We find in nature two other unlike substances, marble and Iceland spar, each of which is wholly composed of carbon dioxide and lime.
Classified according to place of birth, the principal nationalities were as follows in 1901: Canada, 180,853; England, 20,392; Scotland, 8099; Ireland, 4537; other British possessions, 490; Germany, 229,; Iceland, 54 0 3; Austria, 11,570; Russia and Poland, 8854; Scandinavia, 1772; United States, 6922; other countries, 4028.
Wide, leading to Baffin Bay; (3) Denmark Strait, between Greenland and Iceland, 130 m.
Wide, extending from Iceland to the Faeroe Islands, the Shetland Islands and the coast of Norway.
North of the fiftieth parallel the depths diminish towards the north-east, two long submarine ridges of volcanic origin extend north-eastwards to the southwest of Iceland and to the Faeroe Islands, and these, with their intervening valleys, end in a transverse ridge connecting Greenland, through Iceland and the Faeroe Islands, with Northwestern Scotland and the continental mass of Europe.
Arason, who was the last Roman Catholic bishop in Iceland, is celebrated as a poet, and as the man who introduced printing into the island.
Maps of the Faroer and of Iceland have likewise been issued.
Denmark Strait is the sea between it and Iceland, and the northern Norwegian Sea or Greenland Sea separates it from Spitsbergen.
A submarine ridge, about 300 fathoms deep at its deepest, unites Greenland with Iceland (across Denmark Strait), the Faeroes and Scotland.
Blue Sark or blue shirt) of the old Norsemen, their first landmark on their way from Iceland to the ester Bygd, the present Julianehaab district, on the south-west coast of Greenland.
In the beginning of the 10th century the Norwegian Gunnbjdrn, son of Ulf Kraka, is reported to have found some islands to the west of Iceland, and he may have seen, without landing upon it, the southern part of the east coast of Greenland.
In 982 the Norwegian Eric the Red sailed from Iceland to find the land which GunnbjOrn had seen, and he spent three years on its south-western coasts exploring the country.
On his return to Iceland in 985 he called the land Greenland in order to make people more willing to go there, and reported so favourably on its possibilities that he had no difficulty in obtaining followers.
In 986 he started again from Iceland with 25 ships, but only 14 of them reached Greenland, where a colony was founded on the south-west coast, in the present Julianehaab district.
Greenland, like Iceland, had a republican organization up to the years 1247 to 1261, when the Greenlanders were induced to swear allegiance to the king of Norway.
Greenland belonged to the Norwegian crown till 1814, when, at the dissolution of the union between Denmark and Norway, neither it nor Iceland and the Faeroes were mentioned, and they, therefore, were kept by the Danish king and thus came to Denmark.
There have been great differences in the seas round Iceland and Greenland with regard to the presence of ice: from the 9th to the 12th centuries there is no evidence (in contemporary accounts) of the presence of much ice in the sea off Greenland, nor was much ice carried by the Labrador current, but from the 13th century onwards we do have evidence that there was very troublesome ice off Greenland.
Hence from the 10th to the 12th centuries there was great intercourse with Iceland and Greenland on the part of the English, Swedish and Danish, but at the end of the 13th century some change occurred, resulting in the southerly emigration of the Eskimos and the extinction of European civilization in Greenland.
In Europe the best-known localities for them are the Lipari Islands, Pantellaria, Iceland and Hungary.
Included in this group are some rocks which are more properly to be regarded as vitreous forms of trachyte than as glassy rhyolites (Iceland), but except by chemical analyses they cannot be separated.
The word still appears in the names of the legislative assemblies of Norway, the Storthing and of Iceland, the Althing.
The avifauna is very rich in migratory water and marsh fowl (Grallatores and Natatores), which come to breed in the coast region; but only five land birds - the ptarmigan (Lagopus alpinus), snow-bunting, Iceland falcon, snow-owl and raven - are permanent inhabitants of the region.
Passing from South Africa to the north polar regions of both the Old and the New World, inclusive of Iceland, we enter the domain of the Arctic fox (V.
There is regular communication with Iceland, the continental ports and London.
Of the reformed Churches of the continent of Europe only the Lutheran Churches of Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland preserve the episcopal system in anything of its historical sense; and of these only the two last can lay claim to the possession of bishops in the unbroken line of episcopal succession.
For many years the whole trade of Iceland, which he frequently visited, passed through his hands, and he soon became equally well known at Gli ckstadt, then the chief emporium of the Iceland trade, and at Copenhagen.
It forms colourless, transparent rhombohedra, like those of Iceland spar; the angles are nearly equal to right angles, being 73° 30', so that the crystals look like cubes: hence the name of "cubic saltpetre."
In Iceland the third part of a thing which corresponds roughly to an English county was called thrithjungr; in Norway, however, the thrithjungr seems to have been an ecclesiastical division.
This godwit is a species of wide range, reaching Iceland, where it is called Jardraeka (= earthraker), in summer, and occurring numerously in India in winter.
This creature displays an almost unexampled frequency and extent of distribution in the whole North Sea, in the western parts of the Baltic, near the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland and the English coasts, so that it may be regarded as a characteristic North Sea echinoderm form.
Iceland has had the Islenzk Sagnablod (1817-1826), Ny Fjelagsrit (1841-1873), and Gefn (1870-1873).
After the Revolution of 1688, he commanded 1 The bird, however, does not inhabit Iceland, and the language to which the name belongs would perhaps be more correctly termed Old Teutonic. From this word is said to come the French Freux.
Christian was also the ruler of Iceland, where he was received with great enthusiasm when he visited the island in 1874.
It has been found more convenient to take as northern boundaries the narrowest part of the straits near the Arctic circle, Bering Strait on the Pacific side, and on the Atlantic side the narrowest part of Davis Strait, and of Denmark Strait, then the shortest line from Iceland to the Faeroes, thence to the most northerly island of the Shetlands and thence to Cape Statland in Norway.
Instead of the expensive mile-long stout hemp lines used and since 1887 those of the prince of Monaco in his yachts, as by Ross, Maury introduced a ball of strong twine attached to a well as numerous Danish vessels in the sea between Iceland and cannon shot, which ran it out rapidly; when the bottom was Greenland, conspicuous amongst which were the expeditions reached the twine was cut and the depth deduced from the length in1896-1898on board the " Ingolf."
Amongst the best known of the furrows of the continental shelf are the Cape Breton Deep, in the Bay of Biscay, the Hudson Furrow, southward of New York, the so-called Congo Canon, the Swatch of No Ground off the Ganges delta, the Bottomless Pit off the Niger delta, and numerous similar furrows on the west coast of North America and outside the fjords of Norway, Iceland and the west of Scotland, as well as in the.
As the result of all the deep-sea surveys now available we know that the central rise of the Atlantic starts from Iceland as the Reykjanes Ridge with less than loon fathoms of water over it in most parts and runs south-westward until in 51° N.
The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.
He discovered double refraction in Iceland spar (Experimenta crystalli islandici disdiaclastici, Copenhagen, 1669).
B.) SIGUROSSON, JON (1811-1879), Icelandic statesman and man of letters, was born in the west of Iceland in 1811.
In 1830 he was secretary to the bishop of Iceland, the learned Steingrimr Jonsson.
Of these we may mention LOgsogumannatal og LOgmanna a Islandi (" Speakers of the Law and Law-men in Iceland"); his edition of Landneima and other sagas in Islendinga SOgur, i.
But although he was one of the greatest scholars Iceland has produced, he was still greater as a politician.
The Danish rule had, during the centuries following the Reformation, gradually brought Iceland to the verge of economic ruin; the ancient Parliament of the island, which had degenerated to a mere shadow, had been abolished in 1800; all the revenue of Iceland went into the Danish treasury, and only very small sums were spent for the good of the island; but worst of all was the notorious monopoly which gave away the whole trade of Iceland to a single Danish trading company.
In 1854 the trade of Iceland was declared free to all nations.
But when Denmark got a free constitution in 1848, which had no legal validity in Iceland, the island felt justified in demanding full home rule.
To this the Danish government was vehemently opposed; it convoked an Icelandic National Assembly in 1851, and brought before that body a bill granting Iceland small local liberties, but practically incorporating Iceland in Denmark.
In 1871 the Danish parliament (Riksdag) passed a law defining the political position of Iceland in the Danish monarchy, which, though never recognized as valid by the Icelanders, became de facto the base of the political relations of Iceland and Denmark.
Visited Iceland at the festival commemorating the millenary of the colonization of Iceland from Norway, he gave to the country a Constitution, with full home rule in all internal matters.
Recognizing the value of an intellectual centre, he made Reykjavik not only the political, but the spiritual capital of Iceland by removing all the chief institutions of learning to that city; he was the soul of many literary and political societies, and the chief editor of the Ny Felagsrit, which has done more than any other Icelandic periodical to promote the cause of civilization and progress in Iceland.