From that time until 1821 the Greeks monopolized the management of Turkey's foreign relations, and soon established the regular system whereby the chief dragoman passed on as a matter of course to the dignity of hospodar of one of the Danubian principalities.
Mogilev, named in honour of the Moldavian hospodar Mohila, was founded by Count Potocki about the end of the 16th century.
It was owing to Laski's intrigues that the new hospodar of Moldavia, Petrylo, after doing homage to the Porte, intervened in the struggle as the foe of both Ferdinand and Sigismund, and besieged the Grand Hetman of the Crown, Jan Tarnowski, in Obertyn, where, however, the Moldavians (August 22, 1531) sustained a crushing defeat, and Petrylo was slain.
Its name figures conspicuously in the military annals of medieval and recent times; and it is specially memorable for the overthrow of the Turks by the imperial forces in 1689 and for the crushing defeat of the hospodar Michael Sustos by Pasvan Oglu in 1801.
At the conference of Leutschau in 1494 the details of the expedition were arranged between the kings of Poland and Hungary and the elector Frederick of Brandenburg, with the co-operation of Stephen, hospodar of Moldavia, who had appealed to John Albert for assistance.
In the course of 1496 John Albert with great difficulty collected an army of 80,000 men in Poland, but the crusade was deflected from its proper course by the sudden invasion of Galicia by the hospodar, who apparently - for the whole subject is still very obscure - had been misled by reports from Hungary that John Albert was bent upon placing his younger brother Sigismund on the throne of Moldavia.
"The king," wrote Gentz to the hospodar Caradja on the 1st of December 1814, "himself enters the houses of his first ministers, arrests them, and hands them over to their cruel enemies"; and again, on the 14th of January 1815, "The king has so debased himself that he has become no more than the leading police agent and gaoler of his country."
The internal government was to be exercised by a hospodar, who received his investiture from the sultan, the sign of vassalship, it has been said (Tchomacoff p. 45).
ALEXANDER YPSILANTI (1725-1805) was dragoman of the Porte, and from 1 774 to 1782 hospodar of Wallachia, during which period he drew up a code for the principality.
He was again appointed hospodar just before the outbreak of the war with Austria and Russia in 1790.
1816), who had joined a conspiracy to liberate Greece and, on its discovery, fled to Vienna, had been pardoned by the sultan and in 1799 appointed by him hospodar of Moldavia.
HOSPODAR, a term of Slavonic origin, meaning "lord" (Russ.
The pronunciation as hospodar of a word written gospodar in all but one of the Slavonic languages which retain the Cyrillic alphabet is not, as is sometimes alleged, due to the influence of Little Russian, but to that of Church Slavonic. In both of these g is frequently pronounced h.
In Little Russian the title hospodar is specially applied to the master of a house or the head of a family.
Insect life is somewhat less remarkable; but besides a distinctive genus of Orthoptera (Jaquetia Hospodar), there are several kinds of weevils (Curculionidae) said to be peculiar to Rumania.
The office of voivode or hospodar was sold to the highest bidder at Stambul, to be farmed out from a purely mercenary point of view.
The same hospodar was often reappointed again and again as he succeeded in raising the sum necessary to buy back his title.
Constantine Mavrocordato was in this way hospodar of Walachia at six different times, and paid on one occasion as much as a million lion-dollars (40,000) for the office.
Yet the taxes were continually on the increase, and the hospodar Scarlat Ghica (1758-61), though he tried to win some popularity by the removal of Turkish settlers and the abolition of the vakarit or tax on cattle and horses, which was peculiarly hateful to the peasantry, raised the total amount of taxation to 25,000,000 lion-dollars, about £I,000,000.
The office of voivode or hospodar was farmed out by the Porte to a succession of wealthy Greeks from the Phanar quarter of Constantinople.
The Porte, instigated by Napoleon's ambassador Sebastiani, resolved on Ypsilanti's deposition, but the hospodar succeeded in escaping to St Petersburg.
Was mostly confined to the boiars, and the hospodar Michael Sturdza succeeded in arresting the ringleaders.
The count of Flanders, brother to the king of the Belgians, was proclaimed hospodar of the united provinces, but declined the proffered honour.
Meanwhile a conference of the Powers assembled at Paris and decided by a majority of four to three that the new hospodar should be a native of the country.
The king of Prussia, however, had agreed that the new hospodar should be a native of the principalities, and could not therefore openly approve of Prince Charles's election.
In 1595 Zamoyski, in his capacity of commanderin-chief, at the head of S000 veterans dethroned the anti-Polish hospodar of Moldavia and installed in his stead a Catholic convert, George Mohila.
Five years later (October 20, 1600) he won his greatest victory at Tergoviste, when with a small well-disciplined army he routed Michael the Brave, hospodar of Walachia and Moldavia.
He lost the two days' battle of Kossovo (October 17th-19th) owing to the treachery of Dan, hospodar of Wallachia, and of his old enemy Brankovic, who imprisoned him for a time in the dungeons of the fortress of Semendria; but he was ransomed by the Magyars, and, after composing his differences with his powerful and jealous enemies in Hungary, led a punitive expedition against the Servian prince, who was compelled to accept most humiliating terms of peace.