For the natural realist stands upon the common-sense position that minds and material objects have equally effective existence; while the idealist explains matter by mind and denies that mind can be explained by matter.
A pantheist may believe in Law of Nature and go no further; a theist who accepts Law of Nature has a large instalment of natural theology ready made to his hand; including an idealist, or else an intuitionalist, scheme of ethics.
Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.
Realist make him almost if not quite intuitionalist; while there is also an idealist reading possible.
He also gives us " natural law " 2 - a Stoic inheritance, preserving the form of an idealist appeal to systematic requirements of reason, while practically limiting its assumptions to those of intuitionalism.
If our grouping of philosophies, as given above, is sound, every idealist scheme contains potentially an ontologi cal argument.
At least, idealist philosophy will hold that the substance if not the form of the argument is sound 4 though the question of its interpretation remains.
One may regard him as an idealist, though Scottish intuitionalism - especially in the writings of Professor John Veitch - has claimed him for its own; and indeed Descartes's two substances of active mind and passive extended matter are very much akin to " Natural Dualism."
Still, Descartes has marked idealist traits, as when he refurbishes the ontological argument with clearer emphasis on the perfect being as " necessarily " existent 5 - reasoning a shade less quantitative or a shade more subtle than Anselm's.
He is no intuitionalist; but he is a drily common-sense mind, piling up in heaps the ruinous fragments of an idealist system.
But once again in his political writings he breaks away from empiricism in appealing to natural law - an intuitionalist or conceivably an idealist tradition.
It is Clarke's defence of free will, Clarke's idealist theory of eternal " fitness " as the basis of ethical distinctions, perhaps Clarke's teaching on immortality, that Butler regards as " the common known arguments " and authoritative enunciations of truth in the regions of philosophy or Natural Theology.'
From the point of view of our grouping, he is an idealist of anomalous type.
Allied with this more empiricist stand-point is the assertion that Greek philosophy borrowed from Moses; but in studying the Fathers we constantly find that groundless assertion uttered in the same breath with the dominant Idealist view, according to which Greek philosophy was due to incomplete revelation from the divine Logos.
The philosophical, Platonist, or Idealist line of Christian defence is represented among recent writers by J.
Pessimism is naturally connected with materialist, optimism with idealist, views of life.
He was an idealist, his enemies would say a doctrinaire, and certainly the terms "natural rights," "natural law," &c., frequently occur in his writings.
As a philosophical idealist, however, he transmutes the whole contents of the faith of the church into ideas which bear the mark of Neo-Platonism, and were accordingly recognized by the later Neo-Platonists as Hellenic. 4 In Origen, however, 1 There are, however, extensive fragments of the original in existence.
He was an idealist; but his idealism was of a type the exact reverse of that which the Revolution in arms had sought to impose upon Europe.
Joseph was an idealist and a doctrinaire, whose dream was to build up his ideal body politic; the first step toward which was to be the amalgamation of all his dominions into a common state under an absolute sovereign (see Austria-Hungary; and Joseph Ii., Emperor).
Martineau's theory of the religious society or church was that of an idealist rather than of a statesman or practical politician.
Horatius Flaccus or Horace (68-8) is both the realist and the idealist of his age.
He has been called Kantian and Neo-Kantian, Realist and Idealist (by himself, for he held that appearance and reality are co-extensive and coincident).
He represented an empiricism which, so far from refuting, was actually based on, idealism, and yet was alert to expose the fallacies of a particular idealist construction (see his essay in Ethical Democracy, edited by Dr Stanton Coit).
He was an idealist; but in this very fact lay the seeds of his failure.
Alexander was also an idealist, but his ideals were apt to centre in himself; his dislike and distrust of talents that overshadowed his own were disarmed for a while by the singular charm of Speranski's personality, but sooner or later he was bound to discover that he himself was regarded as but the most potent instrument for the attainment of that ideal end, a regenerated Russia, which was his minister's sole preoccupation.
Bailey can hardly be classed as belonging either to the strictly empirical or to the idealist school, but his general tendency is towards the former.
We have thus the nucleus of that international parliament which idealist peacemakers have dreamt of since the time of Henry IV.'s " grand design."
He was a psychological idealist and a metaphysical realist.
Yes, rejoins Lange, but Kant has proved that material are merely mental phenomena; so that the more the materialist proves his case the more surely he is playing into the hands of the idealist - an answer which would be complete if it did not turn on the equivocation of the word " phenomenon," which in science means any positive fact, and not a mere appearance, much less a mental appearance, to sense and sensory experience.
If the personal idealist consistently denies other bodies, then the bodily signs become, according to him, only part of his experience, which can prove only the existence of himself.
The ordinary mind complained that he had no specific remedy to propose for the growing evils of the time; and the more cultivated idealist was alienated by the gloom and the tendency to despair.
He flattered in turn Saint Just and the Terrorists, the Thermidorians and the Directors, and played always for his own hand - a strange egoist who rose to fame as the leader of an idealist and sentimental crusade.
But they have both been urged with sufficient ability to arrest its progress and to call for a reconsideration and restatement of the fundamental principle of idealist philosophy and its relation to the fundamental problems of religion.
An optimist and idealist, he joined to a fervent belief in liberty an equal enthusiasm for German unity and the idea of the German state.
- Hisham was a wise and able prince and an enemy of luxury, not an idealist like Omar II., nor a worldling like Yazid II., but more like his father Abdalmalik, devoting all his energy to the pacification of the interior, and to extending and consolidating the empire of Islam.
Lotze's procedure is, indeed, analogous to the way in which, in his philosophy of nature, he starts from a plurality of real beings, but by means of a reductive movement, an application of Kant's transcendental method, arrives at the postulate or fact of a law of their reciprocal action which calls for a monistic and idealist interpretation.
Such considerations prevailed where we might least expect to find them, in the mind of the idealist Berkeley.
The Christian apologists of the 2nd century, however, found plenty of testimony to their doctrine of the unity of God in the writings of Greek poets and philosophers; it was a commonplace in the revival under the Empire; and among the group of religions embraced under the name Buddhism more than one form must be ranked as monotheistic. The idealist philosophy of the Prajiia Paramita in the system of the " Great Vehicle " declared that " every phenomenon is the manifestation of mind " (Beal, Catena, p. 303).
The idealist position Kant seemed at first sight to retain with an even stronger force than ever.
1861) also began as a decided realist, and turned to a more psychological and idealist treatment of life.
While denying the possibility of an absolute method and an absolute philosophy, as contended for by Hegel and others, Trendelenburg was emphatically an idealist in the ancient or Platonic sense; his whole work was devoted to the demonstration of the ideal in the real.
But the theory must, as a metaphysical theory, be reckoned on the idealist side.
To speak technically, it is an idealist monism."
He was an idealist, but while other idealists idealize the nobler elements in human nature, so has he, for the most part - the later books, however, show improvement - idealized the elements that are bestial.