Iridium tetrachloride, IrC1 41 is obtained by dissolving the finely divided metal in aqua regia; by dissolving the hydroxide in hydrochloric acid; and by digesting the hydrated sesquichloride with nitric acid.
Cobalt monoxide, CoO, is prepared by heating the hydroxide or carbonate in a current of air, or by heating the oxide C0304 in a current of carbon dioxide.
This hydroxide is soluble in well cooled acids, forming solutions which contain cobaltic salts, one of the most stable of which is the acetate.
The cobaltous salts are formed when the metal, cobaltous oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, are dissolved in acids, or, in the case of the insoluble salts, by precipitation.
It dissolves easily in water, forming the hydrated chloride, CoC12.6H20, which may also be prepared by dissolving the hydroxide or carbonate in hydrochloric acid.
On standing with concentrated potassium hydroxide solution it gives potassium allantoate C 4 H 7 N 4 O 4 K.
Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.
A-propylene glycol, CH 3 CH(OH) CH 2 OH, a liquid boiling at 188° to 189°, and obtained by heating glycerin with sodium hydroxide and distilling the mixture; and trimethylene glycol, CH 2 OH CH 2 CH 2 OH, a liquid boiling at 214° C. and prepared by boiling trimethylene bromide with potash solution (A.
Cadmium hydroxide, Cd(OH) 2, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding potassium hydroxide to a solution of any soluble cadmium salt.
It is decomposed by heat into the oxide and water, and is soluble in ammonia but not in excess of dilute potassium hydroxide; this latter property serves to distinguish it from zinc hydroxide.
Nagel (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2009), this oxide does not exist, the reaction leading to the formation of an hydroxide according to the equation: Mo 3 C1 4 (OH) 2 + 4KHO 3H 2 O = 3Mo(OH) 3 -l-4KBr+3H.
Molybdenum sesquioxide, Mo 2 O 3, a black mass insoluble in acids, is formed by heating the corresponding hydroxide in vacuo, or by digesting the trioxide with zinc and hydrochloric acid.
It is a yellow amorphous powder which is soluble in dilute alkalis, the solution on acidification giving an hydroxide, C1 4 Mo 3 (OH) 2, which is soluble in nitric acid, and does not give a reaction with silver nitrate.
The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish ferric hydroxide, and possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides.
Treatment with casutic soda dissolves out aluminium hydroxide, which is reprecipitated by the addition of ammonium chloride.
It is also prepared by heating ammonium nitrite (or a mixture of sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride): NH 4 NO 2 =2H20+N21 by heating a mixture of ammonium nitrate and chloride (the chlorine which is simultaneously produced being absorbed by milk of lime or by a solution of sodium hydroxide): 4NH4N03+2NH4C1=5N2 +C1 2 +12H 2 O; by heating ammonium dichromate (or a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium dichromate): (NH4)2Cr207 = Cr203+4H20+ N2; by passing chlorine into a concentrated solution of ammonia (which should be present in considerable excess): 8NH3+3C12=6NH4C1-F-N2; by the action of hypochlorites or hypobromites on ammonia: 3NaOBr-+2NH 3 =3NaBr+3H 2 OH-N 2; and by the action of manganese dioxide on ammonium nitrate at 180-20o° C. It is also formed by the reduction of nitric and nitrous oxides with hydrogen in the presence of platinized asbestos at a red heat (G.
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
By electrolysis it yields uranium dioxide as a pyrophoric powder, and peruranic hydroxide, U04.2H20, when treated with hydrogen peroxide.
Sodium hydroxide) will in a solid state fire it on contact.
Dry guncotton heated in ammonia gas detonates at about 70°, and ammonium hydroxide solutions of all strengths slowly decompose it, yielding somewhat complex products.
Another heat test, that of Will, consists in heating a weighed quantity of the guncotton in a stream of carbon dioxide to 130° C., passing the evolved gases over some red-hot copper, and finally collecting them over a solution of potassium hydroxide which retains the carbon dioxide and allows the nitrogen, arising from the guncotton decomposition, to be measured.
The action is very rapid, and the product, which rises to the top of the acids, is separated and washed successively with cold and then tepid water, and finally with water made slightly alkaline with sodium carbonate or hydroxide, to remove all adhering or dissolved acids which would otherwise render the product very unstable.
Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.
With potassium hydroxide it yields potassium silicofluoride,.
Whilst with sodium hydroxide, sodium fluoride is produced: 3SiF4= 4KHO = S102+ 2K 2 SiF 6 + 2H 2 0; SiF 4 + 4NaOH = SiO 2 + 4NaF+ 2H 2 O.
It is decomposed readily by water, sodium hydroxide, alcohol and ether: 2SiHF 3 +4H 2 0 = H 4 S10 4 +H 2 SiF 6 -1-211 2; SiHF 3 +3NaOH H 2 O =H4S104+3NaF+H2; 2SiHF 3 +4C 2 H 5 OH =Si(0C 2 H 5) 4 +H 2 SiF 6 +2H 2 i SiHF 3 +3(C 2 H 5) 2 0 =SiH(OC2H5)3+3C2H5F.
The acid carbonates of the alkali metals can be prepared by saturating an aqueous solution of the alkaline hydroxide with carbon dioxide, M OH+ C02= Mhco 3, and from these acid salts the normal salts may be obtained by gentle heating, carbon dioxide and water being produced at the same time, 2Mhco 3 = M2C03+H02+C02.
This substance absorbs and combines with water very greedily, at the same time becoming very hot, and falling into a fine dry powder,' calcium hydroxide or slaked lime, which when left in the open slowly combines with the carbon dioxide of the air and becomes calcium carbonate, from which we began.
Boiling water attacks it appreciably, but slightly, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of the hydroxide, Zn(OH) 2.
Zinc hydroxide, Zn (OH) 2, is prepared as a gelatinous precipitate by adding a solution of any zinc salt to caustic potash.
By warming its aqueous solution with an excess of silver oxide it is converted into tetramethylammonium hydroxide, N(CH3)40H, which crystallizes in hygroscopic needles, and has a very alkaline reaction.
Davy by electrolysing the moist hydroxide or chloride, and has been obtained by A.
The amorphous form readily slakes with water, and the aqueous solution yields a crystalline hydrated hydroxide approximating in composition to Sr(OH) 2.8H 2 O or Sr(OH) 2.9H 2 O, which on standing in vacuo loses some of its water of crystallization, leaving the monohydrated hydroxide, Sr(OH) 2 H 2 O.
The chlorine reacts with the caustic soda, forming sodium hypochlorite, and this in turn, with an excess of chlorine and at higher temperatures, becomes for the most part converted into chlorate, whilst any simultaneous electrolysis of a hydroxide or water and a chloride (so that hydroxyl and chlorine are simultaneously liberated at the anode) also produces oxygen-chlorine compounds direct.
Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
Aqueous alcohol becomes turbid when mixed with benzene, carbon disulphide or paraffin oil; when added to a solution of barium oxide in absolute alcohol, a white precipitate of barium hydroxide is formed.
The bismuth hydroxide so obtained is finally reduced by hydrogen.
The metal has been obtained by electrolysis of a mixture of caesium and barium cyanides (C. Setterberg, Ann., 1882, 211, p. loo) and by heating the hydroxide with magnesium or aluminium (N.
Caesium hydroxide, Cs(OH) 2, obtained by the decomposition of the sulphate with baryta water,is a greyish-white deliquescent solid,which melts at a red heat and absorbs carbon dioxide rapidly.
CsCl, is obtained by the direct action of chlorine on caesium, or by solution of the hydroxide in hydrochloric acid.
Caesium sulphate, Cs 2 SO 4, may be prepared by dissolving the hydroxide or carbonate in sulphuric acid.
Zirconium hydroxide, Zr(OH) 4, as thus obtained, is quite appreciably soluble in water and easily in mineral acids, with formation of zirconium salts, e.g.
But, if the hydroxide is precipitated in the heat, it demands concentrated acids for its solution.
The hydroxide readily loses its water at a dull red heat and passes into anhydride with vivid incandescence.
It fumes in air; with water it gives ZrOI 2.8H 2 0; and with alcohol ethyl iodide and zirconium hydroxide are formed.
The sulphate, Zr(S04)2, is a white mass obtained by dissolving the oxide or hydroxide in sulphuric acid, evaporating and heating the mass to nearly a red heat.
A basic nitrate, Ca(NO 3)2 Ca(OH) 2.3H 2 0, is obtained by dissolving calcium hydroxide in a solution of the normal nitrate.
Sodyl hydroxide, NaHO 2, exists in two forms: one, Na O.OH, obtained from hydrogen peroxide and sodium ethylate; the other, 0 :Na OH, from absolute alcohol and sodium peroxide at 0 °.
The cadmium sulphate solution is prepared by digesting a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate with cadmium hydroxide to remove free acid, care being taken not to raise the temperature above 70° C., and then by digesting it still further with mercurous sulphate until no more precipitation occurs.
The monoxide, K 2 0, may be obtained by strongly heating the product or burning the metal in slightly moist air; by heating the hydroxide with the metal: 2KHO+2K= 2K 2 0+H 2; or by passing pure and almost dry air over the molten metal (Kiihnemann, Chem.