Butler is charged by Sir Leslie 'Stephen with arguing illegitimately - professing to make no appeal to " moral fitness," and yet contending that the facts of human life show (the beginnings of) moral retribution for good and evil.
Even in ordinary algebra the notation for powers and roots disturbs the symmetry of the rational theory; and when a schoolboy illegitimately extends the distributive law by writing -V (a+b)a+J b, he is unconsciously emphasizing this want of complete harmony.
To the epistemologist it seemed to confuse foundation and keystone, and to suppose itself to build upon the latter in a construction illegitimately appropriative of materials otherwise accumulated.
By his method of observation and induction as thus explained, his philosophy will be found to be marked off very clearly, on the one hand from the deductive construction of notions of an absolute system, as represented either by Schelling or Hegel, which Cousin regards as based simply on hypothesis and abstraction, illegitimately obtained; and on the other, from that of Kant, and in a sense, of Sir W.
Again the pure being of Hegel is a mere abstraction, - a hypothesis illegitimately assumed, which he has nowhere sought to vindicate.
The intellectual intuition of Schelling, as above consciousness, the pure being of Hegel, as an empty abstraction, unvindicated, illegitimately assumed, and arbitrarily developed, are equally useless as bases of metaphysics.