Horace Walpole, who gives an unfavourable picture of his private character, acknowledges that Stone possessed "abilities seldom to be matched"; and he had the distinction of being mentioned by David Hume as one of the only two men of mark who had perceived merit in that author's History of England on its first appearance.
It is a Treatise on Trigonometry, by a Scotsman, James Hume of Godscroft, Berwickshire, a place still in possession of the family of Hume.
Messrs Hamilton Hume and Hovell set out from Lake George, crossed the Murrumbidgee, and, after following the river for a short distance, struck south, skirting the foothills of what are now known as the Australian Alps until they reached a fine river, which was called the Hume after the leader's father.
Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Mill and Herbert Spencer are not systematic materialists, but show tendencies towards materialism.
The application of "common sense" to the problem of substance supplied a more satisfactory analytic for him than the scepticism of Hume which reached him through a study of Kant.
His reply to Hume was this - Mechanical causation is as real as the unity of consciousness.
Still, it may be doubted how far Hume was in earnest.
This treatise must not be confused with the Natural History of Religion, in which Hume acts as a pioneer for comparative religion, with its study of facts.
Even in that book Hume is able to play with sceptical solutions.
Of course once more Hume saves himself by strong professions of admiration for rational or natural religion.
Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.
More distinguished sympathizers are Edward Gibbon, who has the deistic spirit, and David Hume, the historian and philosophical sceptic, who has at least the letter of the deistic creed (Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion), and who uses Pascal's appeal to " faith " in a spirit of mockery (Essay on Miracles).
Hume, p. 68, she was his mistress.
Hume (1905); Excerpta Historica, by N.
Hume (1889); Records of the Reformation, by N.
Much as he admired these writers, Hume and Robertson were still greater favourites, as well from their subject as for their style.
It never got beyond that rehearsal; Hume, indeed, approved of the performance, only deprecating as unwise the author's preference for French; but Gibbon sided with the majority.
It is interesting, however, to know, that in the first volume is a review by Gibbon of Lord Lyttelton's History of Henry II., and that the second volume contains a contribution by Hume on Walpole's Historic Doubts.
In the substance of their answer to Hume, the two philosophers have therefore much in common.
He had also read a great deal of history in English - Robertson's histories, Hume, Gibbon, Robert Watson's Philip II.
Locke and Hume held that the work of the mind was eo ipso unreal because it was "made by" man and not "given to" man.
" If a dead man did come to life, the fact would be evidence, not that any law of nature had been violated, but that these laws, even when they express the results of a very long and uniform experience, are necessarily based on incomplete knowledge, and are to be held only on grounds of more or less justifiable expectation " (Hume, p. 135).
Hume maintains that no evidence, such as is available, can make a miracle credible.
But slavery, as Hume has shown, is unfavourable to population.
" Not at all," says a bourgeois sophist (let it be Pierson, Hume or Kant), " the working-man's opinion on this question is a personal view, a subjective view; he would have been quite as justified in thinking that the employer is his benefactor and that the sausage is hashed leather, for he is unable to know a thing as it is (Ding an Sick)."
In 1846 he achieved high reputation by his Life of David Hume, based upon extensive and unused MS. material.
It was his great good fortune to find abundant unused material for his Life of Hume, and to be the first to introduce the principles of historical research into the history of Scotland.
David Hume summed up his admiration for Douglas by saying that his friend possessed "the true theatric genius of Shakespeare and Otway, refined from the unhappy barbarism of the one and licentiousness of the other."
Voltaire published his Le Cafe, ou l'Ecossaise (1760), Londres (really Geneva), as a translation from the work of Mr Hume, described as Pasteur de l'eglise d'Edimbourg, but Home seems to have taken no notice of the mystification.
From the date of his re-entering the House Hume became the self-elected guardian of the public purse, by challenging and bringing to a direct vote every single item of public expenditure.
Apart from his pertinacious fight for economy Hume was not always fortunate in his political activity.
Even Hume, in various passages of his Treatise, speaks of himself as recovering cheerfulness and mental tone only by forgetfulness of his own arguments.
Masaryk, who, as a counterpoise to German speculation and the intellectualism of Herbart, emphasized the critical study of English philosophy, notably Hume, Spencer and Mill, and the French Comte; at the same time he fully appreciated the value of Kant in epistemology.
But finally David Hume offered him, late in 1765, an asylum in England, and he accepted.
When, after not a few displays of his strange humour, he professed himself tired of the capital, 23 Hume procured him a country abode in the house of Mr Davenport at Wootton in Derbyshire.
Finally he quarrelled with Hume because the latter would not acknowledge all his own friends and Rousseau's supposed enemies of the philosophe circle to be rascals.
Only excuses can be made for him; but the excuses for a man born, as Hume after the quarrel said of him, "without a skin" are numerous and strong.
The implications of such a view were first clearly apparent when Hume showed that on the basis of it there seemed to be nothing that we could confidently affirm except the order of our own impressions and ideas.
During this sojourn of five years in England he had made many valuable friends outside of court and political circles, among whom Hume, Robertson and Adam Smith were conspicuous.
He knew Kames, Hume and Adam Smith, and corresponded with Mirabeau, " the friend of Man."
Philip II., by Martin Hume (London, 1897), is more just in its treatment of Philip's personal character, and gives a useful bibliography.
See also Martin Hume, Two English Queens and Philip (1908).