A few years later Cardinal St Croix reckoned that the Huguenots were one half of the population.
Only in Jersey and Guernsey, whither large numbers of Huguenots had fled after the St Bartholomew massacre, was Presbyterianism fully permitted.
- The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
Meanwhile Spanish fanaticism, the suppression of the Huguenots in France and the Catholic policy of Austria combined to strengthen their authority as pontiffs.
In the following year, Jean Ribaut (1520-1565), with a band of French Huguenots, landed first near St Augustine and then at the mouth of the St Johns river, which he called the river of May, and on behalf of France claimed the country, which he described as " the fairest, fruitfullest and pleasantest of all the world "; but he made his settlement on an island near what is now Beaufort, South Carolina.
A plain slab still marks the place of his tomb, before the high altar; but his bones were scattered by the Huguenots in 1562.
At home there were two opponents to be dealt with: the Huguenots and the feudal nobility.
The overthrow of the Huguenots in 1629 made Richelieu's position seemingly unassailable, but the next year it received its severest test.
The year of Richelieu's triumph over the Huguenots (1629) was also that of the Emperor Ferdinand's triumph in Germany, marked by the Edict of Restitution, and France was threatened by a united Germany.
The theology of the Indian Syrian Christians is of a Nestorian type, and Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century) puts us on the right track when he says that the Christians whom he found in Ceylon and Malabar had come from Persia (probably as refugees from persecution, like the Huguenots in England and the Pilgrim Fathers in America).
His work, which appeared in three parts, entitled respectively History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France (2 vols., 1879), The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre (2 vols., 1886), and The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (2 vols., 1895), is characterized by painstaking thoroughness, by a judicial temper, and by scholarship of a high order.
His brother, Charles Washington Baird (1828-1887), a graduate of New York University (1848) and of the Union Theological Seminary (1852), and the minister in turn of a Dutch Reformed church at Brooklyn, New York, and of a Presbyterian church at Rye, New York, also was deeply interested in the history of the Huguenots, and published a scholarly work entitled The History of the Huguenot Emigration to America (2 vols., 1885), left unfinished at his death.
In France, indeed, the Catholic pulpit now came to its perfection, stimulated, no doubt, by the toleration accorded to the Huguenots up to 1685 and by the patronage of Louis XIV.
The religious reformation caused a considerable amount of expatriation, culminating in the expulsion of the Huguenots from France.
Ritter,' Vieta was brought up as a Catholic, and died in the same creed; but there can be no doubt that he belonged to the Huguenots for several years.
The religious troubles drove him thence, and Rohan, the wen-known chief of the Huguenots, took him under his special protection.
The French Huguenots found their privileges decreased, and then, in 1685, the edict was altogether withdrawn.
However, he received the news of the massacre of St Bartholomew (23rd of August 1572) with joy, and publicly celebrated the event, having been led to believe, according to his apologists, that France had been miraculously delivered, and that the Huguenots had suffered justly as traitors.
Michel de l'HOpital, the chancellor, who opened the assembly, was an advocate of toleration; he deprecated the abusive use of the terms " Lutherans," " Papists " and " Huguenots," and advocated deferring all action until a council should have been called.
The government remained tolerant toward the movement, and in January 1562 the Huguenots were given permission to hold public services outside the walls of fortified towns and were not forbidden to meet in private houses within the walls.
Jealous of their " sharing the State with the king," Richelieu twenty-five years later reduced the exceptional privileges of the Huguenots, and with the advent of Louis XIV.
But the Huguenots, under the inspiration of Coligny, made three attempts to found colonies to the south - at Rio de Janeiro in 1555-1567, near the present Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1562, and in Florida in 1565.
It was a marked characteristic of the English colonists, and a strong element in their prosperity, that they were hospitable in welcoming men of other races, - Germans from the Palatinate, and French Huguenots driven out by persecution who brought with them some capital, more intelligence and an enduring hatred of Roman Catholic France.
Therefore he carried on the policy of excluding the Huguenots - the only colonizing element among his subjects, - and drove them into the English plantations.
During the 16th century, and it was greatly improved by the landgrave Charles (1 6 541 73 o), who welcomed many Huguenots who founded the upper new town.
During the Wars of Religion, the Huguenots repeatedly made unsuccessful attempts to seize the fortress, which opened its gates to Henry IV.
He became leader of the Huguenots, but after several years' fighting was taken prisoner of war.
Claude (c. 1500-1567), baron of Chateauneuf-sur-Cher, Sebastien's brother, was a secretary of finance; he had charge of negotiations with England in 1555 and 1559, and was several times commissioned to treat with the Huguenots in the king's name.
Huguenots and Dutch were aided just enough to keep them going in the struggles which warded danger off from England's shores.
Laynez took a leading part in the colloquy of Poissy in 1561 between the Catholics and Huguenots; and obtained a legal footing from the states-general for colleges of the Society in France.
Their hostility to the Huguenots forced on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and their war against their Jansenist opponents did not cease till the very walls of Port Royal were demolished in 1710, even to the very abbey church itself, and the bodies of the dead taken with every mark of insult from their graves and literally flung to the dogs to devour.
The Spanish ambassador in Paris declared in 1570 that he had been for two years engaged in collecting contributions from English churches for the assistance of the Huguenots in France; and he drew up a memorial depicting the dangers of Mary Stuart's presence in England and of the project for her marriage with Norfolk.
An essential element in the new policy was the substitution of an alliance with France for the old Burgundian friendship. The affair of San Juan de Ulua and the seizure of the Spanish treasure-ships in 1568 had been omens of the inevitable conflict with Spain; Ridolfi's plot and Philip II.'s approaches to Mary Stuart indicated the lines upon which the struggle would be fought; and it was Walsingham's business to reconcile the Huguenots with the French government, and upon this reconciliation to base an Anglo-French alliance which might lead to a grand attack on Spain, to the liberation of the] Netherlands, to the destruction of Spain's monopoly in the New World, and to making Protestantism the dominant force in Europe.
Infuriated Catherine de Medicis, and the prospect of France being dragged at the heels of the Huguenots infuriated the Catholics.
The cotton trade was soon afterwards introduced; and silk manufacture was begun by the Huguenots, who had settled in Dublin in considerable numbers after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
At a meeting of the statesgeneral held at Orleans in the December following, the prince of Conde, after being arrested, was condemned to death, and extreme measures were being enacted against the Huguenots; but the deliberations of the Assembly were broken off, and the prince was saved from execution, by the king's somewhat sudden death, on the 5th of the month, from an abscess in the ear.
Of France against the Huguenots; and he lent his aid to Philip II.
In France the Huguenots were shorn of almost all their military power, a process completed by the fall of La Rochelle in 1628.
Others of the same order evangelized Paraguay in 1582, while the Huguenots sent forth under a French knight of Malta a body of devoted men to attempt the formation of a Christian colony at Rio Janeiro.
As ambassador in France he exerted himself to induce Elizabeth to aid the Huguenots, and took a part in the war of religion.
The question of her marriage was all important, and her chances were not improved by the scandal of Chastelard, whether he acted as an emissary of the Huguenots, sent to smirch her character, or merely played the fatuous fool in his own conceit.
In 1629 the town was taken by Louis XIII., and by the peace of Alais the Huguenots gave up their right to places de secrete (garrison towns) and other privileges.
Augustus also entered into communication with the Huguenots; but his aversion to foreign complications prevailed, and the incipient friendship with the elector palatine soon gave way to serious dislike.
During the religious wars it valiantly resisted Gaspard de Coligny in 1570, but was taken by the Huguenots in 1587.
Don Juan; Norma; Sonnambula; I Puritani; Lucia, I., II.; Lucrezia, I., II.; La Juive; Robert le Diable; Les Huguenots; Le Prophete, 1-4.
In the words of Saint-Simon, the Huguenots were " a sect that had become a state within the state, dependent on the king no more than it chose, and ready on the slightest pretext to embroil the whole country by an appeal to arms."
Calvin, a French student of Picard origin, created the type of Protestantism to which the majority of French Huguenots adhered.
With heresy he was at first unwilling to interfere, for he was aware of the commercial value of the Huguenots; but when the king resolved to make all France Roman Catholic, he followed him and urged his subordinates to do all that they could to promote conversions.
Henry, who had some sympathy with the Huguenots, died at Pau on the 25th of May 1555.
In 1562 he aided the Huguenots with troops, and he was frequently in communication with the insurgents in the Netherlands; but his efforts to form a union of the Protestants were fruitless.
More settlers were landed from time to time, including a number of orphan girls from Amsterdam, and during1688-1689the colony was greatly strengthened by the arrival of some three hundred Huguenots (men, women and children), who were located at Stellenbosch, Drakenstein, Frenchhoek and Paarl.
The massacre of St Bartholomew - occurring as he was about to accompany the bishop of Valence on an embassy to Poland - induced him with other Huguenots to retire to Geneva, where he was received with open arms, and was appointed a professor in the academy.
He served in that year in the campaign against the Huguenots, but in the autumn was again in exile, this time in England.
Under Pierre de Guast, sieur de Monts, Huguenots settled in Nova Scotia in 1604 but did not remain after 1607.
Against the Huguenots in France.
During the Religious Wars of the 16th century Auch remained Catholic, except for a short occupation in 1569 by the Huguenots under Gabriel, count of Montgomery.
The first settlement in the bay was made by an expedition of French Huguenots under the command of Nicholas Durand Villegaignon, who established his colony on the small island that bears his name.
Baird, The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1895).