These coloured hybrids were originated by M.
Having obtained a first hybrid generation, he allowed the hybrids to self-fertilize, and recorded the result in a large number of instances (a thousand or more) as to the number of individuals in the first, second, third and fourth generations in which the character selected for experiment made its appearance.
Of late years some remarkably fine hybrids have been raised between the various distinct groups of narcissi, and the prices asked for the bulbs in many cases are exceedingly high.
Hybrids are also common, the canary breeding freely with the siskin, goldfinch, citril, greenfinch and linnet.
The hybrids thus produced are almost invariably sterile.
With respect to the production of hybrids, the genus is remarkable for its power of resisting the influence of foreign pollen, for the seedlings of any species, when crossed, generally resemble that which bears them.
Osaria, auxaria, a bundle of osier or willow twigs), the common term under which are included the various species, varieties and hybrids of the genus Salix, used in the manufacture of baskets.
The occurrence of hybrids in nature explains the difficulty experienced by botanists in deciding on what is a species, and the widely different limitations of the term adopted by different observers in the case of willows, roses, brambles, &c. The artificial process is practically the same in hybridization as in cross-fertilization, but usually requires more care.
Hybrids are sometimes less fertile than pure-bred species, and are occasionally quite sterile.
Some hybrids, however, are as fertile as pure-bred plants.
So markedly is this the case with hybrids that in a few generations all traces of a hybrid origin may disappear.
Numerous hybrids have been raised, varying in colour from creamy white to salmon, pink, yellow, red and orange.
Amoena, amoena spectabilis, magnifica, paronychioides major aurea and amabilis; Alyssum maritimum variegatum; some of the dwarf varieties of Antirrhinum majus; Arundo Donax variegata; Begonias; Calceolarias; Cannas; Centaurea ragusina; Clematises, of which the hybrids of the Jackmanni type are best; Dahlia variabilis, and the single-flowered forms of D.
Of late years not only have many fine hybrids been raised artificially between various species, but some remarkable bigeneric hybrids (between what are considered two distinct genera) have also been produced (indicated in the list below by *).
From the variety Bohea, or from hybrids of descent from it, came the China teas of former days and the earlier plantings in India grown from imported China stock.
Its naturalization in western Europe is very ancient, but the race supposed to have been introduced by the Romans (Phasianus colchicus) has been much modified within the last century or two by the introduction of the ring-necked Chinese form (P. torquatus), which produces fertile hybrids with the old breed.
They have been ousted by the more gorgeous looking hybrids, which have been evolved during the past Too years.
Maule, thinking a hardier blood might be infused into the potato by crossing it with some of the native species, raised hybrids between it and the two common species of Solanum native in this country, S.
Nigrum, but the hybrids proved as susceptible as the potato itself.
Since the cultivation of cinchona trees was commenced in Java, India, Ceylon and Jamaica, several other species, as well as varieties and hybrids cultivated in those countries, have been used.'
Thirty mares put to a Burchell zebra produced seventeen hybrids, and subsequently twenty pure-bred foals.
Unlike Lord Morton's quagga hybrids, all the zebra hybrids were richly, and sometimes very distinctly, striped, some of them having far more stripes than their zebra parent.
But as equally distinct markings occurred on two pure-bred Highland foals out of mares which had never seen a zebra, it was impossible to ascribe the stripes on the foals born after zebra hybrids to infection of their respective dams. Further, the subsequent foals afforded no evidence of infection, either in the mane, tail, hoofs or disposition.
Moreover, while the faint markings on the foals born after hybrids completely disappeared with the foals' coat, the stripes on the three pure-bred colts persisted.
Some British authors have referred to the latter of these well-marked species certain Ducks that from time to time occur, but they are doubtless hybrids, though the secret of their parentage may be unknown; and in this way a so-called Bimaculated Duck, Anas bimaculata, was for many years erroneously admitted as a good species to the British list, but of late this has been properly discarded.
In the progeny of these crossed wheats, especially in the second generation, much variation and difference of character is observable - a phenomenon commonly noticed in the descendants from crosses and hybrids, and styled by Naudin "irregular variation."
The two species which are farthest removed in structure, the horse and the ass, produce, as is well known, hybrids or mules, which in certain qualities useful to man excel both their progenitors, and in some countries and for certain kinds of work are in greater requisition than either.
The failure to obtain hybrids between certain species of Rana has been attributed principally to these differences.
In the first ten years of attempting to make better hybrids, Borlaug's group made more than six thousand crossings of wheat.
Many beautiful Nymphaea hybrids have been raised between the tender and hardy varieties of different colours, and there are now in commerce lovely forms having not only white, but also yellow, rose, pink and carmine flowers.
Watt considers many of the Egyptian cottons to be races or hybrids of G.
Two principal ranges cross the district from north to south, running almost Hybrids between, as is presumed, M.
Aestivalis and their hybrids with V.
In subsequent generations produced by self-fertilization of the hybrids it was found that the positive character was not present in all the individuals, but that a result was obtained showing that in the formation of the reproductive cells (ova and sperms) of the hybrid, half were endowed with the positive character and half with the negative.
Whatever value is to be attached to Mendel's observation of the breaking up of self-fertilized hybrids of cultivated varieties into the two original parent forms according to the formula " 'PP, 2PN, INN," it cannot be considered as more than a contribution to the extensive investigation of heredity which still remains to be carried out.
The natives, who are Micronesian hybrids of finer physique than their kinsmen of the Pelew Islands, have a comparatively high mental standard, being careful agriculturists, and peculiarly clever boatbuilders and navigators.
Some years ago these rabbits were sold as "leporides" or hybrids, produced by the union of the hare and the rabbit; but the most careful experimenters have failed to obtain any such hybrid, and the naked immature condition in which young rabbits are born as compared with the clothed and highly developed young hare renders it unlikely that hybrids could be produced.
According to Watt there are many hybrids in American cottons between G.
These hybrids produce a lint which is long and silky, but often deficient in strength: selection for strength amongst the hybrids, with due regard to length, may overcome this.
A large number of hybrids exist in cultivation.