The wells were first called artesian in the belief that the ascent of the water in them was due to the hydrostatic pressure of water at a higher level in the Queensland hills.
The difference in level between the outcrop of the assumed eastern intake and of the wells is often so small, in comparison with their distance apart, that the friction would completely sop up the whole of the available hydrostatic head.
The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not explained on the simple hydrostatic theory.
In addition to the stems bearing cups, there are found vesicles associated with them, which have been interpreted as gonothecae or as floats, that is to say, air-bladders, acting as hydrostatic organs for a floating polyp-colony.
The cormus is always differentiated into two parts; an upper portion termed the nectosome, in which the appendages are locomotor or hydrostatic in function, that is to say, serve for swimming or floating; and a lower portion termed the siphosome, bearing appendages which are nutritive, reproductive or simply protective in function.
In Velella the pneumatophore becomes of complex structure and sends air-tubes, lined by a chitin and resembling tracheae, down into the compact coenosarc, thus evidently serving a respiratory as well as a hydrostatic function.
The naked cells which have been alluded to live in water, and call therefore for no differentiation in connection with this necessity; but those which are surrounded by a cell-wall always develop within themselves a vacuole or cavity which occupies the greater part of their interior, and the hydrostatic pressure of whose contents keeps tha protoplasm in contact with the membrane, setting up a condition of turgidity.
The great turgidity which is thus caused exerts a considerable hydrostatic pressure on the stele of the root, the vessels of the wood of which are sometimes filled with water, but at other times contain air, and this often under a pressure less than the ordinary atmospheric pressure.
(2) There must be a supply of water to such an extent as to set up a certain hydrostatic pressure in the cell, for only turgid cells can grow.
There is set up at once a certain hydrostatic pressure, due to the turgidity which ensues upon such absorption, and the extensible cell wall stretches, at first in all directions.
The stretching of the cell wall by the hydrostatic pressure is fixed by a secretion of new particles and their deposition upon the original wall, which as it becomes slightly thicker is capable of still greater extension, much in the same way as a thick band of indiarubber is capable of undergoing greater stretching than a thin one.
This may possibly be the cell sap in their interior, which must exercise a slightly different hydrostatic pressure on the basal and, the lateral walls of the cells.
The ctenidium is atrophied, and the edge of the mantle-skirt is fused to the dorsal integument by concrescence, except at one point which forms the aperture of the mantle-chamber, thus converted into a nearly closed sac. Air is admitted to this sac for respiratory and hydrostatic purposes, and it thus becomes a lung.
The lung-sac serves undoubtedly as a hydrostatic apparatus in the aquatic Pulmonata, as well as assisting respiration.
That it is due to water-pressure, as in artesian wells (" hydrostatic " or " artesian " theory).
Mag., 1898, 46, 261) have investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure upon magnetization, using the same pieces of iron and nickel as were employed in their experiments upon magnetic change of volume.
The experiment was the reverse of one made by Kelvin with a gunbarrel subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure (Phil.
Experiments on the effect of external hydrostatic pressure upon the magnetization of iron rings have also been made by F.
Mile of Warsaw in 1828, who termed it a "hydrostatic air-pump without cylinders, taps, lids or stoppers," this is attained by using, both for the inlet and the outlet, vertical capillary glass tubes, soldered, the former to somewhere near the bottom, the latter to the top of the vessel.
In casting a thin hollow object like a bell, it will be seen that the resultant upward thrust on the mould may be many times greater than the weight of metal; many a curious experiment has been devised to illustrate this property and classed as a hydrostatic paradox (Boyle, Hydrostatical Paradoxes, 1666).
Ignoring temperature effect, and taking the density as a function of the pressure, surfaces of equal pressure are also of equal density, and the fluid is stratified by surfaces orthogonal to the lines of force; n ap, dy, P d z, or X, Y, Z (4) are the partial differential coefficients of some function P, =fdplp, of x, y, z; so that X, Y, Z must be the partial differential coefficients of a potential -V, such that the force in any direction is the downward gradient of V; and then dP dV (5) ax + Tr=0, or P+V =constant, in which P may be called the hydrostatic head and V the head of potential.
The resultant hydrostatic thrust across any diametral plane of the cylinder will be modified, but the only term in the loss of head which exerts a resultant thrust on the whole cylinder is 2mU sin Olga, and its thrust is 27rpmU absolute units in the direction Cy, to be counteracted by a support at the centre C; the liquid is streaming past r=a with velocity U reversed, and the cylinder is surrounded by a vortex.
Practical Determination Of Densities The methods for determining densities may be divided into two groups according as hydrostatic principles are employed or not.
The method of "hydrostatic weighing" is one of the most important.
Occasionally filtration into a vacuum is practised, but more often, as in filterpresses, the liquid is forced under pressure, either hydrostatic or obtained from a force-pump or compressed air, into a series of chambers partitioned off by cloth, which arrests the solids, but permits the passage of the liquid portions.
The importance of these experiments from the point of view of the theory of solution, lay in the fact that they suggested the conception of a perfect or ideal semi-permeable partition, and that of an equilibrium pressure representing the excess of hydrostatic pressure required to keep a solution in equilibrium with its pure solvent through such a partition.
Neglecting the very small buoyancy of the vapour, the hydrostatic pressure P at the foot of the column of solution is h g p where h is the height of the column and p the mean density of the solution.
Be in equilibrium under the excess of hydrostatic pressure represented when the solution is very dilute by P=(p - p')p/0.
In any solution, then, the osmotic pressure represents the excess of hydrostatic pressure which it is necessary to apply to the solution in order to increase its vapour pressure to an equality with that of the solvent in the given conditions.
The osmotic pressure (defined as the difference in the hydrostatic pressures of the solution and solvent when their vapour pressures are equal and they are consequently in equilibrium through a perfect semi-permeable membrane) may also depend on the absolute values of the hydrostatic pressures, as may the vapour pressure of the liquids.
To investigate the osmotic pressure of a' strong solution we may consider the hydrostatic pressure required to increase its vapour pressure to an equality with that of the solvent.
The relation between hydrostatic pressure and the vapour pressure of a pure liquid may be obtained at once by considering the rise of liquid in a capillary tube.
The osmotic pressure Po is the difference of the hydrostatic pressures P' and P of the solution and the solvent when their vapour pressures are equal.
If V =V' there is no change in osmotic pressure with hydrostatic pressure, and osmotic pressure depends on concentration and temperature only.
From this equation the osmotic pressure Po required to keep a solution in equilibrium as regards its vapour and through a semi-permeable membrane with its solvent, when that solvent is under its own vapour pressure, may be calculated from the results of observations on vapour pressure of solvent and solution at ordinary low hydrostatic pressures.
He discovered the hydrostatic paradox that the downward pressure of a liquid is independent of the shape of the vessel, and depends only on its height and base.
ARTESIAN WELLS, the name properly applied to watersprings rising above the surface of the ground by natural hydrostatic pressure, on boring a small hole down through a series of strata to a water-carrying bed enclosed between two impervious layers; the name is, however, sometimes loosely applied to any deep well, even when the water is obtained by pumping.
The air-bladder may be so reduced as to lose its hydrostatic function and become subservient to a sensory organ, its outer exposed surface being connected with the skin by a meatus between the bands of muscle, and conveying the thermobarometrical impressions to the auditory nerves.
It is simply a hydrostatic mechanism for expanding the tentacles.
MPV/RB = loge(p'/p"), which corresponds with the effect of hydrostatic pressure, and is equivalent to the assumption that the vapour-pressure of the solution at the bottom of the column under pressure P must be equal to that of the pure solvent.
1896, 42, p. 298) has accordingly defined the osmotic pressure of a solution as being the hydrostatic pressure required to make its vapourpressure equal to that of the pure solvent at the same temperature, and has shown that this definition agrees approximately with Raoult's law and van't Hoff's gas-pressure theory.
The vapourmolecules of the solvent are free to pass through the semi-permeable membrane, and will continue to condense in the solution until the hydrostatic pressure is so raised as to produce equality of vapour-pressure.