In Asia Minor the Kurdish troops under Ibrahim Pasha revolted, and, although they were defeated with the loss of their commander, the Kurds continued to attack indiscriminately the Turks, Nestorians and Armenians; disturbances also broke out among the other reactionary Moslems of this region, culminating in a massacre of the Armenians at Adana.
In 1832 it was taken by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha.
Laristan remained an independent state under a Turkish ruler until 1602, when Shah Ibrahim Khan was deposed and put to death by Shah `Abbas the Great.
Ibrahim, emperor of Delhi, had made himself detested, even by his Afghan nobles, several of whom called upon Baber for assistance.
Ibrahim, with roo,000 soldiers and numerous elephants, advanced against him.
The great battle was fought at Panipat on the 21st of April 1526, when Ibrahim was slain and his army routed.
The Nahr Malk or royal river, modern Radhwaniya, leaves the Euphrates five leagues below this and joins the Tigris three leagues below Ctesiphon; while the Kutha, modern Habl-Ibrahim, leaving the Euphrates three leagues below the Malk joins the Tigris ten leagues below Ctesiphon.
England and France protested energetically and the treaty remained a dead letter, but the question came up again in 1840, after Mahmud's renewed attempt to crush Mehemet Ali had ended in the utter defeat of the Turks by Ibrahim at Nezib (June 24, 1839).
Nisibis (Nezib) appeared for the last time in history in 1839, when the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Turkish army under Hafiz Pasha on the 24th of June in a battle at which von Moltke was present.
He here continued to render great service to Abu Salem (Ibrahim III.), Abu Inan's successor, but, having offended the prime minister, he obtained permission to emigrate to Spain, where, at Granada, he was received with great cordiality by Ibn al Ahmar, who had been greatly indebted to his good offices when an exile at the court of Abu Salem.
Ibrahim Pasha was encamped near it when directed by his father, at the bidding of the powers, to stay his further advance.
In 1825 it was sacked by Ibrahim Pasha.
The western end of the boulevard leads to the Place Ibrahim, often called Place Ste Catherine, from the Roman Catholic church at its S.E.
The latter withdrew on the viceroy's promise that Ibrahim should evacuate the Morea.
From the time of Eyubi Effendi until the end of the grand vizierate of Ibrahim Pasha (1730), the empire experienced periodical relief from excessive financial distress under the series of remarkable grand viziers who directed the affairs of state during that time, but the recovery was not permanent.
The anarchy and misgovernment of Turkey now reached such a pitch that Ibrahim was dethroned and murdered, and Mahom- his son Mahommed IV.
Russia, driven from Azov in 1695, succeeded in capturing it in the following year; Venice continued to press the Turks; in this condition of affairs Hussein Kuprili (q.v.) was called to office; England and Holland urged Turkey to Ibrahim, Ahmed II., 1691-1695.
The Egyptian fleet and disciplined army were now thrown into the scale; and from the moment when Ibrahim Pasha landed at Modon (Feb.
The tsar consented, and proposed that the coercion should take the form of a pacific blockade of the Morea, so as to force Ibrahim, by cutting off his supplies, to evacuate the country.
The armistice, accepted by the Greeks, was refused by Ibrahim, pending instructions from Constantinople, though he consented to keep his ships in the harbour of Navarino.
Ibrahim, taking this as a breach of the convention, set sail from Navarino northwards, but was turned back by Sir Edward Codrington, the British admiral.
In July 1828 France had been commissioned to oust Ibrahim from the Morea; and though by a convention, concluded on the 9th of August by Codrington with Mehemet Ali, the principle of evacuation by the Egyptian troops had already been settled before the arrival of the French expedition, the Morea remained for the time in French occupation.
On the 23rd of June it was attacked by Ibrahim at Nezib and annihilated.
The intervention of the powers, based on the convention of London of the i 5th of July 1840, led to the withdrawal of Ibrahim from Syria, and the establishment by the firman of the 13th of February 1841 of Mehemet Ali as hereditary pasha of Egypt under conditions intended to safeguard the sovereign rights of the Ottoman sultan.
Thus Sultan Ibrahim was dissuaded from such a step in 1644 only by the refusal of the Sheikh-ul-Islam to sanction the proceeding.
1712), who flourished under Ibrahim and Mahommed IV., calls for a little more attention.
The first printing-press in Turkey was established by an Hungarian who had assumed the name of Ibrahim, and in 1728 (1141) appeared the first book printed in that country; it was Vanlpuli's Turkish translation of Jevheri's Arabic dictionary.
Admiral de Rigny joined him immediately afterwards, and a joint note was sent by them on the 22nd of September to Ibrahim Pasha, who held the superior command for the sultan.
On the 25th an interview took place, in which Ibrahim gave a verbal engagement not to act against the Greeks, pending orders from the sultan.
Ibrahim Pasha, though unable to operate at sea, considered himself at liberty to carry on the war by land.
On the 17th of October, a joint letter of expostulation was sent in to Ibrahim Pasha, but was returned with the manifestly false answer that he had left Navarino, and that his officers did not know where he was.
A French officer in the Egyptian service, of the name of Letellier, had anchored the vessels of Ibrahim and the Turkish admiral in a horseshoe formation, of which the points touched the entrance to the bay, and there were forts on the lands at both sides of the entry.
In the meantime Ibrahim Miyan was assassinated; and after various other scenes of anarchy, the rao Bharmulji, son of Rao Rayadan, by general consent, assumed the chief power.
Ready to rise behind Ibrahim Pasha in 1839, it was only prevented by the news of Nezib.
Ibrahim and the doctor Abdullah developed into the conquering empire of the Murabits, or, as Christian writers call them, the Almoravides, and there still, among the Berbers, the marabouts enjoy extraordinary influence, being esteemed as living saints and mediators.
Syracuse has been a place of comparatively little importance since the year 878, when it was destroyed by the Saracens under Ibrahim ibn Ahmad.
The three chief of them carried off the waters of the Euphrates to the Tigris above Babylon, - the Zabzallat canal (or Nahr Sarsar) running from Faluja to Ctesiphon, the Kutha canal from Sippara to Madain, passing Tell Ibrahim or Kutha on the way, and the King's canal or Ar-Malcha between the other two.
The disciplined Egyptian army, supported by a well organized fleet, rapidly accomplished what the Turks had failed to do; and by 1826 the Greeks were practically subdued on land, and Ibrahim was preparing to turn his attention to the islands.
Ibrahim, the conqueror of Syria, scoffed at the sultan's idea that reform consisted in putting his soldiers into tight trousers and epaulettes."
In 1834 the revolt of Syria against Ibrahim seemed to give him his opportunity.
Jomard's map, published in 1839, based on the information given by the French officers employed with Ibrahim Pasha's army in Asir from 1824 to 1827, and of J.
Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.
The Indian government, wishing to enter into relations with Ibrahim Pasha, as de facto ruler of Nejd and El Hasa, with a view to putting down piracy in the Persian Gulf, which was seriously affecting Indian trade, sent a small mission under Captain G.
On his arrival at Hofuf, Sadlier found that Ibrahim had already left Deraiya, but still hoping to intercept him before quitting Nejd, he followed up the retreating Egyptians through Yemama, and Wushm to Ras in Kasim, where he caught up the main body of Ibrahim's army, though the pasha himself had gone on to Medina.
Here he at last met Ibrahim, but though courteously received, the interview had no results, and Sadlier soon after left for Yambu, whence he embarked for Jidda, and after another fruitless attempt to treat with Ibrahim, sailed for India.
For six months the siege went on with varying fortune, but at last the courage and determination of Ibrahim triumphed, and on the 9th of September, after a heroic resistance, Abdallah, with a remnant of four hundred men, was compelled to surrender.
Mehemet Ali and his son Ibrahim Pasha were, however, now committed to their conflict with Turkey for Syria and Asia Minor, and had no troops to spare for the thankless task of holding the Arabian deserts; the garrisons were gradually withdrawn, and in 1842 Fesal, who had escaped from his prison at Cairo reappeared and was everywhere recognized as amir.
Ibrahim, the last of the Deys (1702-1705), destroyed the house of Mural, and absorbed the beyship in his own office; but, when he fell in battle with the Algerians, Hussein b.
In 1834 the soldiers of Ibrahim Pasha pillaged it.
In 1832 it was occupied by Ibrahim Pasha who defeated and captured the Turkish general, Reshid Pasha, not far from the walls.
Kadisha, "the holy river" (the valley of which begins in the immediate neighbourhood of the highest summits, and rapidly descends in a series of great bends till the river reaches the sea at Tripoli), Wadi el-Joz (falling into the sea at Batrun), Wadi Fidar, Nahr Ibrahim (the ancient Adonis, having its source in a recess of the great mountain amphitheatre where the famous sanctuary Apheca, the modern Afka, lay), Nahr el-Kelb (the ancient Lycus), Nahr Beirut (the ancient Magoras, entering the sea at Beirut), Nahr Damur (ancient Tamyras), Nahr el-'Auwali (the ancient Bostrenus, which in the upper part of its course is joined by the Nahr el-Baruk).
Abubekr's successor was Mahommed III., Ahmed ibn Ibrahim el-Ghazi (1507-1543), surnamed Gran (Granye), the left-handed.
The Eastern province consists of well-forested, undulating land (Busoga) on the coast of the lake, a vast extent of marsh round the lake-like backwaters of the Victoria Nile (Lakes Ibrahim or Kioga, Kwania, &c.) and a more stony, open, grain-growing country (Bukedi, Lobor, Karamojo).
Here it broadens into Lake Ibrahim (Kioga) (in reality a vast backwater of the Nile discovered by Colonel Chaille Long in 1874), and continues navigable (save for sudd obstacles at times) right through Lake Ibrahim and thence northwards for loo m.
Government boats also ply on the Victoria Nile and Lake Kioga (Ibrahim) and on Albert Nyanza and the Mountain Nile.
The same day the Egyptian fleet, under Ibrahim Pasha, sailed from Alexandria.
On the 1st of September, however, Khosrev succeeded in effecting a junction with Ibrahim off Budrun, and two indecisive engagements followed with the united Greek fleet on the 5th and loth.
The object of Ibrahim was to reach Suda Bay with his transports, which the Greeks should at all costs have prevented.
A first attempt was defeated by Miaoulis on the 16th of November, and Ibrahim was compelled to retire and anchor off Rhodes; but the Greek admiral was unable to keep his fleet together, the season was far advanced, his captains were clamouring for arrears of pay, and the Greek fleet sailed for Nauplia, leaving the sea unguarded.
On the 5th of December Ibrahim again set sail, and reached Suda without striking a blow.
On the 21 st of March Ibrahim Morea.
Ibrahim at Krommydi with 2000 regular infantry, 400 cavalry and four guns.
But the guerilla tactics of the wily klepht were powerless against Ibrahim, who marched northward, and, avoiding Nauplia for the present, seized Tripolitsa, and made this the base from which his columns marched to devastate the country far and wide.
In September 1825 Ibrahim, at the order of the sultan, had joined Reshid before the town; piecemeal the outlying forts and defences now fell, until the garrison, reduced by starvation and disease, determined to hazard all on a final sortie.
Had Reshid at once advanced over the Isthmus, the Morea also must have been subdued; but he was jealous of Ibrahim, and preferred to return to Iannina to consolidate his conquests.