HUMAYUN (1508-1556), Mogul emperor of Delhi, succeeded his father Baber in India in 1530, while his brother Kamran obtained the sovereignty of Kabul and Lahore.
Humayun was thus left in possession of his father's recent conquests, which were in dispute with the Indian Afghans under Sher Shah, governor of Bengal.
After ten years of fighting, Humayun was driven out of India and compelled to flee to Persia through the desert of Sind, where his famous son, Akbar the Great, was born in the petty fort of Umarkot (1542).
Sher Shah was killed at the storming of Kalinjar (1545), and Humayun, returning to India with Akbar, then only thirteen years of age, defeated the Indo-Afghan army and reoccupied Delhi (1555).
India thus passed again from the Afghans to the Moguls, but six months afterwards Humayun was killed by a fall from the parapet of his palace (1556), leaving his kingdom to Akbar.
The tomb of Humayun is one of the finest Mogul monuments in the neighbourhood of Delhi, and it was here that the last of the Moguls, Bahadur Shah, was captured by Major Hodson in 1857.
Under the name of Humayun Nama (Imperial Book) 'Ali Chelebi made a highly esteemed translation of the well-known Persian Classical classic Anvar-i Suheyli, dedicating it to Suleiman I.
Baber's son, Humayun, agreed to cede Kandahar to Persia, but failed to keep his word, and the Persians besieged the place unsuccessfully.
He was succeeded by his son Humayun, who is chiefly known as being the father of Akbar.
Humayun was driven as an exile into Persia; and, while he was flying through the desert of Sind, his son Akbar was born to him in the petty fortress of Umarkot.
But Sher Shah was killed at the storming of the rock-fortress of Kalinjar, and Humayun, after many vicissitudes, succeeded in re-establishing his authority at Lahore and Delhi.
Humayun died by an accident in 1556, leaving but a circumscribed kingdom, surrounded on every side by active foes, to his son Akbar, then a boy of only fourteen years.
He was born at Umarkot in Sind on the 14th of October 1542, his father, Humayun, having been driven from the throne a short time before by the usurper Sher Khan.
After more than twelve years' exile, Humayun regained his sovereignty, which, however, he had held only for a few months when he died.
At the time of the assault he fled to the Tomb of Humayun, 6 m.
In addition to these twenty-seven vizirs with portfolios, there were some titulary vizirs at court, like Vizir i Huzur i Humayun (minister of the imperial presence), Vilir i makhsus (extraordinary minister), &c., and a number in the provinces assisting the governors in the same way as, the grand vizir assists the shah.
And the actual seizure of Herat, necessitating the recovery of that city and a march to Kandahar (1536); the temporary loss of Kandahar in the following year (1537), when the governor ceded it to Prince Kamran, son of Babar; the hospitable reception accorded to the Indian emperor Humayun (1543); the rebellion of the shahs brother next in age, Ilkhas, who, by his alliance with the sultan, brought on a war with Turkey (1548);i and finally a fresh expedition to Georgia, followed by a revengeful incursion which resulted in the enforced bondage of thousands of the inhabitants (1552).
1352; 753 A.11.) was the next aspirant to Nikmis fame, with five mathnawis, among which Humdi u Humayun is the most popular, but he had to yield the palm to Abd-urrabman JamI (14,41492; 817898 A.H.), the last classic poet of Persia, in whose genius were, ,~ d summed up all the best qualities of his great prede- Later Poets, cessors.
That of Humayun, the second of the Mogul dynasty, is a noble building of rose-coloured sandstone inlaid with white marble.
Baber's capital was at Agra, but his son and successor, Humayun, removed it to Delhi.
In 1540 Humayun was defeated and expelled by Sher Shah, who entirely rebuilt the city, enclosing and fortifying it with a new wall.
In 1555 Humayun, with the assistance of Persia, regained the throne; but he died within six months, and was succeeded by his son, the illustrious Akbar.