One of the claims of the "free republic" was "the absolute and unconditional slavery of all Hottentots and Bushmen."
In Australia, among the Hottentots, in the Malay Peninsula and elsewhere, blood ceremonies are in use which are unconnected with the slaughter of a victim; in this blood ritual we may see another possible source of sacrifice.
His indignation was aroused by the barbarities inflicted upon the Hottentots and Kaffirs (by a minority of the colonists), and he set himself to remedy their grievances; but his zeal was greater than his knowledge.
The Hottentots call the Orange the Garib (great water), corrupted by the Dutch into Gariep. The early Dutch settlers -called it simply Groote-Rivier.
Andrew Sparrman, the Swedish naturalist, when exploring in the Sneeuwberg in 1776, learned from the Hottentots that eight or ten days' journey north there was a large perennial stream, which he rightly concluded was the groote-rivier of Hop. The next year Captain (afterwards Colonel) R.
Paterson;gave his experiences in A Narrative of Four Journeys into the (Country of the Hottentots and Caffraria in the Years 1777-1778-1779 o(London, 1789).
There is no mention of Hottentots, and the few Bushmen who dwelt in the upper regions by the Drakensberg did not come into contact with Europeans.
Among the mixed and other coloured races in the census returns figure 1592 Bushmen, 3597 Hottentots and 1147 Koranna; these people are found chiefly in the southwestern regions and are remnants of the true aboriginal population.
The majority of the inhabitants appear to have been members of the Bechuana division of the Bantus, but in the valleys of the - Orange and Vaal were Korannas and other Hottentots, and in the Drakensberg and on the western border lived numbers of Bushmen.
Anxiety was caused on the western frontier during the German campaigns against the Hottentots and Herero (1903-1908), many natives seeking refuge in the protectorate.
It was called the "Hottentots' god" by early settlers.
Schmidt won the confidence of the Hottentots, but the Dutch authorities stopped his work.
In 1814 the Wesleyans began work among the Namaquas and Hottentots, and afterwards went into Kaffraria, Bechuanaland and Natal.
Though annexed in 1884 it was not till ten years later, after protracted fighting, that the Hottentots of Namaqualand recognized Germany.
After another decade of comparative peace war again broke out (1903) and spread from the Hottentots to the Herero.
This last category included a few thousand Hottentots and Bushmen, but the majority were the mixed white and black " Cape Boy " class commonly called " coloured " in distinction from " natives."
The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots, now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.
A Moravian mission to the Hottentots was begun in 1737, continued to 1744 and was re-established - against the wishes of the colonists - in 1792.
These natives, whose earliest existing buildings may go back to the time of the Norman Conquest, were in a higher state of development than the Bushmen and Hottentots living farther south.
And if such Hottentots should escape, the owner shall be entitled to follow them up and to punish them, according to their merits in his discretion.
The natives first encountered at the Cape were the Hottentots (q.v.).
Our people who are out against the plundering Hottentots, can effect nothing, neither can they effect anything against us; thus during the whole week they have been vainly trying to get at our cattle, and we have been trying vainly to get at their persons; but we will hope that we may once fall in with them in fine weather, and that the Lord God will be with us.
Next to the Hottentots the white settlers encountered the Bushmen (q.v.).
The equality of all free Hottentots and other free persons of colour with the white colonists was decreed in that year (1820).
They not only endeavoured to protect and guide the natives beyond the colonial border, but among the Hottentots within the colony they instilled notions of antipathy to the white farmers, and withdrew large numbers of them from agricultural pursuits.
Enough has already been said as to the relations between the missionaries, the Boer farmers and the Hottentots; this grievance, however, " proved quite secondary to the intensity of feeling with which the colonists saw the steps taken by the government to deprive them of that labour (slave labour) over which they claimed an unquestionable right of property."
Among plants remarkable in their appearance and structure may be noted the cactus-like Euphorbiae or spurge plants, the Stapelia or carrion flower, and the elephant's foot or Hottentots' bread, a plant of the same order as the yam.
The first inhabitants of Cape Colony of whom there is any record were Bushmen and Hottentots (q.v.).
The tribal organization of the Hottentots has been broken up, and probably no pure bred representatives of the race survive in the colony.
Of the coloured races the Hottentots and Bushmen were estimated at 82,000, whilst the Kaffirs formed about S o% of the population.
Of the coloured inhabitants at the 1904 census 15,682 were returned as Malay, 8489 as Indians, 85,8 9 2 as Hottentots,' 4168 as Bushmen and 6289 as Griquas.
The director of the census estimated the true number of Hottentots at about 56,000.
Of the Hottentots 77%, of the Fingoes 50%, of the mixed races 89%, and of the Kaffirs and Bechuanas 26% were returned as Christians.
In 1671 the first purchase of land from the Hottentots beyond the limits of the fort built by Riebeek marked the beginning of the Colony proper.
Advancing north and east from their base at Cape Town the colonists gradually acquired - partly by so-called contracts, partly by force - all the land of the Hottentots, large numbers of whom they slew.
Besides those who died in warfare, whole tribes of Hottentots were destroyed by epidemics of smallpox in 1713 and in 1755.
Straggling remnants still maintained their independence, but the mass of the Hottentots took service with the colonists as herdsmen, while others became hangers-on about the company's posts and grazing-farms or roamed about the country.
The effect of this law was to place the Hottentots in more immediate dependence upon the farmers, or to compel them to migrate northward beyond the colonial border.
His action was hastened by the fact that the Hottentots, deserting their former masters, flocked to the British standard.
And a population of some 60,000, of whom 27,000 were whites, 17,000 free Hottentots and the rest slaves.
In 1792 Moravian missions had been established for the benefit of the Hottentots, 2 and in 1799 the London Missionary Society began work among both Hottentots and Kaffirs.
An ordinance passed in 1827, abolishing the old Dutch courts of landroost and heemraden (resident magistrates being substituted) and decreeing that henceforth all legal proceedings should be conducted in English; the granting in 1828, as a result of the representations of the missionaries, of equal rights with whites to the Hottentots and other free coloured people; the imposition (1830) of heavy penalties for harsh treatment of slaves, and finally the emancipation of the slaves in 1834,3 - all these things increased the dislike of the farmers to the government.
Among the worst sufferers were a colony of freed Hottentots who, in 1829, had been settled in the Kat river valley by the British authorities.
The enemy's 2 From 1737 to 1744 George Schmidt, " The apostle to the Hottentots," had a mission at Genadendal - " The Vale of Grace."
Some 900 of the Kat river Hottentots, who had in former wars been firm allies of the British, threw in their lot with their hereditary enemies - the Kaffirs.
A secret combination was formed with the Kaffirs to take up arms to sweep the Europeans away and establish a Hottentot republic. Within a fortnight of the attack on Colonel Mackinnon the Kat river Hottentots were also in arms. Their revolt was followed by that of the Hottentots at other missionary stations; and part of the Hottentots of the Cape Mounted Rifles followed their example, including the very men who had escorted the governor from Fort Cox.
But numbers of Hottentots remained loyal and the Fingo Kaffirs likewise sided with the British.
The Hottentots have been terribly demoralized, and even partially destroyed by it in the western province.
Another disturbing factor in connexion with native affairs was the revolt of the Hottentots and Hereros in German SouthWest Africa (q.v.).
In November 1906 a small party of Transvaal Boers, who had been employed by the Germans against the Hottentots, entered the colony under the leadership of a man named Ferreira, and began raiding farms and forcibly enrolling recruits.
For ethnography see the works mentioned under Bushmen, Hottentots, Kaffirs and Bechuana.
While we need not believe with Euemerus and with Herbert Spencer that the god of Greece or the god of the Hottentots was once a man, we cannot deny that the myths of both these gods have passed through and been coloured by the imaginations of men who practised the worship of real ancestors.
The Hottentots show many tombs of their god, Tsui-Goab, and tell tales about his death; they also pray regularly for aid at the tombs of their own parents.'
Concerning the mythology of the Hottentots and Namas, we have a great deal of information in a book named Tsuni-Goam, the Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi (1881), by Dr T.
The chief god of the Hottentots is a being named Tsuni-Goam, who is universally regarded by his worshippers as a deceased sorcerer.
If we grant, however, for the sake of argument, that the early Hottentots worshipped the infinite under the figure of the dawn, and that, by forgetting their own meaning, they came to believe that the words which really meant " red dawn" meant " wounded knee " we must still admit that the devout have assigned to their deity all the attributes of an ancestral sorcerer.
In short, " their Red Dawn," if red dawn he be, is a person, and a savage person, adored exactly as the actual fathers and grandfathers of the Hottentots are adored.
If we are to regard the Egyptian myths about the gods in animal shape, and about the non-natural superhuman heroes, and their wars and loves, as esoteric allegories devised by civilized priests, perhaps we should also explain Pund-jel, Qat, Quawteaht, the Mantis god, the Spider creator, the Coyote and Raven gods as priestly inventions, put forth in a civilized age, and retained by Australians, Bushmen, Hottentots, Ahts, Thlinkeets, Papuans, who preserve no other vestiges of high civilization.
1° Hahn, Tsuni-Goam, the Supreme Being of the Hottentots, p. 68.
The mark of the hare in the moon has struck the imagination of Germans, Mexicans, Hottentots, Sinhalese, and produced myths among all these races.'