(I) The polyp (hydropolyp) is of simple structure, typically much longer than broad, without ectodermal oesophagus or mesenteries, such as are seen in the anthopolyp (see article Anthozoa); the mouth is usually raised above the peristome on a short conical elevation or hypostome; the ectoderm is without cilia.
On the upper face of the hydranth the crown of tentacles (t) surrounds the peristome, from which rises the conical hypostome, bearing the mouth at its extremity.
The hypostome of the hydropolyp may be small, or, on the other hand, as in Eudendrium (Allman, loc. cit.
Hypostome, bearing mouth at its extremity.
The parasitic actinula is found attached to the proboscis of the medusa; it thrusts its greatly elongated hypostome into the mouth of the medusa and nourishes itself upon the food in the digestive cavity of its host.
In the latter the single pair of antennae springing up from each side of the camerostome or hypostome or upper lip-lobe are seen.
The ectoderm loses entirely the ciliation which it had in the planula and actinula stages and commonly secretes on its external surface a protective or supporting investment, the perisarc. Contrasting with this, the anthopolyp is generally of s q uat form, the diameter often exceeding the height; the peristome is wide, a hypostome is lacking, and the ectoderm, or so much of it as is exposed, i.e.
The internal structural differences are even more characteristic. In the hydropolyp the blastopore of the embryo forms the adult mouth situated at the extremity of the hypostome, and the ectoderm and FIG.
Thus the body becomes umbrellashaped, the concave side representing the peristome, and the convex side the column, of the polyp. Hence the tentacles are found at the edge of the umbrella, and the hypostome forms usually a projecting tube, with the mouth at the extremity, forming the manubrium or handle of the umbrella.
The crown of tentacles thus comes to form a fringe to the margin of the body, and the hypostome becomes the manubrium.
The tentacles border a broad, flattened peristome, from the centre of which arises the hypostome with the mouth at its extremity; the hypostome is at first low, but soon becomes a projecting, chimney-like tube.
It has been sought to prove that the interior of the hypostome is lined by ectoderm, so as to form a stomodaeum or ectodermal oesophagus similar FIG.
By their contraction the muscles of the taeniolae drag the hypostome down and so produce the appearances which have been interpreted as a stomodaeal invagination.
In parasitic bloodsucking forms the mandibles often have the shape of piercing stylets, and are enclosed in a tubular proboscis formed by the union of the upper lip (labrum) with the lower lip (hypostome or paragnatha).
The capitulum, with its associated structures, is sometimes called the rostrum, whereas sometimes the term rostrum is restricted to the hypostome alone.
It is by means of the hypostome that ticks pierce the integument and firmly adhere to the host whose blood they suck for food.
In the Ixodidae the capitulum is not overlapped by a forward extension of the dorsal area, which is smooth and firmly chitinized either in front or all over; the palpi are usually modified, that is to say, their second and third segments are usually excavated internally to form a sheath for the hypostome; there is a distinct sucker beneath the claws and the difference between the sexes is well marked, the males having the dorsal integument thickly and continuously chitinized, whereas in the females only its anterior portion bears a chitinous plate, the rest of the integument being soft to admit of its distension by the blood which is imbibed in quantity by members of this sex.
A, Rostrum or hypostome; b, b, Palpi; c, Genital aperture; d, Anal orifice; e, e, Ventral surface of capitulum; g, Sternum; 1 -7, segments of leg.