In Hutcheson's Enquiry, published in 1725.
Hutcheson's theory of universal benevolence and Smith's idea of sympathy he combines under the law of society.
The identification is slightly qualified in Hutcheson's posthumously published System of Moral Philosophy (1755), in which the general view of Shaftesbury is more fully developed, with several new psychological distinctions, including Butler's, separation of " calm " benevolence - as well as, after Butler, " calm self-love " - from the " turbulent " passions, selfish or social.
Justice, veracity, fidelity to compacts and to governments, are all co 1 It is worth noticing that Hutcheson's express definition of the object of self-love includes " perfection " as well as " happiness "; but in the working out of his system he considers private good exclusively as happiness or pleasure.
It is this last position that constitutes the fundamental difference between Hutcheson's ethical doctrine and Hume's.'
Some years earlier, Gay,' admitting Hutcheson's proof of the actual disinterestedness of moral and benevolent impulses, had maintained that these (like the desires of knowledge or fame, the delight of reading, hunting and planting, &c.) were derived from self-love by " the power of association."