Geneva has a public library, a city hospital and hygienic institute.
Iid.), an increasedue in great part to the need for improved buildings, hygienic reforms and education, but also attributable in part to the mannerin which the finances of many communes are administered.
Farther on are the chemical and the physical laboratories and the Hygienic Institute.
After the Spanish-American War American physicians had also given it their attention, with valuable results; see Stiles (Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin, No.
The improvement which has taken place in the general health of the inhabitants of cities during recent years, concurrent with hygienic legislation, is ample proof of the above assertions.
The hygienic improvement effected by these changes, and by a new and excellent water supply, is shown by the mortality averages-40 4 per thousand in 1871-1875,30.4 per thousand in 1881-1885, and 20.5 per thousand in 1903-1904.
It must be remembered that short-sight tends to increase during the early, especially the school, years of life, and that hygienic treatment, good light, good type, and avoidance of stooping are important for its prevention.
The compounds in general, especially those originally made for Chinese labourers, are well built, comfortable, and fulfil every hygienic requirement.
He soon became generally detested by the army, but pursued his course unflinchingly and introduced many indispensable hygienic reforms. "Clean barracks are healthy barracks," was his motto.
Ablutio, from abluere, " to wash off"), a washing, in its religious use, destined to secure that ceremonial or ritualistic purity which must not be confused with the physical or hygienic cleanliness of persons and things obtained by the use of soap and water.'
The true remedies consist in the avoidance of the fermentation of the leaves by careless gathering, transport or packing, in proper hygienic care in ventilation and in maintaining a proper degree of dryness in the atmosphere in rainy weather, and in the use of quicklime placed in different parts of the nursery to facilitate the transpiration of the silk-worms.
The hygienic conditions should be such as to reduce the strain to a minimum.
The course of the marriage and birth-rates, set forth above, affords evidence that the control over both has been exercised of recent years to an unprecedented extent, and it will appear from what is stated below, that partly owing to this cause, partly, also, to improved hygienic conditions in western life, there has been an even more pronounced decline in the rate of mortality.
At the same time, where the range is very wide, as between the rates in Scandinavia and Australia, and those in southern and eastern Europe, the variation, to a great extent, cannot be accounted for otherwise than by difference in hygienic conditions, more especially in the light thrown by the figures of infantile mortality in the second part of the table.
It is assumed that throughout the above course the hygienic conditions of life remain unchanged.
The great difference between the serial rank occupied in the respective lists by Russia, Servia and Galicia, with remarkably high rates of natural growth, as well as that found in the case of most of the other countries in question, shows that this factor is by no means a trustworthy guide in the estimate of hygienic balance.
Although there is no objection to this product from a purely hygienic point of view, it is not natural wine, and the products present in the must other than sugar and acid are by this process seriously affected.
If carefully prepared there is no objection to these basis wines from a hygienic point of view, although they have not the delicate qualities and stimulating effects of natural wines; unfortunately, however, these wines have in the past been vended on a large scale in a manner calculated to deceive the consumer as to their real nature, but energetic measures, which have of late been taken in most countries affected by this trade, have done much to mitigate the evil.
Among the secondary hygienic advantages are the numerous mineral wells.
For the chemistry of copper and its compounds see the references in the article Chemistry: Inorganic. Toxicologic and hygienic aspects are treated in Tschirsch's Das Kupfer vom Standpunkt der gerichtlichen Chemie, Toxikologie and Hygiene (Stuttgart, 1893).