The general shape of the animal is ungainly, owing to a huge hump on the withers, at which point the height is about 3 ft.
High, considerable areas are above 2500 ft., and the following summits exceed 4000 ft.: Mount Mansfield, 4364 ft.; Killington Peak, 4241 ft.; Camel's Hump, 4088 ft.; Mount Lincoln, 4078 ft.; and Jay Peak, 4018 ft.
The hump (or humps) varies in size according to the condition of the animal, becoming small and flaccid after hard work and poor diet.
Lankester in the ninth edition of this work attributed it to the pressure of the shell and visceral hump towards the right side.
- Sketch of a model designed so as to show the effect of torsion or rotation of the visceral hump in Streptoneurous Gastropoda.
Burr.- p T 9 pl.y ped.g: reversal of the cleavage planes in sinistral as compared with dextral forms. The facts, however, strongly suggest that the original cause of the torsion was the weight of the exogastric shell and visceral hump, which in an animal creeping on its ventral surface necessarily fell over to one side.
The visceral hump forms a low conical dome above the subcircular foot, and standing out all round the base of this dome so as completely to overlap the head and foot, is the circular mantle-skirt.
- Vertical section in a plane running right and left through the anterior part of the visceral hump of Patella to show the two renal organs and their openings into the pericardium.
No opening into the body-cavity has been made; the organs which lie in the coiled visceral hump show through its transparent walls.
It can be traced back to the intestine i near the surface of the visceral hump, and it is found that the apex of the coil formed by the hump is occupied by the liver h and the stomach v.
A crop-like dilatation of the gut and a recurved intestine, embedded in the compact yellowish-brown liver, the ducts of which open into it, form the rest of the digestive tract and occupy a large bulk of the visceral hump. The buccal region presents a pair of shelly jaws placed laterally upon the lips, and a wide range of variation in the form of the denticles of the lingual ribbon or radula.
The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as Rostellaria, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely atrophied.
Comparative anatomy and embryology prove that this condition is due, not as formerly supposed to a difference in the relations of the visceral commissure which prevented it from being included in the torsion of the visceral hump, but to an actual detorsion which has taken place in evolution and is repeated to a great extent in individual development.
Where the modification is carried to its extreme degree, not only the shell but the pallial cavity, ctenidium and visceral hump disappear, and the body acquires a simple elongated form and a secondary external symmetry, as in Pterotrachaea and in Doris, Eolis, and other Nudibranchia.
Marine Euthyneura, the more archaic forms of which have a relatively large foot and a small visceral hump, from the base of which projects on the right side a short mantle-skirt.
The visceral hump is low and not drawn out into a spire.
The torsion of the visceral hump is not carried out very fully, the consequence being that the anus has a posterior position a little to the right of the median line above the metapodium, whilst the branchial chamber formed by the overhanging mantle-skirt faces the right side of the body instead of lying well to the front as in Streptoneura and as in Pulmonate Euthyneura.
The relation of the delicate shell to the mantle is peculiar, since it occupies an oval area upon the visceral hump, the extent of which is indicated in fig.
Hinder part of visceral hump. Posterior extremity of the foot.
44 and 45), are less abnormal than Aplysia in regard to their shells and the form of the visceral hump. They have naked spirally twisted shells which may be concealed from view in the living animal by the expansion and reflection of the parapodia, but are not enclosed by the mantle, whilst Actaeon is remarkable for possessing an operculum like that of so many Streptoneura.
In some Pulmonata (snails) the foot is extended at right angles to the visceral hump, which rises from it in the form of a coil as in Streptoneura; in others the visceral hump is not elevated, but is extended with the foot, and the shell is small or absent (slugs).
As in other Gastropoda Anisopleura, this shell-sac may abnormally develop a plug of chitinous matter, but normally it flattens out and disappears, whilst the cap-like rudiment of the permanent shell is shed out from the dome-like surface of the visceral hump, in the centre of which the shell-sac existed for a brief period.
(After Spengel.) being formed afresh on the surface of the visceral hump. It is, then, in this sense that we may speak of primary, secondary and tertiary shells in Mollusca, recognizing the fact that they may be merely phases fused by continuity of growth so as to form but one shell, or that in other cases they may be presented to us as separate individual things, in virtue of the non-development of the later phases, or in virtue of sudden changes in the activity of the mantle-surface causing the shedding FIG.
The greater part of the animal is covered with long brown hair, thick, matted and curly on the shoulders, so as to give the appearance of a hump, but elsewhere straight and hanging down - that of the sides, back and haunches reaching as far as the middle of the legs and entirely concealing the very short tail.
A hump on the forehead probably indicates the existence of a large frontal horn.
The part in greatest favour among hunters is the hump, which, if cut off whole and roasted just as it is in the skin, in a hole dug in the ground, would, I think, be difficult to match either for juiciness or flavour."
A story had gone about, even in the days of John of Gaunt, who, if we may trust the rhymer John Hardyng (Chronicle, pp. 290, 291), had got it inserted in chronicles deposited in various monasteries, that this Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, was really hump-backed, and that he was set aside in favour of his younger brother Edward on account of his deformity.
In the Green Mountains the highest point, Mansfield, is 4364 ft.; Lincoln (4078), Killington (4241), Camel Hump (4088); and a number of other heights exceed 3000 ft.
The body of the veliger is characterized by the development of the visceral hump on one surface, and by that of the foot on the other.
Growth is greater in the vertical dorso-ventral axis than in the longitudinal oro-anal axis; consequently the foot is relatively small and projects as a blunt process between mouth and anus, which are not widely distant from one another, whilst the antipedal area projects in the form of a great hump or dome.
No hump. Feet narrow, the toes being more separated than in the camels, and each with a distinct plantar pad.
They seem to be of the humped variety, but with the hump evanescent.
This animal sometimes attains the height of 20 hands (close on 7 ft.), measuring from the hump above the shoulder.
Vicugna), belonging to the Camelidae, with the structure and habits of the African camel, but smaller, having no hump, and inhabiting a mountainous and not a level sandy region.
Most of the cattle are of the zebu or hump-backed variety, but there ï¿½ are also two breeds - one large, the other resembling the Jersey cattle - which are straight-backed.
In a young cone the seminiferous scale appears as a hump of tissue at the base or in the axil of the carpellary scale, but Celakovsky, a strong supporter of the axillary-bud theory, attaches little or no importance to this kind of evidence, regarding the present manner of development as being merely an example of a short cut adopted in the course of evolution, and replacing the original production of a branch in the axil of each carpellary scale.
Humped cattle are widely spread over Africa, Madagascar and India, and form a distinct species, Bos indicus, characterized by the presence of a fleshy hump on the shoulders, the convexity (instead of concavity) of the first part of the curve of the horns, the very large size of the dewlap, and the general presence of white rings round the fetlocks, and light circles surrounding the eyes.