The offendicula have sometimes been looked upon as an anticipation of Francis Bacon's Idola, but the two classifications have little in common.
Sturt, Idola theatri, 1908).
Sturt (Idola theatri, 1906), and H.
(4) Redargutio Philosophiarum, a highly finished piece in the form of an oration, composed probably about 1608 or 1609, and containing in pretty full detail much of what afterwards appears in connexion with the Idola Theatri in book i.
This discussion, though strictly speaking extraneous to the scheme, has always been looked upon as a most important part of his philosophy, and his name is perhaps as much associated with the doctrine of Idols (Idola) as with the theory of induction or the classification of the sciences.
The Idola (Nov.
The first kind are the Idola Tribus, idols of the tribe, fallacies incident to humanity or the race in general.
The second kind are the Idola Specus, idols of the cave, or errors incident to the peculiar mental or bodily constitution of each individual, for according to the state of the individual's mind is his view of things.
A practical rule for avoiding these is also given: " In general let every student of nature take this as a rule, that whatever his mind seizes and dwells upon with particular satisfaction is to be held in suspicion."' The third class are the Idola Fori, idols of the market-place, errors arising from the influence exercised over the mind by mere words.
This, according to 1 The word Idola is manifestly borrowed from Plato.
(For valuable notes on the Idola, see T.
38 notes; especially for a comparison of the Idola with Roger Bacon's Offendicula.) N.
The fourth and last class are the Idola Theatri, idols of the theatre, i.e.
The whole legend of Peter is an excellent instance of the legendary amplification of the first crusade - an amplification which, beginning during the crusade itself, in the idolizations " of the different camps (idola castrorum, if one may pervert Bacon), soon developed into a regular saga.