Podébrad, who had gained the throne of Bohemia with the aid of the Hussites and Utraquists, had long been in ill odour at Rome, and in 1465 Pope Paul II.
By way of reprisals for the Hussite outrages in Prague, the miners of Kuttenberg seized on any Hussites they could find, and burned, beheaded or threw them alive into the shafts of disused mines.
Lauban was founded in the 10th and fortified in the 13th century; in 1427 and 1431 it was devastated by the Hussites, and in 1640 by the Swedes.
The name Bethlehemites has also sometimes been given to the Hussites of Bohemia because their leader preached in the Bethlehem church at Prague:
Cesarini devoted all his energies to the war against the Hussites, until the disaster of Taus forced him hastily to evacuate Bohemia.
The Hussites, it was said, would think that the Church was afraid to face them; the laity would accuse the clergy of shirking reform; in short, this failure of the councils would produce disastrous effects.
In vain did the pope explain his reasons and yield certain points; the fathers would listen to nothing, and, relying on the decrees of the council of Constance, which amid the troubles of the schism had proclaimed the superiority, in certain cases, of the council over the pope, they insisted upon their right of remaining assembled, hastily beat up the laggards, held sessions, promulgated decrees, interfered in the government of the papal countship of Venaissin, treated with the Hussites, and, as representatives of the universal Church, presumed to impose laws upon the sovereign pontiff himself.
The fathers continued to devote themselves to the subjugation of the Hussites; they also intervened, in rivalry with the pope, in the negotiations between France and England which led only to the treaty of Arras, concluded by Charles VII.
During the 15th century the town suffered greatly from the Hussites, and it was captured by the imperial troops during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and again in the Thirty Years' War.
HUSSITES, the name given to the followers of John Huss (1369-1415), the Bohemian reformer.
That he would shortly "drown all Wycliffites and Hussites," greatly incensed the people.
Almost from the first the Hussites were divided into two sections, though many minor divisions also arose among them.
This doctrine became the watchword of the moderate Hussites who were known as the Utraquists or Calixtines (calix, the chalice), in Bohemian, podoboji; while the more advanced Hussites were soon known as the Taborites, from the city of Tabor that became their centre.
A certain number of Hussites lead by Nicolas of Hus - no relation of John Huss - left Prague.
In spite of the departure of many prominent Hussites the troubles at Prague continued.
Selau) marched through the streets of Prague, stones were thrown at the Hussites from the windows of the town-hall of the "new town."
In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected.
Not considering its situation sufficiently strong, he moved to the neighbouring new settlement of the Hussites, to which the biblical name of Tabor was given.
Tabor soon became the centre of the advanced Hussites, who differed from the Utraquists by recognizing only two sacraments - Baptism and Communion - and by rejecting most of the ceremonial of the Roman Church.
Issued a bull on the 17th of March 1 4 20 which proclaimed a crusade "for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites and all other heretics in Bohemia."
The united Hussites formulated their demands in a statement known as the "articles of Prague."
Sigismund attempted to relieve the fortress, but was decisively defeated by the Hussites on the ist of November near the village of Pankrac. The castles of Vysehrad and Hradcany now capitulated, and shortly afterwards almost all Bohemia fell into the hands of the Hussites.
Shortly afterwards a new crusade against the Hussites was undertaken.
In spite of the endeavours of their rulers, the Sla y s of Poland and Lithuania did not wish to attack the kindred Bohemians; the Germans were prevented by internal discord from taking joint action against the Hussites; and the king of Denmark, who had landed in Germany with a large force intending to take part in the crusade, soon returned to his own country.
Free for a time from foreign aggression, the Hussites invaded Moravia, where a large part of the population favoured their creed; but, again paralysed by dissensions, soon returned to Bohemia.
After several military successes gained by Zizka (q.v.) in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussites was concluded on the 13th of September 1424 at Liben, a village near Prague, now part of that city.
In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies.
After this great victory, and another at Tachau in 1427, the Hussites repeatedly invaded Germany, though they made no attempt to occupy permanently any part of the country.
The almost uninterrupted series of victories of the Hussites now rendered vain all hope of subduing them by force of arms. Moreover, the conspicuously democratic character of the Hussite movement caused the German princes, who were afraid that such views might extend to their own countries, to desire peace.
Many Hussites, particularly the Utraquist clergy, were also in favour of peace.
Before definitely giving its consent to peace negotiations, the Roman Church determined on making a last effort to reduce the Hussites to subjection.
It was in the same place that the Hussites gained in 1431 one of their greatest victories against a German army of crusaders, and another similar German army was vanquished here by George of Podebrad.
The Hussites, led by John Zizka, stormed the town-hall and threw the magistrates from its windows.
After his departure, civil war between the moderate Hussites (Calixtines or Utraquists) and the advanced Taborite party broke out for the first time, though there had previously been isolated disturbances between them.
Shortly afterwards Korybutovic, who had taken part in this great victory, incurred the dislike of the extreme Hussites, and was obliged to leave Bohemia.
The crusaders were seized by a sudden panic, both at Mies (Stfibro) and at Tachau, as soon as they approached the Hussites, and they fled hurriedly across the mountains into Bavaria.
In the course of the same year negotiations began at Basel, the Hussites being represented by a numerous embassy under the leadership of Prokop the Great.
The more aristocratic Hussites raised an armed force which was known as " the army of the nobles."
Serious riots took place at Prague, and the more advanced Hussites stormed the three town halls of the city.
In 1421 the Hussites were defeated here by King Sigismund and the Saxons, and in 1426 besieged the town in vain.
Burned by the Hussites in 1428, the town was soon afterwards rebuilt, and in 1595 it was again fortified by Joachim Frederick, duke of Brieg.
During the Hussite wars it was the centre of Catholic resistance to the Hussites; it was three times unsuccessfully besieged by Prokop the Great, and it took part in the league of the Romanist lords against King George of Podebrad.