In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, he issued the celebrated declaration of Hungarian independence, in which he declared that "the house of HabsburgLorraine, perjured in the sight of God and man, had forfeited the Hungarian throne."
Quarrels of a kind only too common among exiles followed; the Hungarians were especially offended by his claim still to be called governor.
A law of 1879, which deprived of citizenship all Hungarians who had voluntarily been absent ten years, was a.
Cavour's successor, Ricasoli, enrolled the Garibaldians in the regular army; Rattazzi, who succeeded Ricasoli, urged Garibaldi to undertake an expedition in aid of the Hungarians, but Garibaldi, finding his followers ill-disposed towards the idea, decided to turn his arms against Rome.
Against the heathen Hungarians and the Saracens, 3 and incidentally providing a detailed picture of the everyday life of people of high condition.
His son, Arnulf I., called the Bad, drove back the Hungarians, and was elected duke of Bavaria in 913.
In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.
In 1443 the allied armies of the Hungarians under Hunyady and the Servians under George Brankovich, retook it from the Turks, but in 1456 it again came under Turkish dominion, and remained for more than 300 years the most important Turkish military station on the road between Hungary and Constantinople.
The Roman king, who was an unsuccessful candidate, took up arms, drove the Hungarians from Austria, and regained Vienna, which had been in the possession of Matthias since 1485; but he was compelled by want of money to retreat, and on the 7th of November 14 9 1 signed the treaty of Pressburg with Ladislaus, king of Bohemia, who had obtained the Hungarian throne.
In 1246 it was the scene of a victory of the Hungarians over the Austrians; and in 1486 it was taken by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, who, however, restored it to Maximilian I.
The beginning of his reign was marked by a disastrous irruption of the Hungarians into Burgundy and Aquitaine (937).
The last years of the reign were troubled by fresh difficulties with Hugh the Great and also by an irruption of the Hungarians into the south of France.
The greatness of the Hungarian family of Karolyi dates from the time of Alexander Karolyi (1668-1743), one of the generals of Francis Rakoczy II., who in 1711 negotiated the peace of Szatmar between the insurgent Hungarians and the new king, the emperor Charles VI., was made a count of the Empire in 1712, and subsequently became a field marshal in the imperial army.
The Hungarians defeated the Austrians at Gyongybs on the 3rd of April 1849.
In 1849 he commanded the Russian artillery in the war against the Hungarians, and in 1852 he visited London as a representative of the Russian army at the funeral of the duke of Wellington.
In 1382 Sofia was captured by the Turks; in 1443 it was for a brief time occupied by the Hungarians under John Hunyady.
It was many times besieged by Poles, Hungarians, Tatars and Turks.
After conducting a campaign in Poland which terminated unfortunately, he gave a ready response to the appeal for aid made by the Hungarians under Imre ThOkoly (q.v.) when they rose against Austria, his hope being to form out of the Habsburg dominions a Mussulman empire of the West, of which he should be the sultan.
The armies of Fulcher and Gottschalk were destroyed by the Hungarians in just revenge for their excesses (June); the third, after joining in a wild Judenhetze in the towns of the valley of the Rhine, during which some io,000 Jews perished as the first-fruits of crusading zeal, was scattered to the winds in Hungary (August).
The alien element is small, consisting chiefly of Austro-Hungarians, gipsies, Italians and Jews.
From 1299 to 1322 the country was ruled by the Croatian princes, Paul and Mladen Subic, who, though vassals of Hungary, reunited the provinces of Upper and Lower Bosnia, created by the Hungarians in order to prevent the growth of a dangerous national unity.
Confronted by civil war, and deprived of Hlum by the Hungarians, she was compelled to acknowledge the suzerainty of Stephen Dushan, and afterwards of Louis.
The death of Stephen Dushan, in 1356, had left his empire defenceless against the Hungarians, Turks and other enemies; and to win help from Bosnia the Servian tsar Lazar ceded to Tvrtko a large tract of territory, including the principality of Tribunia.
Ostoja (Stephen III., 1398-1418), an illegitimate son of Tvrtko, proved a puppet in the hands of Hrvoje Vukcic, duke of Spalato, Sandalj Hranic, 3 and other leaders of the aristocracy, who fought indifferently against the Turks, the Hungarians, the king or one another.
Bosnia was regarded by successive sultans as the Turkish gateway into Hungary; hatred of the Hungarians and their religion was hereditary among the Bogomils.
When told recently that Hungarians were born musicians, she asked in surprise, "Do they sing when they are born?"