Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
GEORGIUS MERULA (the Latinized name of Giorgio Mirlani; c. 1 43 0 - 1 494), Italian humanist and classical scholar, was born at Alessandria in Piedmont.
AONIO PALEARIO (c. 1500-1570), Italian humanist and reformer, was born about 1500 at Veroli, in the Roman Campagna.
His tutors were the learned Janos Vitez, bishop of Nagyvarad, whom he subsequently raised to the primacy, and the Polish humanist Gregory Sanocki.
At the university of Greifswald he gained much distinction as a humanist, and in 1504 was appointed by the abbot of the Praemonstratensian monastery at Belbuck rector of the town school at Treptow.
ALEXANDER HEGIUS [VON HEEK] (c. 1 433 - 1 49 8), German humanist, so called from his birthplace Heek in Westphalia.
To the 15th century belongs Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.), humanist, historian and political writer.
He was an ardent humanist, was president.
Morneweg, Johann von Dalberg, ein deutscher Humanist and Bischof (Heidelberg, 1887).
In this Italy, and especially the renowned school of Padua, took the first step, where Giovanni De Monte (Montanus), (1498-1552), already mentioned as a humanist, gave clinical lectures on the patients in the hospital of St Francis, which may still be read with interest.
PETRUS RAMUS, or Pierre De La Ramee (1515-1572), French humanist, was born at the village of Cuth in Picardy in 1515, a member of a noble but impoverished family; his father was a charcoal-burner.
LUCAS HOLSTENIUS, the Latinized name of Luc Holste (1596-1661), German humanist, geographer and theological writer, was born at Hamburg.
BEATUS RHENANUS (1485-1547), German humanist, was born in 1485 at Schlettstadt in Alsace, where his father, named Bild, a native of Rheinau (hence the surname Rhenanus), was a prosperous butcher.
He desired to retain the best elements of the humanist revival in harmony with Catholic orthodoxy illumined by a revived appreciation of the Augustinian doctrine of justification.
But there the German humanist who perhaps approached most nearly the Italian type, furnishes a good illustration.
Zwingli was a humanist, a type abhorred of Luther; and he was far more ready for the polite Erasmian society of Basel than for a monastery.
He had an unbounded admiration for Erasmus, with whom he entered into correspondence, and from whom he received a somewhat chilling patronage; whilst the brilliant humanist, Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), taught him to criticize, in a rationalizing way, the medieval doctrines of Rome.
Towards the end of September he fell a victim to the plague which was ravaging the land, and his illness sobered his spirit and brought into his message a deeper note than that merely moral and common-sense one with which, as a polite humanist, he had hitherto been content.
In the 15th century it was the seat of a celebrated academy, founded by the humanist Rodolphus Agricola, which contributed not a little to the revival of learning in this part of Germany; Erasmus of Rotterdam was one of its students.
He waves the humanist aside with the words: vetustas cessit, ratio vicit.
In 1506 the distinguished humanist, Johann Reuchlin, who had begun the study of Hebrew under a.
During the 17th century a manuscript of the Liber was discovered in Rome by the humanist, Lucas Holstenius, who prepared an edition for publication; for politic reasons, however, the papal authorities would not allow this to appear, as the book asserted the superiority of a general council over the pope.
During this time he composed his greatest works, published almost certainly in 1159, the Policraticus, sive de nugis, curialium et de vestigiis philosophorum and the Ilietalogicus, writings invaluable as storehouses of information regarding the matter and form of scholastic education, and remarkable for their cultivated style and humanist tendency.
The appointment of these skilled humanist writers to the Chancery was a consequence of the difficult conditions of the time.
Not only did he love the studies of the humanist, but he himself was a Christian humanist.
The papal throne was ascended by, a man whose name was famous as poet, historian, humanist and statesman, Plus 11., and whose far-seeing eye and exact knowledge of 1458 -1464.
The humanist Pius II.
ARGYROPULUS, or [[Argyropulo, John]] (c. 1416-1486), Greek humanist, one of the earliest promoters of the revival of learning in the West, was born in Constantinople, and became a teacher there, Constantine Lascaris being his pupil.
Grotius read the classics as a humanist, for the sake of their contents, not as a professional scholar.
The father of Hebrew study among Christians was the humanist Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522), the author of the Rudimenta Hebraica (Pforzheim, 1506), whose contest with the converted Jew Pfefferkorn and the Cologne obscurantists, established the claim of the new study to recognition by the Church.
Instinctively a humanist, he had little patience with the narrow curriculum of Harvard in his day and the rather pedantic spirit with which classical studies were there pursued.
The humanist Vives was brought from Italy to teach Latin, and the reader in theology was instructed to follow the Greek and Latin Fathers rather than the scholastic commentaries.
He attended none of the Humanist lectures, but he read a good many of the Latin authors and also learned a little Greek.
He never was a member of the Humanist circle; he was too much in earnest about religious questions and of too practical a turn of mind.
The eloquence of the Italian humanist has bestowed a not entirely merited aureole on the memory of Jerome of Prague.
The so-called Renaissance did much; but it did not do the things attributed to it by those who see the "middle ages" through humanist glasses.
JOVIANUS PONTANUS (1426-1503), Italian humanist and poet, was born in 1426 at Cerreto in the duchy of Spoleto, where his father was murdered in one of the frequent civil brawls which then disturbed the peace of Italian towns.
PIETRO CARNESECCHI (1508-1567), Italian humanist, was the son of a Florentine merchant, who under the patronage of the Medici, and especially of Giovanni de' Medici as Pope Clement VII., rapidly rose to high office at the papal court.
His purpose was to defend what may be called a humanist position in moral philosophy; that is, to show that morality was not an affair of mysterious innate principles, or abstract relations, or supernatural sanctions, but depended on the familiar conditions of personal and social welfare.
C. 465 or 450 B.C.), a Greek humanist of the first period of the Sophistical movement, known as the "precursor of Socrates."
As a result of the co-operation of humanist scholars.
JULIUS POMPONIUS LAETUS [Giulio Pomponio Leto], (1425-1498), Italian humanist, was born at Salerno.
The first-fruits of this new resolve were a quite gratuitous attack on his old friend, the distinguished humanist and jurist Ulrich Zasius (1461-1536), for a doctrine proclaimed ten years before, and a simultaneous assault on Erasmus's Annotationes in Novum Testamentum.
He now believed himself in a position to crush not only the Lutheran heretics, but also his humanist critics.
Persuaded many eminent foreign teachers - among them the Scottish humanist George Buchanan and the French mathematician Elie Vinet - to lecture in its schools.
The word encyclopaedist fits Damiao de Goes, a diplomatist, traveller, humanist and bosom friend of Erasmus.
Very early, however, the author becomes serious in contrasting the early education of his hero - a satire on the degraded schools of the middle ages - with its subsequent and reformed stage, in the account of which all the best and noblest ideas of the humanist Renaissance in reference to pedagogy are put with exceptional force.
He was, it is clear, thoroughly penetrated with the instincts, the hopes, and the ideas of the Renaissance in the form which it took in France, in England and in Germany - a form, that is to say, not merely humanist but full of aspirations for social and political improvement, and above all for a joyous, varied, and non-ascetic life.
Inhuman as he could be in his wrath, in principle he was as much a humanist as any of his most enlightened contemporaries.
So far-reaching were the interests controlled by him in this capacity of humanist that his achievement as an Italian lyrist seems by comparison insignificant.
It not only sobered the humanist tendency to sacrifice truth for aesthetic effect, it called for the documents of the Church and subjected them to the most hostile criticism.
But when Luc d'Achery turned from exegetics to patristics and the lives of the saints, as a sort of Christian humanist, he led the way to that vast work of collection and comparison of texts which developed through Mabillon, Montfaucon, Ruinart, Martene, Bouquet and their associates, into the indispensable implements of modern historians.
JACOPO SADOLETO (1477-1547), Italian humanist and churchman, was born at Modena in 1477, and, being the son of a noted jurist, was designed for the same profession.
Up to the fourth class all pupils are taught alike in the lyceums; in the fifth, however, they are divided into a literary or " humanist " section, and a scientific or " realist " section.
Indirectly, through the dialectic of his pupil and friend Zeno and otherwise, the doctrine of the inadequacy of sensation led to the humanist movement, which for a time threatened to put an end to philosophical and scientific speculation.
FRANCESCO FILELFO (1398-1481), Italian humanist, was born in 1398 at Tolentino, in the March of Ancona.
That Douglas undertook this work and that he makes a plea for more accurate scholarship in the translation have been the basis of a prevalent notion that he is a Humanist in spirit and the first exponent of Renaissance doctrine in Scottish literature.
In reasserting and amplifying the empirical conclusions of his predecessors, especially in the sphere of ethics, Mill's chief function was the introduction of the humanist element.
At Poitiers he came in contact with the humanist Marc Antoine Muret, and with Jean Salmon Macrin (1490-1557), a Latin poet famous in his day.
He was a humanist before the Renaissance, surpassing all other representatives of the school of Chartres in his knowledge of the Latin classics, as in the purity of his style, which was evidently moulded on that of Cicero.
Jerrold, Francesco Petrarca, poet and humanist (1909).