NORTHUMBRIA (regnum Northanhymbrorum), one of the most important of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, extended from the Humber to the Forth.
From this time onwards the Humber formed the boundary between the two kingdoms. In 684 we hear of the first English invasion of Ireland, but in the following year Ecgfrith was slain and his army totally destroyed by the Picts at a place called Nechtansmere (probably Dunnichen Moss in Forfarshire).
GRIMSBY, or Great Grimsby, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lincolnshire, England; an important seaport near the mouth of the Humber on the south shore.
There are two large fish-docks, and, for general traffic, the Royal dock, communicating with the Humber through a tidal basin, the small Union dock, and the extensive Alexandra dock, together with graving docks, timber yards, a patent slip, &c. These docks have an area of about 104 acres, but were found insufficient for the growing traffic of the port, and in 1906 the construction of a large new dock, of about 40 acres' area and 30 to 35 ft.
Grimsby was an important seaport, but the haven became obstructed by sand and mud deposited by the Humber, and so the access of large vessels was prevented.
The chief industrial establishments are iron foundries, railway and motor engineering works, breweries, flour-mills, tanneries and manufactories of confectionery, artificial manure, &c. There is water communication by the Ouse with the Humber, and by the Foss Navigation to the N.E.
The Conqueror in revenge burnt the town and laid waste the country between the Humber and Tees.
Many thousands of acres of low-lying peaty and sandy land adjoining the tidal rivers which flow into the Humber have been improved by a process termed " warping."
The warp consists of fine muddy sediment which is suspended in the tidal river water and appears to be derived from material scoured from the bed of the Humber by the action of the tide and a certain amount of sediment brought down by the tributary streams which join the Humber some distance from its mouth.
BARTON-UPON-HUMBER, a market town in the N.
It lies beneath low hills, on flat ground bordering the Humber, but the centre of the town is a mile from the river.
Barton appears in Domesday, when the ferry over the Humber existed.
"IMMINGHAM, a capacious deep-water dock situated on the Lincolnshire shore of the Humber estuary, 9 m.
The particular site of Immingham was chosen because the deep-water channel of the Humber, which lower down runs midway between the shores, here makes an inward sweep and leads right to the dock gates, thus obviating much initial dredging, providing ingress and egress at any state of the tide, and rendering the towage of the vessels unnecessary.
Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.
HUMBER, an estuary on the east coast of England formed by the rivers Trent and Ouse, the northern shore belonging to Yorkshire and the southern to Lincolnshire.
The junction of these two important rivers is near the village of Faxfleet, from which point the course of the Humber runs E.
The total area draining to the Humber is 9293 sq.
This reduces the width of the Humber mouth to 51 m.
Except where the Humber cuts through a low chalk ridge, between north and south Ferriby, dividing it into the Wolds of Yorkshire and of Lincolnshire, the shores and adjacent lands are nearly flat.
The course is carefully buoyed and lighted, for the Humber is an important highway of commerce, having on the Yorkshire bank the great port of Hull, and on the Lincolnshire bank that of Grimsby, while Goole lies on the Ouse a little above the junction with the Trent.
As a commercial centre Bradford is advantageously placed with regard to both railway communication and connexion with the Humber and with Liverpool by canal, and through the presence in its immediate vicinity of valuable deposits of coal and iron.
HULL (officially Kingston-upon-Hull), a city and county of a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, and seaport in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, at the junction of the river Hull with the Humber, 22 m.
The older portion is completely enclosed by the Hull and Humber on the E.
There are also to be mentioned the Hull and East Riding College, Hymer's College, comprising classical, modern and junior departments, the Trinity House marine school (1716), the Humber industrial school ship "Southampton," and technical and art schools.
This afterwards became known as Queen's dock, and with Prince's and Humber docks completes the circle round the old town.
East of the Hull lie the Victoria dock and extensive timber ponds, and west of the Humber dock basin, parallel to the Humber, is Albert dock.
The ports of Hull and Goole have been administratively combined since 1888, the conservancy of the river being under the Humber Conservancy Board.
Within three or four years everything south of the Humber and east of the Severn had been either directly annexed or entrusted, as protectorates, to native client-princes.
SA 4 iplebor Humber 51 5 DECE1 ' men -?
Septimius Severus made it two provinces, Superior and Inferior, with a boundary which probably ran from Humber to Mersey, but we do not know how long this arrangement lasted.
It is very probable that by the end of the 5th century all the eastern part of Britain, at least as far as the Humber, was in their hands.
The districts north of the Humber contained two kingdoms, Bernicia (q.v.) and Deira, which were eventually united in Northumbria.
South of the Humber, Lindsey seems to have had a dynasty of its own, though in historical times it was apparently always subject to the kings of Northumbria or Mercia.
The Levels, as this district is generally named, are of remarkable fertility, and Thorne, having water communication with Goole and the Humber, is consequently an agricultural centre of importance; while some barge-building and a trade in peat fibre are also carried on.
Another theory is that Bretwalda refers to a war-leadership, or imperium, over the English south of the Humber, and has nothing to do with Britons or Britannia.
But in the " Drift " maps many other types of deposit are indicated, such, for instance, as the ordinary modern alluvium of rivers, and the older river terraces (River-drift of various ages), including gravels, brickearth and loam; old raised sea beaches and blown-sand (Aeolian-drift); the " Head " of Cornwall and Devon, an angular detritus consisting of stones with clay or loam; clay-with-flints, rainwash (landwash), scree and talus; the " Warp," a marine and estuarine silt and clay of the Humber; and also beds of peat and diatomite.
The best notion of the process of warping may be gained by sailing up the Trent from the Humber to Gainsborough.
In ordinary circumstances on the Trent and Humber a soil from 6 to 16 in.
Warping is practised only in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, on the estuary of the Humber, and in the neighbourhood of the rivers which flow into it - the Trent, the Ouse and the Don.
From the North Sea (mouth of the Humber), and a wide system of inland navigation opens from it.
But in the struggle for existence it chanced that the early English invaders secured a kingdom, Bernicia, which stretched from the Humber into Lothian, or farther north, as the fortune of battle might at various times determine; and thus, from the centre to the south-east of what is now Scotland, the people had come to be anglicized in speech before the Norman Conquest, though Gaelic survived much later in Galloway.
All Mercia south of a line from Dore (near Sheffield), through Whitwell to the Humber, was now in Edmund's hands, and the five Danish boroughs, which had for some time been exposed to raids from the Norwegian kings of Northumbria, were now freed from that fear.
At that time Hedon was one of the chief ports in the Humber, but its place was gradually taken by Hull after that town came into the hands of the king.
According to Simeon of Durham it extended from the Humber to the Tyne, but the land was waste north of the Tees.
BRIGANTES (Celtic for "mountaineers" or "free, privileged"), a people of northern Britain, who inhabited the country from the mouth of the Abus (Humber) on the east and the Belisama (Mersey; according to others, Ribble) on the west as far northwards as the Wall of Antoninus.
The river Don flows through the eastern part of the city, and the river Humber forms its western limit.
The Fens, the flat open levels in the lower basins of the Witham, Welland, Nene and Great Ouse, only kept from their former marshy conditions by an extensive system of artificial drainage, and the similar levels round the head of the Humber estuary, differ completely in appearance from the higher and firmer parts of the plain.
Thus, from north to south there are, on the east coast, the mouths of the Tyne and the Tees, the Humber estuary, the Wash (which receives the waters of the Witham, Welland, Nene and Great Ouse), the Orwell-Stour, Blackwater and ThamesMedway estuaries.
Many cliffs of the east coast, from the Humber to the mouth of the Thames, are suffering from this destructive action, and instances also occur on the south coast.