2 This phrase is old, appearing in one of the earliest English works on geography, William Cuningham's Cosmographical Glasse conteinyng the pleasant Principles of Cosmographie, Geographie, Hydrographie or Navigation (London, 1559).
German engineers have also devoted special attention to the measurement of the flow in rivers; the Beitreige zur Hydrographie des Konigreiches Bohmen (Prague, 1872-1875) of A.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
" Challenger," 1873-1876; " Egeria, " 1888-1889 and 1899; " Elisabeth," 1877; " Gazelle," 1875-1876; " Planet," 1906; " Penguin," 1891-1903; " Tuscarora," 1873-1874; " Vettor Pisani," 1884; " Vitraz," 1887-1888; also observations of surveying and cable ships, and special papers in the Annalen der Hydrographie (for distribution of temperature see G.
Faber, I Zur Hydrographie des Maingebiets (Munich, 1895), and Lill, Mainthal, Main and Mainschiffahrt (Berlin, 1904).
Hoekstra, Die Oroand Hydrographie Sumatras (Groningen, 1893); J.
Muller, Beitrrige zur Orographie and Hydrographie von Esthland (1869-1871); Bunge, Das Herzogthum Esthland enter den Konigen von Drinemark (1877); and Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est-, and Kurlands (2nd ed., 1897) and various papers in the FinnischUgrische Forschungen.