Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
GEORGIUS MERULA (the Latinized name of Giorgio Mirlani; c. 1 43 0 - 1 494), Italian humanist and classical scholar, was born at Alessandria in Piedmont.
AONIO PALEARIO (c. 1500-1570), Italian humanist and reformer, was born about 1500 at Veroli, in the Roman Campagna.
His tutors were the learned Janos Vitez, bishop of Nagyvarad, whom he subsequently raised to the primacy, and the Polish humanist Gregory Sanocki.
At the university of Greifswald he gained much distinction as a humanist, and in 1504 was appointed by the abbot of the Praemonstratensian monastery at Belbuck rector of the town school at Treptow.
ALEXANDER HEGIUS [VON HEEK] (c. 1 433 - 1 49 8), German humanist, so called from his birthplace Heek in Westphalia.
As a supplement to these labours in the field of Platonic and Alexandrian philosophy, Marsilio next devoted his energies to the translation of Dionysius the Areopagite, whose work on the celestial hierarchy, though recognized as spurious by the Neapolitan humanist, Lorenzo Valla, had supreme attraction for the mystic and uncritical intellect of Ficino.
To the 15th century belongs Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.), humanist, historian and political writer.
He was an ardent humanist, was president.
Morneweg, Johann von Dalberg, ein deutscher Humanist and Bischof (Heidelberg, 1887).
In this Italy, and especially the renowned school of Padua, took the first step, where Giovanni De Monte (Montanus), (1498-1552), already mentioned as a humanist, gave clinical lectures on the patients in the hospital of St Francis, which may still be read with interest.
PETRUS RAMUS, or Pierre De La Ramee (1515-1572), French humanist, was born at the village of Cuth in Picardy in 1515, a member of a noble but impoverished family; his father was a charcoal-burner.
LUCAS HOLSTENIUS, the Latinized name of Luc Holste (1596-1661), German humanist, geographer and theological writer, was born at Hamburg.
BEATUS RHENANUS (1485-1547), German humanist, was born in 1485 at Schlettstadt in Alsace, where his father, named Bild, a native of Rheinau (hence the surname Rhenanus), was a prosperous butcher.
He desired to retain the best elements of the humanist revival in harmony with Catholic orthodoxy illumined by a revived appreciation of the Augustinian doctrine of justification.
But there the German humanist who perhaps approached most nearly the Italian type, furnishes a good illustration.
Zwingli was a humanist, a type abhorred of Luther; and he was far more ready for the polite Erasmian society of Basel than for a monastery.
He had an unbounded admiration for Erasmus, with whom he entered into correspondence, and from whom he received a somewhat chilling patronage; whilst the brilliant humanist, Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), taught him to criticize, in a rationalizing way, the medieval doctrines of Rome.
Towards the end of September he fell a victim to the plague which was ravaging the land, and his illness sobered his spirit and brought into his message a deeper note than that merely moral and common-sense one with which, as a polite humanist, he had hitherto been content.
In the 15th century it was the seat of a celebrated academy, founded by the humanist Rodolphus Agricola, which contributed not a little to the revival of learning in this part of Germany; Erasmus of Rotterdam was one of its students.
He waves the humanist aside with the words: vetustas cessit, ratio vicit.
In 1506 the distinguished humanist, Johann Reuchlin, who had begun the study of Hebrew under a.
At Poitiers he came in contact with the humanist Marc Antoine Muret, and with Jean Salmon Macrin (1490-1557), a Latin poet famous in his day.
During the 17th century a manuscript of the Liber was discovered in Rome by the humanist, Lucas Holstenius, who prepared an edition for publication; for politic reasons, however, the papal authorities would not allow this to appear, as the book asserted the superiority of a general council over the pope.
During this time he composed his greatest works, published almost certainly in 1159, the Policraticus, sive de nugis, curialium et de vestigiis philosophorum and the Ilietalogicus, writings invaluable as storehouses of information regarding the matter and form of scholastic education, and remarkable for their cultivated style and humanist tendency.
The appointment of these skilled humanist writers to the Chancery was a consequence of the difficult conditions of the time.
Not only did he love the studies of the humanist, but he himself was a Christian humanist.
The papal throne was ascended by, a man whose name was famous as poet, historian, humanist and statesman, Plus 11., and whose far-seeing eye and exact knowledge of 1458 -1464.
The humanist Pius II.
ARGYROPULUS, or [[Argyropulo, John]] (c. 1416-1486), Greek humanist, one of the earliest promoters of the revival of learning in the West, was born in Constantinople, and became a teacher there, Constantine Lascaris being his pupil.
Grotius read the classics as a humanist, for the sake of their contents, not as a professional scholar.
FRANCESCO FILELFO (1398-1481), Italian humanist, was born in 1398 at Tolentino, in the March of Ancona.
Indirectly, through the dialectic of his pupil and friend Zeno and otherwise, the doctrine of the inadequacy of sensation led to the humanist movement, which for a time threatened to put an end to philosophical and scientific speculation.
Up to the fourth class all pupils are taught alike in the lyceums; in the fifth, however, they are divided into a literary or " humanist " section, and a scientific or " realist " section.
JACOPO SADOLETO (1477-1547), Italian humanist and churchman, was born at Modena in 1477, and, being the son of a noted jurist, was designed for the same profession.
It not only sobered the humanist tendency to sacrifice truth for aesthetic effect, it called for the documents of the Church and subjected them to the most hostile criticism.
But when Luc d'Achery turned from exegetics to patristics and the lives of the saints, as a sort of Christian humanist, he led the way to that vast work of collection and comparison of texts which developed through Mabillon, Montfaucon, Ruinart, Martene, Bouquet and their associates, into the indispensable implements of modern historians.
So far-reaching were the interests controlled by him in this capacity of humanist that his achievement as an Italian lyrist seems by comparison insignificant.
Inhuman as he could be in his wrath, in principle he was as much a humanist as any of his most enlightened contemporaries.
Very early, however, the author becomes serious in contrasting the early education of his hero - a satire on the degraded schools of the middle ages - with its subsequent and reformed stage, in the account of which all the best and noblest ideas of the humanist Renaissance in reference to pedagogy are put with exceptional force.
He was, it is clear, thoroughly penetrated with the instincts, the hopes, and the ideas of the Renaissance in the form which it took in France, in England and in Germany - a form, that is to say, not merely humanist but full of aspirations for social and political improvement, and above all for a joyous, varied, and non-ascetic life.
The word encyclopaedist fits Damiao de Goes, a diplomatist, traveller, humanist and bosom friend of Erasmus.