There was, therefore, a residue of 9% of illiterates, most of whom were not born in Australia.
The census of 1871 gave 73% of illiterates, that of 1881, 67%, and that of 1901, 56%, i.e.
In Piedmont there were 17.7% of illiterates above six years (the lowest) and in Calabria 78.7% (the highest), the figures for the whole country being 48~5.
Rhese are, however, the only institutions in which a decrease is shown, and by the law of 1906 5000 of these institutions are to be provided in the communes where the proportion of illiterates is highest.
According to the census of 1897 the number of illiterates varied from 89.2 to 44.9% of the population in the rural districts, and from 63.6 to 37.2% in the urban.
It is well provided with schools of every description, and the number of illiterates is steadily decreasing.
The separation of church and state is provided for by the constitution, and both the nation and the states are forbidden to establish, subsidize or restrict the exercise of any religious worship. Foreigners are eligible to Brazilian citizenship, and the right of suffrage is conferred upon all male citizens over twenty-one years of age, except beggars, illiterates, the rank and file of the armed forces, members of monastic orders, &c., bound by private vows, and all unregistered citizens.
The average number of each sex in Burma per thousand is :- literates, male 378; female, 45; illiterates, male, 622; female, 955.
The percentage of illiterates (i.e.
In 1890 the percentage of illiterates in the total population had been 28.5; in 1900 it had fallen to 22.7, and in 1910 to 16.5.
The proportion of illiterates is small.
Again, education, science, art and literature have been secularized: the printing-press carries knowledge into every house, the number of illiterates diminishes from year to year in every civilized country, and the clergy are no longer the exclusive propagators of culture, but merely one factor among a hundred others.
In Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia the standard of education - elementary, higher and technical - is excellent, and there are practically no illiterates - a state of affairs attributable to the interest which the Czech nation (imbued with the traditions of Comenius) had ever taken in education.
In 1900 illiterates (that is, persons unable to write, the 2 See his Discussions in Economics and Statistics, ii.
On the other hand, a notable exception is afforded by the native whites of native parents, particularly in the South, where child illiteracy (and child labor) is highest; the declining proportion of illiterates shown by the age~groups of this class up to 24 years is apparently due to a will to learn late in life.
In 1890 females preponderated among illiterates only in the age-group 10 to 19 years.
The excess of female illiteracy in the total population also decreased within the same period, from 20.3 to 108 illiterates in a thousand.
It has already been observed that paupers and convicted criminals are excluded in many states, illiterates in some states.
The percentage of illiterates declined from 50.97% in 1880 to 41% in 1890, and 34% in 1900, when Alabama ranked third among the states in illiteracy.
Also the percentage of negro illiteracy is higher in northern Georgia than in other parts of the state, the percentage of negro male illiterates of voting age being 38.3% in Atlanta in 1900, and in Savannah only 30.7%.
In 1908 69% of the school population (79% of whites; 58% of negroes) were enrolled in the schools; in 1902 it was estimated that the negroes, 52.3% of whom (ro years of age and over) were illiterates (i.e.
Of the total population, 10 years of age and over, 30.5% were illiterates in 1 9 00 -49'9% were illiterates in 1880 - and as regards the whites of native birth alone, Georgia ranked ninth in illiteracy, in 1900, among the states and territories of the Union.
Of the illiterates about four-fifths were negroes in 1900.
Of the above 131 illiterates in 1900-1901, 114 were in East and West Prussia, Posen and Silesia.
Elementary education is improving, but, after Dalmatia, Bukovina still shows the largest number of illiterates in Austria.
Education is well advanced, and Bohemia has the lowest proportion of illiterates amongst the Austrian provinces.
In 1900 the percentage of illiterates at least ten years old was 3.1.
At the close of the 19th century, however, the accommodation was insufficient, the attendance limited in consequence, and the percentage of illiterates high; reaching 88.5% in some of the rural communes.