Heated with sulphuric acid and with nitric acid it is oxidized to boric acid, whilst on fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it gives a borate of the alkali metal.
The sulphites are prepared by the action of sulphur dioxide on the oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of the metals, or by processes of precipitation.
It is readily decomposed by water and alkaline hydroxides, yielding a mixture of nitrite and chloride.
The alkali hydroxides (e.g.
Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.
On fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it undergoes oxidation to silica which dissolves on the excess of alkali yielding an alkaline silicate.
In the case of group I the action is more or less violent, and the hydroxides formed are soluble in water and very strongly basic; metals of group 2 are only slowly attacked, with formation of relatively feebly basic and less soluble hydroxides.
By the joint action of water and air, thallium, lead, bismuth are oxidized, with formation of more or less sparingly soluble hydroxides (ThHO, PbH 2 O 2, BiH303), which, in the presence of carbonic acid, pass into still less soluble basic carbonates.
The iron and manganese are precipitated as hydroxides, and are filtered off.
The isolation of the metals sodium and potassium by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of the fused hydroxides was one of the earliest applications of the electric current to the extraction of metals.
It is obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with nascent hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by slaked lime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac, q.v.) thus 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 =CaC1 2 +2H 2 O+2NH 3.
The salts of hydrofluoric acid are known as fluorides and are easily obtained by the action of the acid on metals or their oxides, hydroxides or carbonates.
The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).
The salts of this acid, known as cyanides, may be prepared by the action of cyanogen or of gaseous hydrocyanic acid on a metal; by heating the carbonates or hydrooxides of the alkali metals in a current of hydrocyanic acid; by heating alkaline carbonates with carbon in the presence of free nitrogen: BaCO 3 + 4 C + N2 = Ba(NC) 2 + 3C0; by ignition of nitrogenous organic substances in the presence of alkaline carbonates or hydroxides; or by processes of double decomposition.
Compounds embraced by the second definition are more usually termed hydroxides, since at one time they were regarded as combinations of an oxide with water, for example, calcium oxide or lime when slaked with water yielded calcium hydroxide, written formerly as CaO H 2 O.
The general formulae of hydroxides are: M i OH, M ii (OH) 2, M il i (OH) 3, M i `'(OH) 4, &c., corresponding to the oxides M21O, M iiO, M21i103 M i °O 2, &c., the Roman index denoting the valency of the element.
Difference between non-metallic and metallic hydroxides; the former are invariably acids (oxyacids), the latter are more usually basic, although acidic metallic oxides yield acidic hydroxides.
Elements exhibiting strong basigenic or oxygenic characters yield the most stable hydroxides; in other words, stable hydroxides are associated with elements belonging to the extreme groups of the periodic system, and unstable hydroxides with the central members.
The most stable basic hydroxides are those of the alkali metals, viz.
Calcium, barium and strontium; the most stable acidic hydroxides are those of the elements placed in groups VB, VIB and Viib of the periodic table.
Besides a large number of animal and vegetable substances, many precipitates formed in the course of inorganic chemical reactions are non-crystalline and appear in the colloidal state, instances are the sulphides of antimony and arsenic and the hydroxides of iron and alumina.
The same oxygen ether is formed by the methylation of the silver salt of the normal diazo hydroxide; this points to the conclusion that the isomeric hydroxides, corresponding with the silver derivatives, have the same structural formulae, namely, R N: N OH.
The constitution of the isomeric diazo hydroxides has given rise to much discussion.
According to Hantzsch the isomeric diazo hydroxides are structurally identical, and the differences in behaviour are due to stereo-chemica l relations, the isomerism being comparable with that of the oximes.
On such a hypothesis, the relatively unstable normal diazo hydroxides would be the syn-compounds, since here the nitrogen atoms would be more easily eliminated, whilst the stable iso-diazo derivatives would be the anti-compounds, thus: R N R N HO-N N OH Normal hydroxide Iso hydroxide (Syn-compound) (Anti-compound) In support of this theory, Hantzsch has succeeded in isolating a series of syn - and anti-diazo-cyanides and -sulphonates (Ber.,1895,28, p.666; 1900, 33, P. 2161; 1901, 34, p. 4166).
Benzene diazonium hydroxide, although a strong base, reacts with the alkaline hydroxides to form salts with the evolution of heat, and generally behaves as a weak acid.
Hantzsch, Ber., This assumption also shows the relationship of the diazonium hydroxides to other quaternary ammonium compounds, for most of the quaternary ammonium hydroxides (except such as have the nitrogen atom attached to four saturated hydrocarbon radicals) are unstable, and readily pass over into compounds in which the hydroxyl group is no longer attached to the amine nitrogen; thus the syn-diazo hydroxides are to be regarded as pseudo-diazonium derivatives.
Hantzsch, Ber., 18 99, 32, p. 3109; 1900, 33, p. 278.) It is generally accepted that the iso-diazo hydroxides possess the oxime structure R N: N OH.
] Hydrogen peroxide behaves very frequently as a powerful oxidizing agent; thus lead sulphide is converted into lead sulphate in presence of a dilute aqueous solution of the peroxide, the hydroxides of the alkaline earth metals are converted into peroxides of the type MO 2.8H 2 0, titanium dioxide is converted into the trioxide, iodine is liberated from potassium iodide, and nitriles (in alkaline solution) are converted into acid-amides (B.
It prevents the precipitation of many metallic hydroxides by caustic alkalis.
Hydrobromic acid reacts with metallic oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to form bromides, which can in many cases be obtained also by the direct union of the metals with bromine.
They are stable towards aqueous alkalis, but on digestion with moist silver oxide yield the phosphonium hydroxides, which are stronger bases than the caustic alkalis.
They differ from the organic ammonium hydroxides in their behaviour when heated, yielding phosphine oxides and paraffin hydrocarbons: R4P OH=R3PO+RH.