We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, R OH, where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in nature.
By eliminating the hydroxy groups in these acids the same nitrobenzoic acid is obtained, which yields on reduction an aminobenzoic acid different from the starting-out acid.
Experience has shown that such mono-derivatives as nitro compounds, sulphonic acids, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones yield as a general rule chiefly the meta-compounds, and this is independent of the nature of the second group introduced; on the other hand, benzene haloids, amino-, homologous-, and hydroxy-benzenes yield principally a mixture of the orthoand para-compounds.
Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of benzene and substituted benzenes.
An a-pyrrolidine carboxylic acid and its hydroxy derivatives have been detected by E.
CH(NH 2) ï¿½ Cooh, isoleucin, probably 0-aminocaproic acid, serin or a-amino-(-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid or aminosuccinic acid, HOOCï¿½CH 2 ï¿½CH(NH 2)ï¿½Cooh, glutaminic acid or a-amino-n-glutaric acid,HOOCï¿½ (CH 2) ï¿½ CH(NH 2) ï¿½ Cooh, diaminoacetic acid, a-O-diaminopropionic acid, lysin.
It is probably a hydroxy-compound, since it gives a red-brown colour with ferric chloride, reacts with phenyl isocyanate and with phosphorus pentachloride, and with benzoyl chloride yields dibenzhydroxamic acid, C 6 H 5 CO NH O.
The facts suggested that the six carbon atoms formed a chain, and that a hydroxy group was attached to five of them, for it is very rare for two hydroxy groups to be attached to the same carbon atom.
He prepared the cyanhydrins of glucose and fructose, hydrolysed them to the corresponding oxy-acids, from which the hydroxy groups were split out by reduction; it was found that glucose yielded normal heptylic acid and fructose methylbutylacetic acid; hence glucose is an aldehyde alcohol, CH 2 OH (CH OH) 4 CHO, whilst fructose is a ketone alcohol CH 2 OH (CH OH) 3 CO.
On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.
ALCOHOL, in commerce, the name generally given to "spirits of wine"; in systematic organic chemistry it has a wider meaning, being the generic name of a class of compounds (hydroxy hydrocarbons) of which ordinary alcohol (specifically ethyl alcohol) is a typical member (see Alcohols).
The strong aqueous solution deposits colourless, four-sided prisms of the hydroxy-hydrosulphide, Ca(OH) (SH).
It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.
When heated with water it forms ethyl hydroxy-acetate; with alcohol it yields ethyl ethoxyacetate.
Hydroxy-urea, N H2 CO NH OH, is produced from hydroxylamine and cyanic acid (W.
Laudanine, C20H25N04, is very similar to laudanosine, differing in having three methoxy groups and one hydroxy instead of four methoxy.
This permits the writing of cinchonine, for example, as C,H6N CioH15(OH)N, the hydroxy group being in the part CioH15(OH)N, about which the constitution is uncertain.
Phosphoryl trichloride or phosphorus oxychloride, POC1 3, corresponding to phosphoric acid, (HO) 3 P0, discovered in 1847 by Wurtz, may be produced by the action of many substances containing hydroxy groups on the pentachloride; from the trichloride and potassium chlorate; by leaving phosphorus pentoxide in contact with hydrochloric acid: 2P 2 0 5 +3HC1= POC13+3HP03; or by heating the pentachloride and pentoxide under pressure: 3PC15+ P205= 5POC1 3.
But its chief technical application depends upon the formation of sulphonic acids when it reacts with aromatic hydrocarbon residues; these compounds being important either as a step towards the preparation of hydroxy-compounds, e.g.
HYDROXYLAMINE, NH 2 OH, or hydroxy-ammonia, a compound prepared in 1865 by W.