In the first place, the south-western division of the empire, comprising Persia and Armenia, and governed about 1250 by the Khan Hulaku or Hulagu, was inevitably brought into relations, which were naturally hostile, with the Mahommedan powers of Syria and Egypt.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
Two stone bridges in good condition, said to have been constructed during the reign of Hulaku Khan (1256-1265), and since then several times repaired, lead over the Safi River on the western side of the town.
In 1260 theSyrian kingdom of alNa~ir was destroyed by Hulaku (Hulagu), the great Mongol chief, founder of the Ilkhan Dynasty (see MoNGOLS), who, having finally overthrown the caliph of Bagdad (see CALIPhATE, sect.
In the last month of the year 653 (January 1256) Hulaku or Hulagu, the brother of the great khan of the Mongols, crossed the Oxus, and began by destroying all the strongholds of the Isma'ilis.
On the 11th of Muharram 656 (January 1258) Hulaku arrived under the walls of the capital.
The actual governor of Persia was Tului or Tule, whose son Hulagu or Hulaku is the first who can be rightly regarded as the sovereign of Persia.