The humerus with its crests, ridges and processes, presents so many modifications characteristic of the various groups of birds, that its configuration alone is not only of considerable taxonomic value but that almost any genus, excepting, of course, those of Passeres, can be " spotted " by a close examination and comparison of this bone.
When the wing is folded the long glenoid surface of the head of the humerus is bordered above by the tuberculum externum or superius, in the middle and below by the tuberculum medium or inferius for the insertion of the coraco-brachialis posterior muscle.
On the outer side of the humerus between the head and the crista inferior is a groove lodging one of the coraco-humeral ligaments.
The distal end of the humerus ends in a trochlea, with a larger knob for the ulna and a smaller oval knob for the radius.
Its proximal end forms a shallow cup for articulation with the outer condyle of the humerus; the distal end bears a knob which fits into the radial carpal.
The wing of the bird is folded in a unique way, namely, the radius parallel with the humerus, and the whole wrist and hand with their ulnar side against the ulna; upper and forearm in a state of supination, the hand in that of strong abduction.
The chief muscular mass, arising from the sternum in the shape of a U, is the pectoralis muscle; its fibres converge into a strong tendon, which is inserted upon the greater tubercle and upper crest of the humerus, which it depresses and slightly rotates forwards during the downstroke.
Arising as a long tendon from the sterno-scapular ligament, it passes the axilla by means of a fibrous pulley, accompanies the axillary vessels and nerves along the humerus, and is inserted by a few fleshy fibres on the base of the last two or three cubital quills.
Two specimens of the humerus have been found in the English fens (Ibis, 1868, p. 363; Proc. Zool.
Large chevron-bones are suspended to the vertebrae of the tail, which was massive, and probably afforded a support when the monster was sitting up. The humerus has no foramen, and the FIG.
The vertebrae of the neck unite by nearly flat surfaces, the humerus has lost the foramen, or perforation, at the lower end, and the third trochanter to the femur may also be wanting.
The high cheek-bone and the hawk'sbill nose are universally distributed in the two Americas; so also are proportions between parts of the body, and the frequency of certain abnormalities of the skull, the hyoid bone, the humerus and the tibia.
Ornatus), distinguished from all the rest by the presence of a perforation in the lower end of the humerus, and hence sometimes separated as Tremarctus.
The humerus has no supra-condylar foramen, and the forearm bones are distinct; and in most species the fore foot has five digits with the phalanges normally developed, the first toe being but rarely rudimentary or absent.
The humerus often has a foramen (entepicondylar) on the inner side of its lower end; the tibia and fibula may be separate or united; but the scaphoid and lunar of the carpus are also united, while the centrale is free.
The hind-limbs are elongated, with four toes, of which the metatarsals are separate; the tibia and fibula are welded in old age; the calcaneum and astragalus of the tarsus are elongated; and there is a perforation on the inner side of the lower end of the humerus (see Jumping-Hare).
The humerus has a foramen at the lower end.
The humerus lacks a foramen at the lower end; and the molar teeth, as explained and illustrated in the article Vole, consist of two longitudinal rows of triangular alternating vertical prisms, and may be either rootless or rooted.
There is no foramen at the lower end of the humerus, and no horny layer in the stomach.
It is now possible to define the suborder Hyracoidea as including ungulates with a centrale in the carpus, plantigrade feet, in which the first and fifth toes are reduced in greater or less degree, and clavicles and a foramen in the lower end of the humerus are absent.
Sometimes, more particularly in Germany, it is called the humerale (from humerus, shoulder).
Humerus about 2 2 in.