C. Fremont and Howard Stansbury (1806-1863) furnished a general knowledge of the hydrographic features and geological lacustrine history of the Great Basin, and this knowledge was rounded out by the field work of the U.S. Geological Survey from 1879 to 1883, under the direction of Grove Karl Gilbert.
South of this enclosed depression is another great hydrographic barrier which parts it from the low plains of the Amur, of China, Siam and India, bordered by the shallows of the Yellow Sea and the shoals which enclose the islands of Japan and Formosa, all of them once an integral part of the continent.
If we examine the hydrographic basins of the three divisions of Asia thus indicated we find that the northern division, including the drainage falling into the Arctic Sea,the Aralo- Hydro- Caspian depression, or the Mediterranean, embraces an graphs area of about 6,394,500 sq.
A hydrographic survey of this lake was made by Drizhenko in 1897-1902.
Drizhenko, "Hydrographic Reconnoitring of Lake Baikal," in Izvestia Russ.
With the exception of the extreme north (Commagene), which is shut off by a barrier of hills and belongs to foreign hydrographic systems, the whole country is roughly a gable-shaped plateau, falling north and south from a medial ridge, which crosses Syria at about its central point.
Sailing directions for Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and the Strait of Mackinac, U.S. Navy Hydrographic office publication No.
17: Survey of Northern and North-western Lakes, U.S. Lake Survey Office (Detroit, Michigan, 1907); St Lawrence Pilot, 7th ed., Hydrographic Office Admiralty (London, 1906); Effect of Withdrawal of Water from Lake Michigan by the Sanitary District of Chicago, U.S. House of Representatives' Document No.
It need hardly be said that hydrographic surveys have been of great service to compilers of maps.
In this work the British hydrographic office may justly claim the credit of having contributed the chief share.
The variations themselves are detected by the method of seasonally repeated hydrographic soundings.
Taking such an easily surveyable area as the North Sea, the quantity of relatively warm and dense Atlantic water entering it from year to year can be estimated by the method of hydrographic sections.
If the Tocantins-Araguaya basin is included in the hydrographic system, the greater part of Goyaz and a small part of Maranhao should be added to this drainage area.
As the outlet of the Tocantins is so near to that of the Amazon, and their lower valleys are conterminous, it is convenient to treat them as parts of the same hydrographic basin.
108 D., Sailing Directions for Lake Ontario, Hydrographic Office, U.S. Navy (Washington, D.C., 1902); St Lawrence Pilot (7th ed.), Hydrographic Office, Admiralty (London, 1906).
The Hydrographic Office of the United States had collected 3800 meteorological logs with 3,200,000 entries before 1888; but since that time the logs have contained only one observation daily (at Greenwich noon) and of these 2,380.000 entries had been received by 1904.
The first comprehensive study of the currents of the Atlantic was that carried out by James Rennell (1790-1.830), and since that time Findlay in his Directories, Heinrich Berghaus, Maury and the officials of the various Hydrographic Departments have produced increasingly accurate descriptions of the currents of the whole ocean, largely from material supplied by merchant captains.
Important current and temperature charts of the ocean and occasional memoirs are published for the Admiralty by the Meteorological Office in London, by the U.S. Hydrographic Office in Washington, the Deutsche Seewarte in Hamburg, and also at intervals by the French, Russian, Dutch and Scandinavian admiralties.
Pilot Charts of the North Atlantic and North Pacific are issued monthly by the U.S. Hydrographic Office, and of the North Atlantic and of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea by the British Meteorological Office, giving a conspectus of the normal conditions of weather and sea.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Darton, Geology and Underground Waters of South Dakota (Washington, 1909), Water Supply Paper 227 of the U.S. Geological Survey; James Edward Todd, " The Hydrographic History of South Dakota " in vol.
His careful and detailed maps, lake soundings, hydrographic, geological, meteorological and other investigations gave him the highest rank among modern explorers.
He next investigated the sources of the Sutlej, made hydrographic investigations of the Manasarowar lakes, with the neighbouring underground waterways, and proceeded thence to Gartok.
Mushketov, Turkestan (St Petersburg, 1886), with bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov, Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin (in Russian, 1877); Memoirs of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877 (2 vols., in Russian), edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in Zapiski of Russ.
There are two distinct hydrographic systems in Ecuador - the streams that flow south-eastward to the Maranon, or Amazon, and those which flow westward to the Pacific. The southern Ravers.
This tableland, the hydrographic centre of West Africa, is most elevated in its southern parts, where heights of 5000 ft.
The American Crocker Land expedition, from its base at Etah, surveyed part of the coast between Etah and Hall Basin in 1914-5 and made an hydrographic survey of Foulke Fjord.
Novopashennoi for an hydrographic survey of the Arctic coast of Siberia.
Its duties also include the military protection of the ports, the hydrographic survey of the coast, and the lighthouse service.
Sixty miles south of Kalat, and beyond the Mulla sources, commences another remarkable hydrographic system which includes all southern and south-western Baluchistan.
Lake Concepcion, in the Chiquitos mountains, belongs to this same hydrographic area.
A glance at the hydrographic structure of Bohemia, which is of such a striking regularity, shows us that the Moldau is the main stem, while the Elbe and the other rivers are only lateral branches; moreover, the Elbe below Melnik, the point of its confluence with the Moldau, follows the general direction of the Moldau.
17, Survey of Northern and North-Western Lakes, United States, War Department (Washington, 1907); U.S. Hydrographic Office Publication, No.
Plinlimmon (2468 ft.) is the highest of the hills, and forms a sort of hydrographic centre for the group, as from its eastern base the Severn and the Wye take their rise - the former describing a wide curve to east and south, the latter forming a chord to the arc in its southward course.
The maps of the Ordnance, Geological and Hydrographic Surveys delineate the configuration and geology of England and the adjacent seas with a completeness unsurpassed in any other country.
17, Survey of Northern and North-Western Lakes, U.S. War Department, Lake Survey Office, Detroit (1907); Sailing Directions for Lake Superior and the St Mary's River, U.S. Hydrographic Office publication No.