y s in the coast district, and a not very successful movement had been started to establish a so-called Illyrian language, which should be accepted by both 'Croats and Slovenes.
They were able, therefore, to introduce Illyrian as the official language, and cause the names of the streets to be written up in Illyrian.
Serious riots broke out in some of the towns of Istria when, for the first time, Illyrian was used for this purpose as well as Italian.
He helped the Parians in their settlements of Issa and Pharos; he took into his pay Illyrian warriors with Greek arms, and helped the Molossian Alcetas to win back part of his kingdom.
As late as 385 B.C. the Parians, in conjunction with Dionysius of Syracuse, founded a colony on the Illyrian island of Pharos (Diod.
Large galleys could not anchor in the bay of Zengg, which is shallow and exposed to sudden gales, so the Uskoks fitted out a fleet of swift boats, light enough to navigate the smallest creeks and inlets of the Illyrian shore, and easily sunk and recovered, if a temporary landing became necessary.
The Albanians, who call themselves Shkitpetar or Arber, are the representatives of the primitive Illyrian population; they inhabit the Adriatic littoral from the southern frontier of Montenegro to the northern boundary of Greece, in which country they are found in considerable numbers.
Albanian, the only surviving remnant of the ancient Thraco-Illyrian speech, affords an interesting study to philologists.
In Albania the aboriginal Illyrian element, which preserved its ancient language, maintained itself in the mountains and eventually forced back the immigrant race.
In the 7th the Serbo-Croats invaded the north-western regions (Croatia, Servia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro and northern Albania); they expelled or assimilated the Illyrian population, now represented in Dalmatia by the slavonized Morlachs or Mavro-Vlachs, and appropriated the old Roman colonies on the Adriatic coast.