One of them was involved in war with the Romans in 24 and 23 B.C.; the land was invaded by C. Petronius, who took the fortress Premis or Ibrim, and sacked the capital (then Napata); the emperor Augustus, however, ordered the evacuation of the country without even demanding tribute.
Here are the temples of Debfld, the temple and quarries of Kertassi, the temples of Kalabsha, Bet el Wali, Dendr, Gerf Husn, Dakka, Maharaka, Es-Seba, Amgda and Derr, the grottos of Elles ya, the tombs of Aniba, the temple of Ibrim, the great rock-temples of Abu-Simbel, the temples at Jebel Adda and Wadi Halfa, the forts and temples of Semna, the temples of Amgra (Meroitic) and Soleb.
On the Nubiari sites his work may still be seen at Amfida, Ellesra, Ibrim, Semna and in Sinai at Serabit el KMdem.
In the year following the massacre the unfortunate exiles were attacked by Ibrahim Pasha, the eldest son of Mehemet Au, in the fortified town of Ibrim, in Nubia.