They are easily hydrolysed, breaking up into their components when boiled with acids or alkalies.
They readily decompose on heating, and are easily hydrolysed by alkalies; they possess a somewhat more acid character than.
These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.
Chevreul found that a neutral salt soap hydrolysed to an acid salt, free alkali, and a small amount of fatty acid.
The extent to which a soap is hydrolysed depends upon the acid and on the concentration of the solution; it is also affected by the presence of metallic salts, e.g.
The same methyl iodide gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to acetic acid; this must be C(Coch) a H b H c H d.
As an illustration it may be pointed out that in the case of the two known types of lactones - the y-lactones, which contain four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom in the ring, are more readily formed and more stable (less readily hydrolysed) than the S-lactones, which contain one oxygen and five carbon atoms in the ring.
The heptachlor compound when treated with chlorine water gives trichloraceto-pentachlorbutyric acid (6), which is hydrolysed by alkalis to chloroform and pentachlorglutaric acid (7), and is converted by boiling water into tetrachlor-diketo-Rpentene (8).
When thus chlorinated phenol (I) yields trichlor-o-diketo-R-hexene (2), which may be hydrolysed to an acid (3), which, in turn, suffers rearrangement to trichlor-R-pentene-oxycarboxylic acid (4).
Willstatter (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 1164) obtained this acid by the action of a methyl alcoholic solution of ammonia on dibrompropylmalonic ester at 140° C., the diamide formed being then hydrolysed either by hydrochloric acid or baryta water: CH 2 CBr(C02H) 2 CH 2.
They are hydrolysed by dilute mineral acids yielding hydroxylamine and the parent aldehyde or ketone.
HO NH SO 3 Na, are hydrolysed by caustic alkalis (E.
Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming an acid salt, Pb(HS04)2, which is hydrolysed by adding water, the normal sulphate being precipitated; hence the milkiness exhibited by samples of oil of vitriol on dilution.
Cellulose sulphates are one, and possibly the main, cause of instability in guncotton, and it is highly desirable that they should be completely hydrolysed and removed in the washing process.
It crystallizes in rhombic prisms which are readily soluble in hot water, melt at 187° C. and decompose at about 240° C. It is readily hydrolysed by hot caustic alkalis to benzoic acid and glycocoll.
They show all the reactions of esters, being readily hydrolysed by caustic alkalis, and reacting with ammonia to produce carhamic esters and urea.
He prepared the cyanhydrins of glucose and fructose, hydrolysed them to the corresponding oxy-acids, from which the hydroxy groups were split out by reduction; it was found that glucose yielded normal heptylic acid and fructose methylbutylacetic acid; hence glucose is an aldehyde alcohol, CH 2 OH (CH OH) 4 CHO, whilst fructose is a ketone alcohol CH 2 OH (CH OH) 3 CO.
Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.
When xylose is combined with hydrocyanic acid and the cyanide is hydrolysed, together with l-gulonic acid, a second isomeric acid, l-idonic acid, is produced, which on reduction yields the hexaldose l-idose.
The tertiary amine is then distilled off, the residual products separated by filtration and finally hydrolysed by a caustic alkali.
On heating piperidine with phosphorus pentachloride to 200°C. in a sealed tube pentamethylene dichloride is obtained, and this on treatment with potassium phthalimide gives a condensation product of composition, C 6 H 4 [CO] 2 N(CH 2) 5 N[CO] 2 C 6 H 4, which is finally hydrolysed by hydrochloric acid.
Mente, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 3229), crystallizes in prisms, and when boiled with water is rapidly hydrolysed to oxamide and oxalic acid.
It is readily hydrolysed by hot solutions of the caustic alkalis.
It may also be prepared by oxidizing benzyl alcohol with concentrated nitric acid; by distilling a mixture of calcium benzoate and calcium formate; by the condensation of chlor-oxalic ester with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride, the ester of the ketonic acid formed being then hydrolysed and the resulting acid distilled: C 6 H 6 +Cl CO Cooc 2 H 5 = C,H5co COOC2H5d-HC1, C 6 H 5 CO 000H =C6H5CHO+C02; by the action of anhydrous hydrocyanic acid and hydrochloric acid on benzene, an aldime being formed as an intermediate product: C 6 H 6 +HCN+HC1= C6H5CH :NH HC1, Benzaldine hydrochloride C 6 H 5 CH: NH HC1+H 2 O =NH4C1+C6H5CHO; and by the action of chromium oxychloride on toluene dissolved in carbon bisulphide (A.
5), and consequently its salts are appreciably hydrolysed in aqueous solution.
Aronheim, Ann., 1874, 171, p. 219); and by the action of ortho-xylylene bromide on sodium ethane tetracarboxylic ester, the resulting tetra-hydronaphthalene tetracarboxylic ester being hydrolysed and heated, when it yields hydronaphthalene dicarboxylic acid, the silver salt of which decomposes on distillation into naphthalene and other products (A.
Meyer (Ber., 18 94, 2 7, p. 510 et seq.) showed that in benzenoid compounds ortho-substituents exert a great hindering effect on the esterification of alcohols by acids in the presence of hydrochloric acid, this hindering being particularly marked when two substituents are present in the ortho positions to the carboxyl group. In such a case the ester is best prepared by the action of an alkyl halide on the silver salt of the acid, and when once prepared, can only be hydrolysed with great difficulty.
They are readily hydrolysed by water, and combine with bases to form alkyl ureas, and with alcohols to form carbamic esters.
It crystallizes in needles and is readily hydrolysed by alkalis.
It is hydrolysed by alkalis, giving carbon dioxide, ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen.
The resulting benzoylazoimide is easily hydrolysed by boiling with alcoholic solutions of caustic alkalis, a benzoate of the alkali metal and an alkali salt of the new acid being obtained; the latter is precipitated in crystalline condition on standing.
An improved method of preparation was found in the use of hippuric acid, which reacts with hydrazine hydrate to form hippuryl hydrazine, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Conh Nh]] 2, and this substance is converted by nitrous acid into diazo-hippuramide, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Co Nh N 2.0h]], which is hydrolysed by the action of caustic alkalis with the production of salts of hydrazoic acid.
The property of oils and fats of being readily hydrolysed is a most important one, and very extensive use of it is made in the arts (soapmaking, candle-making and recovery of their by-products).
Hantzsch (Ann., 1882, 215, p. I; Ber., 1882, 15, p. 2914) which consists in the condensation of two molecules of aceto-acetic ester with one of an aldehyde and one of ammonia: RO 2 C CH 2 R' CHO CH 2 CO 2 R RO 2 C C CHR' C C02R CH 3 CO + NH 3 + CO CH 3 -' CH3 C-NH-C CH3 The resulting dihydro-compound is then oxidized with nitrous acid, the ester hydrolysed and the resulting acid heated with lime; carbon dioxide is eliminated and a trisubstituted pyridine of the type CH C(CH3) is obtained.
These alkyl substitution products are important, for they lead to the synthesis of many organic compounds, on account of the fact that they can be hydrolysed in two different ways, barium hydroxide or dilute sodium hydroxide solution giving the socalled ketone hydrolysis, whilst concentrated sodium hydroxide gives the acid hydrolysis.
This glucoside is readily hydrolysed by acids or ferments,breaking up into alizarin and glucose: 214 O Ruberythric acid = Glucose+Alizarin.
This compound is hydrolysed by hydriodic acid and alizarin is obtained.
1888 , 14, p. 44 1); by the action of carbon dioxide on monobrombenzene in the presence of sodium; by condensing benzene And carbonyl chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, the benzoyl chloride formed being subsequently hydrolysed; and similarly from benzene and chlorformamide: C6H6 +Cl Conh 2 = Hc1 -C6h,CONH2, the benzamide being then hydrolysed.
For this purpose the urine is concentrated and the hippuric acid precipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid; it is then filtered and boiled for some time with concentrated hydrochloric acid, when it is hydrolysed into benzoic and amido-acetic acid.