The hydrate, Bi(OH) 3 i is obtained as a white powder by adding potash to a solution of a bismuth salt.
The dioxide was obtained as the hydrate, CaO 2.8H,0, by P. Thenard (Ann.
The hydrate, B1204.2H20, is also known.
For the fusion of the dry hydrate nickel vessels cannot be used; in fact, even silver is perceptibly attacked as soon as all the excess of water is away; absolutely pure KHO can be produced only in gold vessels.
Chim., 1906, 2 5, p. 2 53) considers to be a hydrate of sulphur of composition S $ H 2 0), sulphuric acid, traces of trithionic acid, tetraand pentathionic acids and probably hexathionic acid.
Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide.
A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.
It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 39° C. A chloral hydroxylamine, CC1 3 [[Choh Nhoh]], melting at 98° C. is obtained by allowing a mixture of one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate with two molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and one of sodium carbonate to stand for some time in a desiccator.
If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.
Water when absolutely pure has no action on lead, but in the presence of air the lead is quickly attacked, with formation of the hydrate, Pb(OH) 2, which is appreciably soluble in water forming an alkaline liquid.
The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.
Uranous hydrate is obtained as reddish-brown flakes by precipitating a uranous solution with alkali.
Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).
The view, often repeated, that the saccharum of the ancients is the hydrate of silica, sometimes found in bamboos and known in Arabian medicine as tabashir, is refuted by Yule, Anglo-Indian Glossary, p. 654; see also Not.
Titanic oxide separates out as a white hydrate, which, however, is generally contaminated with ferric hydrate and often with tin oxide.
The solution, if boiled, deposits its titanic oxide as a hydrate called metatitanic acid, TiO(OH) 21 because it differs in its properties from orthotitanic acid, Ti(OH) 4, obtained by decomposing a solution of the chloride in cold water with alkalis.
Anhydrous calcium chloride, prepared by heating the hydrate to 200° (preferably in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, which prevents the formation of any oxychloride), is very hygroscopic, and is used as a desiccating agent.
Pure potassium is a silvery white metal tinged with blue; but on exposure to air it at once forms a film of oxide, and on prolonged exposure deliquesces into a solution of hydrate and carbonate.
The remaining mud of calcium carbonate and hydrate is washed, by decantation, with small instalments of hot water to recover at least part of the alkali diffused throughout it, but this process must not be continued too long or else some of the lime passes into solution.
On crystallizing a solution, the hydrate KOH 2H 2 0 is deposited; 2KOH 9H 2 0 and 2KOH 5H 2 0 have also been obtained.
The curve OP represents the varying solubility of the hydrate as the temperature rises from the cryohydric point to 32.6°.
At that temperature crystals of the anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 appear, and a new fixed equilibrium exists between the four phases - hydrate, anhydrous salt, solution and vapour.
In a similar way the curve FGH, between 30° and 55°, shows the effect of the hydrate Fe2Cl6.5H20, and the curve HJK that of the hydrate Fe 2 C1 6.4H 2 O, which, when pure, melts at 73.5° - the point J on the diagram.
A familiar example is to be found in solutions of sodium sulphate, which may be cooled much below their saturation point and kept in the liquid state till a crystal of the hydrate Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O is dropped in, when solidification occurs with a large evolution of latent heat.
On the other hand there are certain forms of ferric hydrate containing less water than limonite and approaching to haematite in their red colour and streak: such is the mineral which was called hydrohaematite by A.
It is a physiological antagonist of chloral hydrate, morphine and physostigmine, and may be given in poisoning by these drugs.
To ensure this being properly done, the lumps of lime should be broken up small, and enough water to slake them should be added, the lime then being allowed to rest for about forty-eight hours, when the water changes the particles of quicklime to hydrate of lime, and breaks up the hard lumps into a powder.
Aluminium hydrate, Al(OH) 3, is obtained as a gelatinous white precipitate, soluble in potassium or sodium hydrate, but insoluble in ammonium chloride, by adding ammonia to a cold solution of an aluminium salt; from boiling solutions the precipitate is opaque.
By drying at ordinary temperatures, the hydrate Al(OH) 3 ï¿½H 2 0 is obtained; at 300° this yields A10(OH), which on ignition gives alumina, Al 2 O 3.
It forms a hydrate of composition H 2 S 7H 2 0.
Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.