The method originally used by Huggins, who first conceived and proved the possibility of measuring stellar velocities in the line of sight, was to measure with a filar micrometer the displacement of some well-known line in a stellar spectrum relative to the corresponding line of a terrestrial spectrum.
Thaler', Sir William Huggins and H.
Huggins, "The Astrolabe" (Astrophysical Journal, 1894); Penny Cyclopaedia, article "Astrolabe;" R.
SIR WILLIAM HUGGINS (1824-1910), English astronomer, was born in London on the 7th of February 1824, and was educated first at the City of London School and then under various private teachers.
In the last quarter of the 19th century spectroscopy and photography together worked a revolution in observational astronomy, and in both branches Huggins acted as pioneer.
In solar physics Huggins suggested a spectroscopic method for viewing the red prominences in daylight; and his experiments went far towards settling a much-disputed question regarding the solar distribution of calcium.
This circumstance appeared so anomalous that some astronomers doubted whether the surviving lines were really due to calcium; but Sir William and Lady Huggins (née Margaret Lindsay Murray, who, after their marriage in 1875, actively assisted her husband) successfully demonstrated in the laboratory that calcium vapour, if at a sufficiently low pressure, gives under the influence of the electric discharge precisely these lines and no others.
Sir William Huggins, who was made K.C.B.
Of the magnificent Atlas of Representative Stellar Spectra, published in 1899, by Sir William and Lady Huggins conjointly, for which they were adjudged the Actonian prize of the Royal Institution.
Sir William Huggins died on the 12th of May 1910.
Huggins, expressed the opinion that the proposed exemption was not beneficial to science students.
Balmer's formula received a striking confirmation when it was found to include the ultra-violet lines which were discovered by Sir William Huggins' in the photographic spectra of stars.
When we compare together electric discharges the intensity of which is altered by varying, the capacity, we are unable to form an opinion as to whether the effects observed are due to changes in the density of the luminous material or changes of temperature, but the experiments of Sir William and Lady Huggins 1 with the spectrum of calcium are significant in suggesting that it is really the density which is also the determining factor in cases where different concentrations and different spark discharges produce a change in the relative intensities of different lines.
Speculummetal mirror employed by Sir William Huggins at Tulse Hill, with which a large part of his remarkable and important series of astrospectroscopic results have been obtained.
Aperture, now in the possession of Sir William Huggins, has surfaces which still retain their original perfection although they have never been repolished.
Stellar spectroscopy dates from 1862, when Sir William Huggins (with a small slit-spectroscope attached to an 8-in.
Donati in 1860, was effectively taken in hand, two years later, by Angelo Secchi, William Huggins and Lewis M.
There ensued a general classification of the stars by Secchi into four leading types, distinguished by diversities of spectral pattern; and the recognition by Huggins of a considerable number of terrestrial elements as present in stellar atmospheres.
This subtle mode of research was made available by Sir William Huggins in 1868.
The adoption, by Sir William Huggins in 1876, of gelatine or dry plates in celestial photography was a change of decisive import.
Sir William Huggins repeated the experiment on Winnecke's comet in 1868, Progress only with long exposures could autographic im ?'
The first conspicuous triumph of the new " spectrographic " art thus established was the record by Huggins in 1879 of the dispersed light of several " white " or Sirian stars, in which the chief traits of absorption were the rhythmical series of hydrogen-lines, then memorably discovered.
Again by Sir William Huggins, the spectrum of the Orion nebula was photographed on the 7th of March 1882; and the method has gradually become nearly exclusive in the study of nebular emanations.