After the time of the Apostles, we find this criminal jurisdiction exercised by the bishops individually over their respective " subjects " - doubtless with the advice of their presbyters according to the precept of St Ignatius (c. i io).
The cause of Ignatius and Photius was dealt with in the 9th century by various synods; those in the East agreeing with the emperor's view for the time being, while those in the West acted with the pope.
The Church writers who flourished toward the end of the apostolic age and during the half century that followed it, including Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp of Smyrna and the author known as "Barnabas."
He and the Savoyard Pierre Lefevre, who shared his lodging, had already, in 1529, made the acquaintance of Ignatius of Loyola - like Xavier a native of the Spanish Basque country.
Ignatius succeeded, though in Xavier's case after some opposition, in gaining their sympathy for his missionary schemes (see Loyola, Ignatius Of); and they were among the company of seven persons, including Loyola himself, who took the original Jesuit vows on the 15th of August 1534.
They continued in Paris for two years longer; but on November 15th, 1536, they started for Italy, to concert with Ignatius plans for converting the Moslems of Palestine.
As some months must elapse before they could sail for Palestine, Ignatius determined that the time should be spent partly in hospital work at Venice and later in the journey to Rome.
Nicolas Bobadilla and Xavier betook themselves first to Monselice and thence to Bologna, where they remained till summoned to Rome by Ignatius at the close of 1538.
Ignatius retained Xavier at Rome until 1541 as secretary to the Society of Jesus (see Jesuits for the events of the period 1538-41).
Ignatius could spare but two, and chose Bobadilla and a Portuguese named Simao Rodrigues for the purpose.
Hereupon Ignatius, on March 15th, 1540, told Xavier to leave Rome the next day with Mascarenhas, in order to join Rodrigues in the Indian mission.
Throughout his life he remained in close touch with Ignatius of Loyola, who is said to have selected Xavier as his own successor at the head of the Society of Jesus.
Within a few weeks of Xavier's death, indeed, Ignatius sent letters recalling him to Europe with that end in view.
Seized with a longing to pursue and kill the Moor on account of his insulting language, Ignatius, still doubting as to his best course, left the matter to his mule, which at the dividing of the ways took the path to the abbey, leaving the open road which the Moor had taken.
Before reaching Montserrato, Ignatius purchased some sackcloth for a garment and hempen shoes, which, with a staff and gourd, formed the usual pilgrim's dress.
1510); and this book evidently gave Ignatius the first idea of his more famous work under the same title.
Ignatius remained at Manresa for about a year, and in the spring of 1523 set out for Barcelona on his way to Rome, where he arrived on Palm Sunday.
In due course Ignatius arrived at Jerusalem, where he intended to remain, in order continuously to visit the holy places and help souls.
Ignatius returned to Venice in the middle of January 1524; and, determining to devote himself for a while to study, he set out for Barcelona, where he arrived in Lent.
On account of these discourses Ignatius came into conflict with the Inquisition.
But, always ready to obey authority, Ignatius was able to disarm any charges that, now and at other times, were brought against him.
Some days afterwards Ignatius was examined and found without fault.
Hampered again by such an order, Ignatius determined to go to Paris to continue his studies.
Soon after his arrival, Ignatius may have seen in the Place de Greve the burning of Louis de Berquin for heresy.'
When Ignatius arrived in Paris, he lodged at first with some fellow-countrymen; and for two years attended the lectures on humanities at the college de Montaigu, supporting himself at first by the charity of Isabella Roser; but, a fellowlodger defrauding him of his stock, he found himself destitute and compelled to beg his bread.
But, whatever may have been the private opinion of Ignatius, there was on this occasion no foundation of any society.
At this time Ignatius was again suffering from his former imprudent austerities; and he was urged to return for a while to his native air.
During the absence of Ignatius, Faber gained three more adherents.
But before leaving Paris Ignatius heard once more that complaints had been lodged against him at the Inquisition; but these like the others were found to be without any foundation.
What happened between the two does not appear; but henceforth Caraffa seems to have borne ill will towards Ignatius and his companions.
At Venice Ignatius was again accused of heresy, and it was said that he had escaped from the Inquisition in Spain and had been burnt in effigy at Paris.
After a journey of fifty-four days his companions arrived at Venice in January 1537; and here they remained until the beginning of Lent, when Ignatius sent them to Rome to get money for the proposed voyage to Palestine.
They had returned to Venice where Ignatius and the others were ordained priests on the 24th of June 1537, after having renewed their vows of poverty and chastity to the legate Verallo.
Ignatius, now a priest, waited for eighteen months before saying Mass, which he did for the first time on the 25th of December 1538 in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.
Finding it impossible to keep this part of their vow, the fathers met at Vicenza, where Ignatius was staying in a ruined monastery; and here after deliberation it was determined that he, Laynez and Faber should go to Rome to place the little band at the disposal of the pope.
Ignatius declared that having assembled in the name of Jesus, the association should henceforth bear the name of the "Company of Jesus."
On the road to Rome a famous vision took place, as to which we have the evidence of Ignatius himself.
Ignatius, however, says nothing about so important a matter; indeed he understood the vision to mean that many things would be adverse to them, and told his companions when they reached the city that he saw the windows there closed against him.
Ignatius was left free to carry on his spiritual work, which became so large that he was obliged to call his other companions to Rome.
During the absence of the pope, a certain hermit began to spread heresy and was opposed by Ignatius and his companions.
In revenge the hermit brought up the former accusations concerning the relations to the Inquisition, and proclaimed Ignatius and his friends to be false, designing men and no better than concealed heretics.
The life of Ignatius is now mainly identified with the formation and growth of his Society (see JEsu1Ts), but his zeal found other outlets in Rome.
The idea of the book is not original to Ignatius._ At Montserrato he had found in use a popular translation of the Exercitatorio de la vida spiritual (1500), written in Latin by Abbot Garcias de Cisneros (d.
While taking the title, the idea of division by periods and the subjects of most of the meditations from the older work, Ignatius skilfully adapted it to his own requirements.
Ignatius, with his military instinct and views of obedience, intervenes with a director who gives the exercises to the person who in turn receives them.
If this introduction of the director is essential to the end for which Ignatius framed his Exercises, in it we also find dangers.
Besides these there are various additions to the series of meditations, which are mostly the practical results of the experiences which Ignatius went through in the early stages of his conversion.
Ignatius was constantly adding to his work as his own personal experience increased, and as he watched the effects of his method on the souls of those to whom he gave the exercises.
Ignatius wrote originally in Spanish, but the book was twice translated into Latin during his lifetime.
One of his last trials was to see in 1556 the election as pope of his old opponent Caraffa, who soon showed his intention of reforming certain points in the Society that Ignatius considered vital.