Uracil and its homologues may be obtained in many cases from the hydrouracils by the action of bromine, and subsequent elimination of the elements of hydrobromic acid; or by the condensation of aceto-acetic ester and related substances with urea, thiourea, guanidine, &c. Uracil, C4H402N2, crystallizes in colourless needles, is soluble in hot water and melts with decomposition at 335° C. Hydrouracil, C4H602N2, is obtained by the action of bromine and caustic alkalis on succinamide (H.
By heating nicotine with bromine in hydrobromic acid solution for some hours at 100° C., dibromticonine hydrobromide, C10H8N2Br202 HBr, results.
The following table gives the heats of neutralization of the commoner strong monobasic acids with soda: - Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydriodic acid Nitric acid Chloric acid Bromic acid Within the error of experiment these numbers are identical.
Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.
In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.
Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.
Hydrobromic and hydriodic acids were investigated by Gay Lussac and Balard, while hydrofluoric acid received considerable attention at the hands of Gay Lussac, Thenard and Berzelius.
But on the other hand, it is readily converted by hydrobromic acid into normal propyl bromide, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Br.
A similar behaviour has since been noticed in other trimethylene derivatives, but the fact that bromine, which usually acts so much more readily than hydrobromic acid on unsaturated compounds,, should be so inert when hydrobromic acid acts readily is one still.
As in the case of quinine, the administration of small doses of hydrobromic acid often relieve the milder symptoms.
When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus it forms phenylacetic acid; whilst concentrated hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid at moderate temperatures convert it into phenylbromand phenylchlor-acetic acids.
Stannous bromide, SnBr 2, is a light yellow substance formed from tin and hydrobromic acid.
It may be obtained from storax by distillation with water, and synthetically by heating cinnamic acid with lime, by the action of aluminium chloride on a mixture of vinyl bromide and benzene, by removing the elements of hydrobromic acid from bromethylbenzene by means of alcoholic potash, or, best, by treating (-bromhydrocinnamic acid with soda, when it yields styrolene, carbon dioxide and hydrobromic acid.
Styrolene is oxidized by nitric or chromic acids to benzoic acid; reduction gives ethylbenzene; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids yield a-haloid ethylbenzenes, e.g.
Being an unsaturated acid it combines directly with hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, bromine, &c. On nitration it gives a mixture of ortho and para nitrocinnamic acids, the former of which is of historical importance, as by converting it into orthonitrophenyl propiolic acid A.
Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution.
The anhydrous acid combines with hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids to form crystalline addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of the corresponding ammonium salt and formic acid.
The bromide and iodide are formed in a similar manner by heating the metal in gaseous hydrobromic or hydriodic acids.
Hewitt has also attacked the problem by brominating the oxyazobenzenes, and has shown that when the hydrobromic acid produced in the reaction is allowed to remain in the system, a brombenzene-azo-phenol is formed, whilst if it be removed (by the addition of sodium acetate) bromination takes place in the phenolic nucleus; consequently the presence of the mineral acid gives the azo compound a pseudo-quinonoid character, which it does not possess if the mineral acid be removed from the sphere of the reaction.
It combines directly with bromine, and, with fuming hydrobromic acid at ioo° C., it gives chiefly a-brombutyric acid.
Hypochlorous acid and its salts, together with the corresponding bromine and iodine compounds, liberate oxygen violently from hydrogen peroxide, giving hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids (S.
Hydrobromic acid at 185°-190°C. converts it into diand tri-bromaniline.
Hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids are without action; hydriodic acid only reacts slowly.
It slowly evolves bromine on standing, and is at once decomposed by water into the blue oxide and hydrobromic acid.
Barium bromide is prepared by saturating baryta-water or by decomposing barium carbonate with hydrobromic acid.
It can be prepared from dibrom-menthone (obtained by brominating menthone in chloroform solution) by eliminating two molecules of hydrobromic acid.
In persons who have a marked idiosyncrasy towards cinchonism, the symptoms may often be successfully averted if small doses of hydrobromic acid - io minims of the dilute solution - are given with the quinine.
Commercial bromine is rarely pure, the chief impurities present in it being chlorine, hydrobromic acid, and bromoform (M.
Gessner (Berichte, 1876, 9, p. 1507) removes chlorine by repeated shaking with water, followed by distillation over sulphuric acid; hydrobromic acid is removed by distillation with pure manganese dioxide, or mercuric oxide, and the product dried over sulphuric acid.
The solution is of an orange-red colour, and is quite permanent in the dark, but on exposure to light, gradually becomes colourless, owing to decomposition into hydrobromic acid and oxygen.
(German Patent, 26642.) The diluents in which bromine is employed are usually ether, chloroform, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, carbon bisulphide and water, and, less commonly, alcohol, potassium bromide and hydrobromic acid; the excess of bromine being removed by heating, by sulphurous acid or by shaking with mercury.
Soc., 1900, 77, p. 648) prepares pure hydrobromic acid by covering bromine, which is contained in a large flask, with a layer of water, and passing sulphur dioxide into the water above the surface of the bromine, until the whole is of a pale yellow colour; the resulting solution is then distilled in a slow current of air and finally purified by distillation over barium bromide.
At ordinary temperatures hydrobromic acid is a colourless gas which fumes strongly in moist air, and has an acid taste and reaction.
Hydrobromic acid is one of the "strong" acids, being ionized to a very large extent even in concentrated solution, as shown by the molecular conductivity increasing by only a small amount over a wide range offdilution.
Hydrobromic acid reacts with metallic oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to form bromides, which can in many cases be obtained also by the direct union of the metals with bromine.
Hydrobromic acid and its salts can be readily detected by the addition of chlorine water to their aqueous solutions, when bromine is liberated; or by warming with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide, the same result being obtained.
By reducing agents such, for example, as sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur-dioxide, it is rapidly converted into hydrobromic acid.
Hydrobromic acid decomposes it according to the equation HBrO, 5HBr=3H20 3Br2.
Hydrobromic acid is often used to relieve or prevent the headache and singing in the ears that may follow the administration of quinine and of salicylic acid or salicylates.
Hydrobromic acid converts it into a-brompropionic acid, and hydriodic acid into propionic acid.
Ann., 1832, 24, p. 151) from phosphine and hydrobromic acid; it also results when phosphorus is heated with hydrobromic acid to 100120° C. in sealed tubes (Damoiseau, Bull.
With water it gives sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen, hydrobromic, phosphorous and phosphoric acids, the sulphur and phosphorous acid being produced by the interaction of the previously formed sulphuretted hydrogen and phosphoric acid.
It may be obtained by brominating conine, and then removing the elements of hydrobromic acid with alkalis.
Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities of this acid.
The ring is split by sulphuric or hydrobromic acids.
By the action of hydrobromic acid (in glacial acetic acid solution) and reduction of the resulting product it yields I.
With bromine it forms a dibromide, which then heated to 110° C. decomposes into hydrobromic acid and benzyl bromide.
In ethereal solution it combines with bromine to form an unstable liquid dibromide; it also unites with one molecule of hydrobromic acid to form the same tertiary bromide as dimethylallylene; this points to its being Q-methyldivinyl, CH 2: C(CH 3) CH: CH 2 (V.
Ferrous bromide, FeBr2, is obtained as yellowish crystals by the union of bromine and iron at a dull red-heat, or as bluish-green rhombic tables of the composition FeBr26H2O by crystallizing a solution of iron in hydrobromic acid.
The halogens give ferrous and ferric haloids and carbon monoxide; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids have no action, but hydriodic decomposes it.