IBERIANS (Iberi, "I(3npEs), an ancient people inhabiting parts of the Spanish peninsula.
The principal sources of information about the Iberians are (i) historical, (2) numismatic, (3) linguistic, (4) anthropological.
Iberians thus meant sometimes the population of the peninsula in general and sometimes, it would appear, the peoples of some definite race (yEvos) which formed one element in that population.
Varro and Dionysius Afer proposed to identify the Iberians of Spain with the Iberians of the Caucasus, the one regarding the eastern, and other the western, settlements as the earlier.
This Neolithic race has consequently been nicknamed " Iberians," and it is now common to speak of the " Iberian " ancestry of the people of Britain, recognizing the racial characteristics of " Iberians " in the" small swarthy Welshman," the " small dark Highlander," and the " Black Celts to the west of the Shannon," as well as in the typical inhabitants of Aquitania and Brittany.
Webster, " The Celt-iberians," Academy xl.
The Iberians still reverence as saints the Armenian doctors of the 5th century, but as early as 552 they began to resent the dictatorial methods of the Armenians, as well might a proud race of mountaineers who never wholly lost their political independence; and they broke off their allegiance to the Armenian see very soon afterwards, accepted Chalcedon and joined the Byzantine church.
9) as a mixed race of Celts and Spaniards (Iberians); in either case the name represents a geographer's theory rather than an ascertained fact.
Connexion has been traced between the early Libyan race and the Cro-Magnon and other early European races and, later, the Basque peoples, Iberians, Picts, Celts and Gauls.
The megalithic monuments of Iberia and Celtic Europe have their counterparts in northern Africa, and it is suggested that these were all erected by the same race, by whatever name they be known, Berbers and Libyans in Africa, Iberians in Spain, Celts, Gauls and Picts in France and Britain.
The earliest invaders, under the name of Celtae, had occupied all central Gaul, doubtless mixing with the aboriginal Ligurians and Iberians, who, however, maintained themselves respectively in the later Provence and in Aquitania.
Turdentani and Turduli, forming permanent settlements and being still powerful there in Roman times; and in northern central Spain, from the mixture of Celts with the native Iberians, the population henceforward was called Celtiberian.
In this work he endeavoured to show, by an examination of geographical names, that a race or races speaking dialects allied to modern Basque once extended through the whole of Spain, the southern coast of France and the Balearic Islands, and suggested that these people, whom he identified with the Iberians of classical writers, had come from northern Africa, where the name of Berber still perhaps perpetuates their old designation.
The first peoples of whom we have actual knowledge are the Iberians and Ligurians.
The Basques who now inhabit both sides of the Pyrenean range are probably the last representatives of the Iberians, who came from Spain to settle between the Mediterranean and the Bay of Biscay.
Their empire in Gaul, encroached upon in the north by the Belgae, a kindred race, and in the south by the Iberians, gradually contracted in area and eventually crumbled to pieces.
Vizcaya (Biscay)a tongue which is utterly unlike Celtic or Italian or any Indo-Germanic languagesuggests that the Iberians may have been an older people than the Celts and alien from them in race, though the attempts hitherto made to connect Basque with ancient traces of strange tongues in the Basque lands have not yielded clear results.
On the other hand, numerous placenames show that parts of the Peninsula were once held by Celtic-speaking peoples, and it is, of course, possible that Celts and Iberians may have formed a mixed race in certain regions.